The method of preparation of granolithic to continue the construction of drainage in winter
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the reclamation construction and can be used in the construction of the collector or drainage trench or ushtrasana collector and drevolagenie machines in winter conditions. The invention enables heating, defrosting and separation of particles of frozen soil from the surfaces of the working equipment drena-stacker when the process stops and continue the process of building drainage without lifting equipment from the trench, i.e., by surface treatment of the latter directly in the trench alternating sequential traversal of its laterally compressed, ellipsometry jet of hot fluid, lowering it down over the surface of the working body and the hopper support ski. Time and reliable execution of separation surfaces when handling hot liquid is controlled constantly by visual observation on the appearance and fullness of the vibrational motion. The process equipment in the trench produced repeatedly, before carrying out the nasal part of the ski loop reversal of a jet of hot liquid back behind the bunker and ski about a CLASS="ptx2">The invention relates to the reclamation construction and can be used in the construction of the collector or drain of the trench network, ushtrasana collector and drevolagenie machines in winter conditions.The known method of preparing frozen ground to develop by thawing the last of the cold water supplied through the well point - by alternate supply of water and solutions of chloride salts (see and. C. N 214415).The disadvantage of this method is that it does not provide the possibility of continuing the process of construction of drainage through the defrost working equipment in the trench after the technological stop granolithic. When implementing this method, applied
first, the cold water supplied through the well point-brine, providing a supply of fluid to the places of contact of the working surface with the ground, and distribute it throughout the earth environment, and secondly, saslauth soils on the periphery from the introduction of the well point and the flow through them rasoloarison water infiltrating the pores of the soil medium that it is also unacceptable for environmental reasons for soils (pump up the soil brines - chloride salts, and more pumps, the capacity of the diversion, the well point with hoses and sleeves, taps, installation for lifting and retaining well point in their depth, package (8-10 pieces) well point and 3-4 working for maintenance. The speed defrost this method is slow, from 1-2 to 3-5 days, because the cold water in the form of chloride salts penetrate the pore channels formed in a soil environment during their long natural occurrence and zaselyaet them with the formation of precipitation in the form of crystals.The closest technical solution is the method of preparation of the engines by the method of heating by connecting them to a Central stationary conditions the system of air ducts from the heater PSV-1 in moments of stops overnight at negative ambient temperatures (see the book.: Technology of building production in winter conditions. Textbook for high schools. /L. D. Akimov, etc. - L.: stroiizdat, 1984, S. 34-35).The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of its application for granolithic machines, in particular of the working equipment in the trench, in production conditions (in the field), especially in the presence of saturated soils, and deep (3-3 .5 m) trenches because of the IU, if you have been able to use this method in field conditions, it is natural that hot air always goes down to the equipment and freezing working surfaces, which must be thawed, and rises and goes up by performing the process is inefficient, long-term and costly in time and energy, because such a tough environment, such as soil, hot air as the heat carrier is too weak.The purpose of the invention is the provision of opportunities for continuing the construction of drainage in winter by defrost working equipment of granolithic in the trench.This objective is achieved in that before starting work, make superficial heating equipment alternating sequential traversal of the compressed stream of hot liquid in the upper and middle part, originally from the sides, and then down the stream between the walls deep into the bottom of the trench along the planes of the equipment until the separation of the surfaces from the frozen ground and the acquisition of the mutual sliding movement, and the moment of breaking frozen ground surfaces before moving the equipment controlled by the presence of degrees of freedom and one of the main ve, what, for example, by constant visual observation, and the ski hopper of granolithic during defrost process repeated, for example 4-6 times, crawl laterally compressed jet of hot fluid, bringing this stream to its lower edge and through the loop reversal of the jet before the nasal part of the skis, reaching to the back perform a reverse turn, leaving the trajectory of the jet of fluid for the ski along its width open. As a liquid, separating the surface of the working equipment from the frozen ground, is used, for example, hot water, heated to a temperature of 65-80oC, adding after heating bischofite.The proposed method differs from the prototype in that the defrost heater is used instead of cold water with chloride salts is pumped through the well point into the ground, before the production of drainage works perform the defrosting of the working equipment of granolithic in the trench with water-saturated soils gradually deepening, alternating sequential crawl down stream of the compressed fluid prior to complete separation of the cutting work surfaces and skis hopper from the frozen ground and the acquisition of vozmojnostiami use hot water, heated to a temperature 65-60oC, adding after warming up a small amount (3-5%) of bischofite.The proposed method for the preparation of granolithic to continue the construction of drainage in the winter after a technological or technical stop in water-saturated soils is shown in Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4, where Fig. 1 shows the sequence of process heat and defrost work equipment granolithic in the trenches: excavation of the working body (I) and hopper (II) a compressed jet of hot fluid; Fig. 2 - the same, rear view; Fig. 3 shows the layout of the vectors in the emergence of oscillatory movements after defrost excavation of the working body and the appearance of digging mineral soils in the plane of the face of Fig. 4 - the same after defrost skis hopper of granolithic and the direction of movement of the jet of hot liquid from the bottom of the trench.The proposed method for the preparation of granolithic to continue the construction of drainage in winter in water-saturated soils includes the following operations:
- heating, defrosting and separation of the surfaces of the working equipment of granolithic from frozen ground;
- the ability to work Zea - digging soil during the passage of the trench with the movement of the hopper on the bottom part of the trench after a long technological or technical stops (re-equipment, the shifts changed, overnight in the slaughter and forced stops on drains a large extent, for example more than 500-800 m and sometimes up to 1.2-1.5 km, and the collectors to 2.2 km).Therefore, to bring it into working condition buried in the trench of the working body and the hopper of granolithic in the winter to produce them fast heating and defrosting with little additional work, providing the opportunity to continue the process of building drainage without gap and misalignment and linearity of the drain line drains.After a long process of stopping granolithic with buried in trench 1 excavation working body 2 and bin 3 reference 4 ski before development-digging the soil and laying of pipes 5 with filter material 6 produce heating and defrosting of the compressed hot stream of fluid surfaces 7 working equipment: working body 2 and bin 3, frozen contact with the ground.When multiple, for example four to six times the processing of a compressed jet of hot liquid 7 elements work the AMI trench 1 exercise deepening alternating sequential bypass it from working body 2 to the hopper 3, and Vice-versa. Watching the progress of the defrost working equipment: in the plane of the face 8 for the emergence and development of oscillatory movements from the bottom of the trench to the surface of the earth to the acquisition of the completeness direction of the main vector of VSCp, which assesses the ability to freely work of the working body 2 (see Fig. 1,3). Into the gap (from 30-50 mm up to 100-120 mm) between the walls of the hopper 3 and the walls of the trench 1 is passed, and then deepen the stream of hot liquid 7, alternately on each side laterally. Due to the flexibility of the conveyor chain heterogeneity of soil mechanical composition occur simultaneously and lateral vibrations +Vxand-Vx. However, at the top of the working body 2 has a hopper 3 rigid connection, so immediately defrost working body 2 at the same time produce the defrost hopper 3 with reference ski 4, and alternately: the working body, the bunker, repeating this process many times, 4-6 times. Between the rear portion of the working body 2 and the ski 3 there is a gap distance 18-25 cm (depending on the type of granolithic), which make the loop reversal jet of hot liquid 7 (see Fig. 4).Processing the hopper 3 from the sides and reaching its rear edge, reversing the reversal of the article is closed on the perimeter. This is necessary to avoid erosion of the filter material 6 and misalignment laid drainage pipe 5.The defrost excavation of the working body and hopper produce down repeatedly at a constant visual observation of the process of separation-defrost frozen surfaces and the ability of the vibrational motion and moving: excavation of the working body scrapers (buckets), and the hopper side walls in the trench and skis on the bottom part of it. Only then carry out the work and continue the process of building drainage. The supply of hot fluid on the track drainage construction, directly to granolithic, carried out with the use of automobile tanks, for example, of the type AC-4,2-53A. The intake of hot liquids-water carried by the stationary Vodogray (serial KV-300, AGV-80 or VET-400 or ATU-1500, where for 30-35 minutes, heated to 600 l of water to a temperature of 90oC), or produce water from boiler by prior arrangement or order, while adding the water and stirring it 3-5% bischofite, directly in the tank of the tanker.Convinced of the reliability of the conducted defrost work equipment, work opportunities, pose the start technically possible, a sharp increase. In Fig. 1 shows a vector triangle, where Vdthe velocity vector of the movement of granolithic (VdVl); VSCpthe vector drive speed of the working body-scrapers (bucket), and V is the vector of the absolute, the resulting speed. Here, the thickness of the streams of the ground, cut off each item (scraper) slaughtering;othe geometric angle of the face,p- kinematic (actual) the angle of the face, and the difference between the geometric and kinematic angles - transformation of corners in the process of digging the soil in the trench excavation.Along the drain in advance and develop a layer of frozen vegetable soil (hm), for example, rotary excavators type ETR-162, ETR-224 or the other and placed it to the left or to the right in the blade (see Fig. 2). The width of the developed extraction 0.8 m depth depending on the power-seated roots of black soil (fertile vegetation layer), usually from 0.2 to 0.8 meters.Laying quality during construction of the pipes 5 and filter 6 is controlled with the use of the drainage machines laser equipment UKL - 1, UKL-3, or "Horizon", maintaining the slope specified for the project.
- multiple, for example 4-6 times, surface alternately sequential traversal from the sides and from the top down, falling on the face depth of the trench, a compressed jet of hot fluid elements excavation of the working body (scrapers), lying in the plane of the face in a row after stopping. Jet produces heating, defrosting and the Department of scrapers (buckets) from particles primarschule to ground, having a content of bischofite, which prevents re-setting for a short time, 0.8 to 1.0 hours, i.e. during defrost and providing opportunities for work preparation for work. During defrost driver granolithic constantly monitors this process and making sure checks, ability and completeness committed fluctuations scrapers at the bottom, repeating the process of processing a stream of hot liquid. When there is the opportunity to make full oscillations and their movement in the direction of VSCpproceed to continuous operation, through the process of digging the soil;
- bilateral, multiple processing scrapers working body, if the latter has a double row of traction chain, and along the entire length in the plane of the face to the bottom of the trench, process top-down, right-left;
- constant is of the fullness of their movements in the direction of VSCp;
- evaluate and compare the significance technically possible and actually observed values of the motion vectors scrapers, for example from 0.8 to 5.0 m/sec (technically possible), although in frozen soils at versanyi scrapers it is not recommended to increase the speed more than 1.0-1.2 m/s, including the corresponding transmission (through the gate).
- multiple crawl, heat and defrost walls of the hopper in the bottom to wet the soil down to the bottom of the trench. Stream of liquid down between the walls of the hopper and the walls of the trench in the gap between them (see Fig. 1, 2, 4) on both sides alternately: right-left and top to bottom. When he reached the lower edge of the skis in one place, the stream is moved, for example, forward in the direction of Vland when he reached the bow, make a loop-like spread of the jet, which doubles the warming process front, fuels the ski bottom liquid and separates it from the frozen ground;
- perform a loop-like spread of the jet in front of the nasal part of the ski, creating twice the current of the hot liquid in his turbulent swirl at the time of Peresecina - double-sided hopper compressed jet of hot liquid from the sides, and when he reached the rear of the bunker, carry out the spread and movement of the jet back, keeping the laid portion of the drain behind the bunker in integrity without blurring and without destroying its width Bl, i.e., leaving a path of movement for the bunker behind unclosed;
- use concise, ellipsometry jet of hot fluid obtained during injection by a flexible hose and flowing from it under pressure through a flat, flaring metal nozzles (see Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4). As the hot liquid use environmentally preserving soil environment clean hot water, heated to a temperature of 65-80oC, with the addition of it after heating the water and mix 3-5% bischofite directly in the tank of the tanker.Research work Azniigim in 1989 (December m-C) on construction sites drainage (Veselovsky PMK) and "Voronezhvodokanal" (Overnight PMK-5, Pavlovskaya PMK-18) show that winter is largely based deep (up to 3.5-4.0 m) collector-drainage network length of 1.5-2.2 km with the use of drainage machines etc-406A, the MA-350 or 6027 "Chicons". So to finish drain or collector PR shift stack 250-320 m The MA-350 up to 500-600 m, 6027 "Chicons" (p/p Pallasovka trust "Zavolzhskogo") up to 400-500 m, and in winter these same pipelayers stack 2-3 times less. Then there is a need for daily defrost granolithic, i.e. the length of the collector-drainage network 1 km approximately five times will require defrosting, on the 2 km long and up to ten times it is necessary to thaw granolithic, but now they obkatyvaet laterally shovel excavator when versanyi working equipment of granolithic in the trench. Experience shows that when the position of the groundwater from the bottom of the trench GWL1= 0.2-0.3 m mass flow rate of hot fluid requires M1= 250-300 kg at GWL2= 0.4 - 0.5 m required mass ow rate is M2= 450 - 500 kg, and at GWL3= 0,7 - 0,8 m from the bottom of the trench he had already requires M3= 750 - 800 kg preparation for the defrost heater (organizational loss of time) is 20-30 minutes, the fence and the supply of hot fluid, time defrost working equipment 18-23 minutes, depending on vetrinisti weather and outside temperature. In cold windy weather, time defrost is increased to 30 - 35 minutes.Thus, the proposed method in comparison with the prototype provides
- separation of particles of frozen soil from the working body and hopper, with their surfaces, producing feed of hot liquid bottom ski hopper;
after separation from the frozen ground acquisition opportunities continue development of mineral soil-digging, education trench in a given direction and with a given slope, moving the hopper with the skis on the bottom of the trench through the slide and continue the process of laying drainage pipes and filter material (sand and gravel, sand or ash and slag, etc ), performing work without a long and expensive excavation work equipment granolithic, frozen in the trench with the soil;
- simplicity, low complexity and number of personnel (the car driver AC-4,2-53A-1 person) when implementing the proposed method of preparation of granolithic to work directly in the trench.Description materials of the invention can be, and organizations. 1. The method of preparation of granolithic to continue the construction of drainage in winter, involving heating mechanisms of the machine before starting work, after a process stops at negative ambient temperatures, characterized in that the defrosting of the working equipment of granolithic in the trench before starting work, make superficial heating equipment alternating sequential traversal of the compressed stream of hot liquid in its upper and middle parts, originally from the sides, and then down the stream between the walls deep into the bottom of the trench, along the planes of the equipment until the separation of the surfaces from the frozen ground and the acquisition of the mutual sliding movement, moreover, the moment of breaking frozen ground surfaces before movement is controlled by the presence of degrees of freedom and one of the main vectors in the oscillatory movements of equipment: desktop authority VSCpand hopper with ski Vlfor example , by constant visual observation.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the ski hopper of granolithic during the thawing process repeated, for example, 4 to 6 times, crawl laterally compressed and before the forebody of the ski, and when he reached her back, carry back the turn and leave the trajectory of the jet of fluid for the ski along its width open.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that as separating the working equipment from the frozen ground of the liquid used, for example, hot water, heated to 65 - 80oC, adding after heating bischofite.
FIELD: land-reclamation, particularly drainage building in flooded irrigated lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out channel in a single drainage machine pass by plow-type ditcher; dumping dug out fertile ground on channel brows in banks; digging out trench by operative tool of drainage machine; laying drainage pipe and covering thereof with ground; filling channel with fertile ground. Fertile ground layer is loosened before trench digging out along drainage pipe laying axis, wherein width of loosened ground strip is not less than operative tool width. Loosened ground is laid on channel brows. Trench is dug out by chain operative tool of narrow drainage machine performing reverse rotation and extracted ground is placed between trench walls and drainage machine bunker to cover drainage pipe moved into trench by guiding means. Trench is backfilled with ground with the use of two pairs of banks, which provides successive filling trench with ground and loosened fertile ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to prevention of trench wall compaction, reduced power inputs.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a vertical blade 1 with two wings 2 having cutting edges and cartridges 3. The vertical blade is equipped with an additional cartridge 4, firmly fixed in the base of the blade 1. The cartridges are made in the form of the cylinders truncated in front part with bevels directed upwards, and are rigidly fixed to the wings. The mole plow wings are mounted symmetrically to the blade vertical axis and directed upwards relative to the horizontal axis of the blade at an angle γ=12°-35°. The water-air regime of soil is improved, the surface flow is accelerated, the resistance to siltation and erosion of mole drains is increased, the ground water level is lowered, and the process of desalination of heavy soils is accelerates during the wash.
EFFECT: long and reliable operation of mole drainage.
SUBSTANCE: undercover soil ripper comprises milling chisel plough knife with a rack (2) and a hollow mole blade. Inside the mole blade on the shaft (6) the thrust bearings (7) are mounted. The shaft (6) is connected through the connecting insert (12) to the soil disrupter (15) in the form of a conical spring. The connecting insert (12) has left-handed threaded recesses. The housing of the hollow mole blade with the thread on both ends is cut horizontally lengthwise in half. The halves (3, 4) of the mole blade are welded to the milling chisel plough and covered by the expansion head (8) and a nut (9) with the sealing ring (10). The side slits of the mole blade housing are sealed with flat gaskets in the form of an I-beam. The spring of the disrupter in the front part is made in the form of a cylinder in the middle part in the form of a cone with the angle of expansion α=15…25°, in the rear part in the form of the rotation paraboloid y=xn, where n=0.5…0.7. The cross-section of the spring in the working part is made in the form of a wedge with an angle of inclination to the axis of the spring wire β=10…20°. The working face of the spring is coated with a layer of wear-resistant material.
EFFECT: ensuring quick assembly and disassembly of the mole blade and intensive quality soil crumbling.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: paraplough-aerator comprises a frame, a suction pipe with a safety spring, and a paraplough. The paraplough is rigidly attached to the suction pipe. The pipe at the lower part of the horizontal plane the spring with the stops is attached. The spring with the stops has the ability of stretching, compression and bending in the course of work and in deformation to saturate the soil with air by sucking air from the suction pipe.
EFFECT: device enables to increase water-permeability of soil, to saturate the soil with air, which thereby increases the crop yield.
SUBSTANCE: description of the soil horizons is provided with identification of degree of their gleization, samples are prepared of natural soils over horizons using the cut cylinder with small volume. Method differs in that using samples density of dry mass of soil is determined, after this work completion, and samples destruction - selection of the mixed soil sample and determination of its grain-size classification, according to ratio of content in fine soil of the particles with size exceeding dust, i.e. over 0.05 mm, to density of the soil at the pre-plotted calibration diagram the average geometric value of the filtration coefficient of p% probability of decreasing over the soil horizons considering degree of their gleization is estimated.
EFFECT: reduced R&D expenses, more rational use of funds for lands reclamation, operation of reclamation systems and use of reclaimed lands.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to irrigation and drainage equipment and is used in creating mole drains. The device comprises a vertical knife, a horizontal knife with leans arranged symmetrically relative to the vertical knife, with the drainer attached to each of them, with the cross section in the form a figure of constant width, with the front cutting edge beveled at an acute angle to the motion direction line and the cantilevered cutting portions after the drainers. The drainers in cross section are made in the form of a Reuleaux triangle. One corner of the Reuleaux triangle in cross section is located in the drainers' upper parts. The wings and the cantilever cutting portions are attached to the drainers in the plane of the Reuleaux triangle bottom corners location.
EFFECT: invention enhances the stability of the arch and the walls of the drains.
SUBSTANCE: operating element of the mole drain machine includes a vertical knife 1 with two L-shaped wings 2 and drainers 4 attached to the L-shaped wings 2 of a vertical knife 1 by means of ribs 2 located behind and bent upward, parallel to it, and a line connection. The drainers 4 in the cross section are formed as a Reuleaux triangle. One of the corners of Reuleaux triangle in the sections of drainers 4 is oriented vertically upwards and the line connection between wings 2 of the knife 1 and drainers 4 is implemented in the form of rigid connecting rods.
EFFECT: increased stability of the dome and walls of mole drains.
SUBSTANCE: method of formation of mole drains involves cutting in the soil thickness 1 along the drainage route of W-shaped slot 2, enclosing the drain 3 along the sides and from bottom, forming drain cavities 3 with compaction of its walls with the vertical center part of the slot 2 goes to the drain 3 from below. The drain cavity 3 in cross section is formed as Reuleaux triangle, where one of the corners of Reuleaux triangle is located in the upper part of the dome part 4 of the drain cavity 3.
EFFECT: increased stability of the dome and walls of mole drains.
SUBSTANCE: working element of mole plow comprises a vertical knife with a drainer (2), a reamer (3), a horizontal knife (4) attached to the reamer(3) and made in the form of the wings diverging from the reamer (3) . Additional drainers (5) are installed on the wings. The reamer (3), the drainer (2) and additional drainers (5) in cross section formed in a Reuleux triangle, wherein they are oriented upwards by one of the corners in cross-section, and the other two corners of the Reuleux triangle of the reamer (3) and additional drainers (5) are located on the horizontal plane at the same axis with the horizontal knife (4).
EFFECT: increased stability of mole drains.