Three-dimensional indicator radar


G01S7/16 - Signals displayed as intensity modulation with rectangular co-ordinates representing distance and bearing, e.g. type B

 

(57) Abstract:

Three-dimensional indicator radar relates to the field of radar indicators. The essence of the invention is to solve the technical problem of increasing the visibility of the playback of the external environment on the screen of the indicator is formed three-dimensional image of the target, the two coordinates are the range and azimuth of the target, and the third equal at a certain scale the amplitude of the reflected signal and is displayed on the screen in the form of a luminous line starting at the location of the observed area goals and aimed in the direction of increasing range, for which the indicator is entered after the amplifier Converter amplitude - duration, which converts the signals of different amplitude signals of fixed amplitude varying duration proportional to the amplitude of the signal. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to the field of radar technology, in particular to the field of electronic indicator device overview radar (radar).

For visual observation of the detected targets in the radar's use of electronic indicating device. In connection with this indicator by one order.

On the screen of the indicator radar played all the signals received by the antenna radar, reinforced receiver and dedicated signal processing system. Task processing equipment radar and operator responsible for monitoring purposes on the screen of the indicator, is a thorough analysis of all the displayed information with the goal of highlighting useful signals for the background noise. After that, the operator chooses the second task is the determination of the distance to a target, direction, purpose, and determining other characteristics of goal - direction and moving speed of the purpose, type and dimensions of the target and other

At the present time (see the Reference radar, edited by M. SKOLNIK. M. Owls.radio. 1979, so 3, page 197), you can consider 15 methods to display on the screens of indicators radar radar data and the corresponding types of scans indicators.

The main can be considered a sweep type A, B, and P. the Rest are various modifications of the above three. The type indicator And the signal is displayed by rejecting horizontally moving across the screen the beam upwards by an amount proportional to the amplitude of the reflected order signal. The direction to the goal is determined by a separate indie is and whether the amplitude of the reflected signal.

Different indicator type A are indicators J, K, L, M and N. a type Indicator J is the scan range in the form of a ring that increases the length of the pitch and increases the accuracy of determining the distance. The type indicator For use in radar systems with switching pattern of the antenna at the two angular position of the playback of the reflected signals for different positions of the antenna with offset marks from the target range. In case of equality of the amplitudes of the reflected signals is determined by the exact direction towards the goal.

The type indicator L the reproduction of information about the purpose similar to the indicator type K, but mark targets for each of the two beams of the antennas are played at the same distance, but in opposite directions.

In indicators of type M and N are used scanner type a, K, or M, but using the steps or depressions in the scan range to improve the accuracy of measuring the distance.

Indicators of type B are indicators with a rectangular system scan. The most widespread indicators of type B with reproducible coordinates azimuth-range.

In indicators of type P - indicators of the circular review (IR) and the new offset sweep. Mark from the target is reproduced in the form of light exposure (modulation of the beam in brightness).

Modifications of these indicators are indicators of the type C, D, E, H and I. In type indicators C and D instead of-range reproduced by the vertical height of the aerial target. Led type E is a set of two indicators of the range-elevation, one of which these coordinates are played in a rectangular system, and the other in the Arctic.

The indicator type H system used for the expansions as in indicator of the type B, but the echo signal is displayed by two points. On the left point are the azimuth and range of the target, and on the right approximately the height.

In the indicator of type I used in radar with conical scanning beam antenna, the echo signal is reproduced on the screen in the form of a circle, the radius of which is proportional to the distance to a target. The most striking segment of a circle characterizes the deviation of the direction on the target from the axis of the cone beam scanner antenna.

Indicators of the type F and G are for display only one echo signal and provide accurate aiming at the target in azimuth and elevation. They use luminance mark target.

On the screens of the Indus the global label, fixed and adjustable label range and line of calibrated values, direction and height. For more information or marking the data on the screen can be displayed alphanumeric data, various signs and symbols.

As noted in the literature (e.g. A. C. Magdesian, M. M. Reznik. Indicators of surveillance radar stations. Voenizdat. M 1963, page 23. ) search radar main type of indicators is the indicator of the circular review (IR). It can be used in three modes - circular, annular overview and sector review. In ring mode overview on the now playing screen circular pattern layout purposes only within the selection range. In the mode of sector overview the center of the image of the indicator is shifted in azimuth to zoom in or observation areas in the opposite displacement direction.

Sharing the ring and sector modes leads to the formation of the indicator type B.

Wide use in processing systems, radar digital methods and television principles of image formation in the indicators radar has greatly expanded the possibilities formirovanii, on the screen the player is displayed and the level reflected the goals and the received signal in the form of luminance marks of different levels of brightness.

As noted in the literature (Kaplin, S. I., Kaplina M. S. and Navigation systems of the new generation. Shipbuilding. # 4. 1994), the operator's eye is able to recognize up to 8 levels of brightness of the mark from the target.

Let us consider in more detail the type indicators azimuth-range - IR and type B for marine radar observations of surface environment. The main advantage of the circular indicator survey is the ability to monitor the entire surface environment within sight of the radar detection. On the screen the player can simultaneously determine two coordinates of target - azimuth and range.

However, monitoring the whole situation on the screen of the indicator is due to a limitation of the possibility of increasing the accuracy of the target coordinates and the resolution in range and azimuth.

One indicator of the circular review the radar cannot get the display environment in the entire detection area of the station and to determine the specifics of the situation, so as to meet the latter requires large-scale indicator. For a device is used for:

-get the maximum possible for a given radar resolution in azimuth and in range regardless of the focus of the beam, which gives the possibility to use the indicator to determine the characteristics of detected targets (number and approximate dimensions of objectives, their relative positions, etc. );

- increase resolution close in azimuth purposes;

- increase the accuracy of frame-of-reference purposes.

Device features and functioning of the sector type indicator azimuth-range, which is accepted by us as the closest analogue of the prototype are discussed in detail in the literature, in particular in the book by A. S. Magdesian, M. M. Reznik. Indicators of surveillance radar stations. Voenizdat. M. 1963. Page 55 - 78.

In this literature it is noted that the type indicators azimuth-range belong to the indicators with rectangular system scan. With regard to radar observations of surface environment, scan in azimuth is carried out in a horizontal direction, and the distance in the vertical, the reflected signals are reproduced on the screen of this indicator in the form of elongated horizontal lines formed by the luminous points of tragen the horizontal lines, respective fixed distances; large-scale azimuth mark is in the form of a series of vertical lines corresponding to the fixed angles of rotation of the antenna.

To obtain the image of the sector on the screen of the cathode-ray tube (CRT) display the azimuth-range used quick time scan range (vertical or frame scan) and a slow, controlled antenna, scan azimuth (horizontal or horizontal scanning). Therefore, the deflecting system such indicators consists of two mutually perpendicular stationary deflecting coils: vertical coil that generates a scan in azimuth, and horizontal deflecting coil that generates a sweep azimuth.

Vertical deflecting coil is powered with current channel scan azimuth varying in proportion to the angle or the sine of the angle of rotation of the antenna.

The horizontal deflecting coil is powered with current channel scan range, similar to the channel scan range IR with the rotating deflecting coil.

To offset the beginning of the scan in the horizontal and vertical directions apply independent coils that feed on permanent toe beginning of the sweep, consistently with it included a variable resistor or an electronic circuit for adjusting the start position of the scan on the screen of the indicator.

Typical indicator azimuth-range consists of the following main elements (see the above book - Indicators of surveillance radar stations. P. 60, Fig.26):

- cathode-ray tube with a stationary deflector system:

channel scan range;

channel scan azimuth:

channel of illumination of the forward stroke of the azimuthal sweep;

- channel videoselena;

- power circuits and control regime of the tube.

Describes the prototype of the proposed three-dimensional indicator radar has several disadvantages.

The information content of the image on the screen of the indicator detected objects and visibility playback external environment and images of detected objects is insufficient. Assessment of the level of the signal reflected by the different target areas according to the degree of brightness of the mark is difficult, because the human eye can distinguish no more than 8 levels brightness luminous point (see above). Thus luminance gradation level of the signal reflected by different parts of the target (ship, the ship is the goal, that makes it impossible for the qualitative detection of the detected target.

The levels of the luminance levels of image also depends on the selected playback mode, image brightness and ambient light at the location of the indicator.

The integration within the beam reflected from various sizes and reflectivity of the target areas make it difficult to estimate the configuration purposes, smoothing her profile.

To improve the functioning of the indicator we will need the Converter amplitude-duration" or "voltage-duration" .

Converters the voltage-duration" known and widely used technique, particularly in converters "voltage-figure". One of the possible schemes of such a Converter and its operation described in the book B. N. Demidov. N. W.Kutiev. Control of anti-aircraft missiles. Second edition, revised and expanded. Voenizdat. 1989 (p. p. 290. 291. Fig.10.7.).

In this book describes the inverter voltage-figure" in which the specified conversion signal is implemented via the voltage conversion in a temporary pulse of rotation, produced within the allotted time frame. This Converter operates as follows. At the input of the inverter is set comparison circuit that compares the magnitude of the converted constant voltage value linearly increasing sawtooth voltage produced by the generator of the linear sawtooth voltage. The comparison circuit generates a pulse comparison at the time of coincidence of these two voltages.

The pulse that triggers sawtooth generator, at the same time served on the trigger that starts the formation of a positive rectangular voltage pulse of constant amplitude, the existence of which is determined by the moment of arrival of the pulse comparison. Thus, there is an intermediate conversion of the voltage-duration", in which the length of the converted pulse is proportional to the voltage at the input schema.

With the trigger output rectangular voltage pulse is fed to the circuit of valve overlap, at the other input of which serves a highly stable pulses of the pulse generator. When applying to the gate a positive pulse with trigger with you the new equivalent of the converted voltage. After each conversion cycle counter is reset to zero by the reset pulse which is synchronous with the pulse of the beginning of the sweep.

As noted in this book, the dignity of the considered scheme is its simplicity. The accuracy of the conversion depends largely on the linearity of the sawtooth voltage.

Later in the book it is noted that as converters "voltage-figure (with intermediate conversion of the voltage-duration") can be used also schemes on the basis of pulse-width modulators (phantastron, Sanatan, multivibrator) that produce pulses, the duration of which depends on the control voltage. Using as Manager of the measured voltage UISMyou can convert the value in the pulse duration of To, i.e.

To= k UISM,

where k is the proportionality coefficient.

In the future, Toconverted to a numeric code using the schema conversion of the time interval in number, which was described above.

From the above it follows that at the present time converters "voltage-duration" and "voltage-digit" well-known and widely used as the e indicator radar three-dimensional image of the spatial objectives, such as ship, shore, etc.

Proposed three-dimensional indicator radar station, comprising a cathode-ray tube deflection systems in range and in azimuth, with the first anode and the focusing and control electrodes, the channel scan range in the composition of the cascade run, the delay circuit, the sawtooth generator, the circuit of the illumination and the output stage scan, channel scan in azimuth in the scheme of forming the source voltage of the azimuthal scan, as well as amplifier and the output stage, the method of forming the pulse illumination sweep azimuth, a method of forming azimuth marks the shift circuit of the sweep range, the shift circuit of the scan in azimuth, the scheme focus a method of forming the above range, the mixer and the amplifier and the first input of the deflecting system range is connected to the output of the output stage channel scan scan range, the second input - output circuit of the shift of the scan range, the first input of the deflecting system in azimuth is connected to the first output of the amplifier and the output stage channel scan in azimuth, the second input - output circuit of the shift scan in azimuth, first the illumination of the scanner azimuth, the focusing electrode is connected to the output of the circuit of the focusing control electrode coupled to the output of the mixer, the channel scan range the start-up pulses fed to the input of the cascade run, the output of which is connected via the dip switch to the input of the delay circuit or the input of the sawtooth generator, the output of the delay circuit is connected via coaxial with the above mentioned two-position switch, respectively, to the input of the sawtooth generator or free contact, the first output of the sawtooth generator is connected to the input circuit of the illumination, and the second input of the output stage of the scan, in the channel scan in azimuth input shaping circuit voltage azimuthal scan is connected mechanically with the axis of rotation of the antenna, and the output from the input amplifier and the output stage, the first output of which is connected to the input of the deflecting system in azimuth, and the second input circuit forming pulse illumination sweep azimuth, input shaping schemes azimuth marks are mechanically connected to the rotation axis of the antenna, and the output to the first input of the mixer, a second input connected to the output of the circuit formation marks the range of the input vienen to the input of the control electrode, characterized in that the indicator is entered Converter "amplitude-duration", the input connected to the output of the amplifier, and the output from the third input of the mixer, instead of the connection of the output of the amplifier with the third input of the mixer, which converts coming from the amplifier of videokursov different amplitude in videospussy fixed amplitude varying duration proportional to the amplitude at the input of Converter videokursov, and playback on the display screen of the third coordinate is the amplitude of the video impulse in the form of a luminous line of length proportional to the amplitude of the video impulse, starting at the location of the irradiated area target direction and distance and aimed in the direction of increasing range, and a set of glowing lines and marks from different parts of the extended target corresponds to a radar image of the target, approximated to the corresponding visual image.

Part of the transducer amplitude / duration enabled storage device amplitude videokursov, generator trigger pulses, sawtooth generator, the comparison circuit and sow connected across the input of the Converter with output amplifier indicator, the generator output trigger pulses connected to the input of the sawtooth generator, the output of the storage device of the amplitude of videokursov connected to the first input of the comparison circuit, the second input of which is connected to the output of the sawtooth generator, the first output of the comparison circuit is connected to a second input of the trigger, and the second with the second log storage device of the amplitude of videokursov, a trigger connected to the first input with the second generator output trigger pulses and a second input from the output of the comparison circuit, connected to its output through an inverter output, the third input of the mixer, providing a grant through the mixer to the control electrode of the cathode ray tube indicator converted videokursov fixed amplitude and varying duration proportional to the amplitude at the input of the Converter amplitude-duration" videokursov.

List of drawings and other materials.

Fig. 1. A block diagram of a three-dimensional indicator.

Fig. 2. Block diagram and timing diagram of the transducer amplitude-duration".

Fig. 3. The scheme of formation on the screen indicatation the target image (tanker), presented on Fig. 4. on-screen indicator of the modern sector of the station.

Fig. 6. Radar image of the target (tanker), shown in Fig. 4, on the screen of the proposed three-dimensional indicator.

The list of symbols in Fig. 1.

1. Cathode-ray tube.

2. Deflecting system range.

3. Deflecting system in azimuth.

4. The first anode.

5. The focusing electrode.

6. Control electrode.

7. Channel scan range.

8. Cascade run.

9. The delay circuit.

10. The sawtooth generator.

11. Scheme of illumination.

12. The output stage of the scan.

13. Channel scan in azimuth.

14. Diagram of the formation of the source voltage of the azimuthal scan.

15. The amplifier and output stage.

16. The scheme of formation of the pulse illumination sweep azimuth.

17. Diagram of the formation of the azimuth mark.

18. The shift circuit of the range.

19. The shift circuit in azimuth.

20. Scheme focus.

21. The method of forming the marks range.

22. Mesecher legend of Fig. 2 and in Fig. 3.

1. Storage device the amplitude of the video impulse.

2. Generator trigger pulses.

3. The sawtooth generator pulses.

4. The comparison circuit.

5. A trigger.

UI- input video impulse.

Uop- the reference DC voltage.

UZap- the starting pulse.

Up- sawtooth pulse.

Ucf- pulse comparison.

Uo- output the converted pulse.

t - the current time.

The block diagram of the proposed three-dimensional indicator is presented in Fig. 1. The proposed three-dimensional indicator built using existing components and devices of the sector indicator azimuth-range, description, block diagram and working principle of which is given in the literature (A. C. Magdesian, M. M. Reznik. Indicators of surveillance radar stations. Voenizdat. M. 1983. Pages 55-78, drawings 23-41.).

The composition of the specified standard indicator (see the block diagram in Fig. 1 corresponding to the block diagram in Fig. 26 in this literature) includes: a cathode-ray tube 1 with deflecting systems in range 2, and the azimuth 3, with the first anode 4, USCA 8, the delay circuit 9, the sawtooth generator 10, a diagram of the illumination source 11 and the output stage of the scanner 12, the channel scan in azimuth 13 in the scheme of forming the source voltage of the azimuthal scan 14 and amplifier and output stage 15, the method of forming the pulse illumination sweep azimuth 16, the pattern of formation azimuth marks 17, the shift circuit range 18, the shift circuit in azimuth 19, the focus 20, the method of forming the marks range 21, a mixer 22 and the amplifier 23.

Unlike the existing standard indicator listed above in the structure of the device in the three-dimensional structure of the indicator after the amplifier entered Converter "amplitude-duration" 24.

These blocks, schemes and devices of the three-dimensional indicator are interconnected as follows. The first input of the deflecting system in range of the CRT 2 is connected to the output of the output stage of the scanner 12 channel scan range 7, the second input - output circuit of the shift range 18. The first input of the deflecting system in azimuth 3 is connected to the first output of the amplifier and the output stage 15 channel scan in azimuth 13, the second input - output circuit of the shift in azimuth 19. The first anode kosirai electrode 5 is connected to the output of the circuit of focus 20. Control electrode coupled to the output of the mixer 22.

In the channel scan range 7 start-up pulses fed to the input of the cascade run 8, the output of which is connected via the dip switch to the input of delay circuit 9 or the input of the sawtooth generator 10. The output of the delay circuit 9 is connected via coaxial with the above mentioned two-position switch, respectively, to the input of the sawtooth generator 10 or free contact. The first output of the sawtooth generator 10 is connected to the input circuit of the generator 11 and the second input of the output stage of the scanner 12.

In the channel scan in azimuth 13 input shaping circuit voltage azimuthal scan 14 is connected mechanically with the axis of rotation of the antenna, and the output from the amplifier input and output stage 15, the first output of which is connected to the input of the deflecting system in azimuth, and the second input circuit forming pulse illumination sweep azimuth 16. Input shaping schemes azimuth marks 17 is mechanically connected to the rotation axis of the antenna, and the output to the first input of the mixer 22, a second input connected to the output of the circuit forming marks range 21.

The input VI is here" 24, the output of which is connected to the third input of the mixer 22.

The block diagram of the Converter of the amplitude (voltage) of the pulse signal in pulses of different duration proportional to the amplitude of the pulse voltage with a fixed amplitude, i.e. the transducer amplitude-duration" used in the proposed three-dimensional display shown in Fig. 2. The Converter is built on the basis of the above-described Converter "voltage-digit, block diagram and operation of which are described in the literature (B. N. Demidov, N. W.Kutiev. Control of anti-aircraft missiles. M Voenizdat. 1989. P. 290-291, Fig.10.7.). Since the input signal to the described Converter is a DC voltage, to convert the proposed three-dimensional indicator of the pulse signal before the Converter is installed storage device to provide restraint and submission to the first input of the comparison circuit of the Converter necessary for its normal operation, a constant voltage equal to the amplitude of the pulse signal. In the rest of the Converter circuit described above, the Converter circuit amplitude-digit part of the transducer amplitude-duration".

The first input device 1 and the input device 2, which is the input of the Converter 24 (Fig. 1), connected to the output of the amplifier 23 (Fig. 1), the second input device 1 is connected with the second output device 4. The output of the device 1 connected to the first input device 4. The first output device 2 is connected to the input device 3, the output of which is connected to 2 input device 4. The second output device 2 connected to the first input of the trigger 5. The first output device 4 is connected to a second input of the trigger 5, the output of which being the output of the Converter 24 (Fig. 1), connected to the third input of the mixer 22 (Fig. 1).

Operates the Converter amplitude-duration" as follows (see Fig. 2A and Fig. 2B ). The storage device 1 provides remembering amplitude received at its first input signals UIin the form of a DC voltage on its output and the delivery of this DC voltage to the input of the comparison circuit 4, as the reference voltage. Timing diagrams UIand Uoppresented on Fig. 2B. Video UIalso fed to the input of Hep C (see chart for UZap). Triggering the pulse generator 2 provides the starting generator sawtooth pulses 3 and the trigger 5. The sawtooth generator 3 pulses produces a linearly increasing voltage with fixed starting and ending levels and duration proportional to the installed Converter for the maximum duration of the converted signal, - Up. Comparison circuit 4 compares the received at its input 2 sawtooth voltage Upreceived at its input 1 fixed voltage - Uopequal to the amplitude of the video impulse UI. At the time of coincidence of these two voltage comparison circuit generates a pulse comparison - Ucf.

The pulse start UZapfrom block 2 running sawtooth generator 3, at the same time served to the first input of the trigger 5, which begins the formation of a positive rectangular voltage pulse Uo), the decline of which is determined by the arrival of the pulse comparison - Ucfcoming from unit 4 to the second input of the trigger 5, completing the formation of the output voltage pulse - Uoproportional to the duration of the amplitude of the input italmost", on the mixer 22 (Fig.1) are converted videospussy fixed amplitude varying duration proportional to the amplitude at the input of Converter videokursov - UI.

After each conversion cycle, the circuit is reset by the reset pulse which is synchronous with the pulse comparison - Ucfissued from the second output of the comparison circuit 4 to the second input of the storage device 1 and clears the storage device.

This is the Converter amplitude-duration". Converter circuit designed on the basis described above is known from the technical literature of the devices and units. In this regard, the possibility of realization of the Converter is no doubt.

Consider the three-dimensional indicator (see Fig. 1). As noted above, the new indicator is the only Converter "amplitude-duration". In this regard, there is no need to dwell on the description of serial blocks and devices of the indicator is described in the literature, in particular in the above book, "Indicators of surveillance radar stations. Let us consider briefly the operation of the indicator.

Creating a sweep in range (vertical) is provided with deflecting system in range 2. Necessary for its operation voltages and currents produced by the channel scanner in range 7. Input channel 7 are served from a transmitter in the cascade start 8 start-up pulses, providing the start of a sweep. To offset the start of the scan range is used, the delay circuit pulse start 9. Output devices 8 or 9 pulses start coming to the sawtooth generator 10. Generated by the generator 10 sawtooth sweep voltage range through the output stage of the scanner 12 is converted into a deflection current supplied to the deflection system 2, providing on the screen of the cathode ray tube vertical scan range. The shift circuit of the sweep range 18 provides a smooth offset of the beginning of the sweep in a small range, changing the initial current in the deflection coils. For illumination of the scan range scheme of illumination 11 channel scan range 7 generates pulses of illumination applied to the first anode of the tube 1.

Creating a sweep in azimuth (horizontal) is provided with deflecting system Azim surface azimuth is determined by the state of the circuit forming the source voltage of the azimuthal scan 14 and formation scheme azimuth marks 17, initial data about the angular position of the antenna for which are determined by the mechanical coupling elements of the schemes with the axis of rotation of the antenna. The device 14 ensures consistent with the rotation of the antenna forming voltage azimuthal scan and issue it to the amplifier and output stage 15, with the first output of the current sweep enters the deflecting system in azimuth 3 and together with the current schema of the shift in azimuth 19 provides horizontal movement of the vertical scan range on the indicator screen.

Thanks to the joint operation of the deflecting systems in azimuth and distance on the display screen raster is formed in a selected area of the sea (earth) surface.

Scheme focus 20 provides the necessary focus of image by adjusting the voltage on the focusing electrode of the cathode ray tube.

The formation of the image on the screen of the cathode-ray tube is provided by giving the necessary signals at its control electrode. Line fixed values of the azimuth and range are provided with circuits 17 and 21, the output voltages are transmitted to the receiver via terminals 1 and 2 of the mixer 22 with the control electrode 6. Shoda which is fed to the input of the Converter amplitude-duration" 24. In the Converter 24 pulses of different amplitudes are converted into signals of fixed amplitude varying duration proportional to the amplitude of videokursov. The functionality of the transmitter 24 is described in detail above. The converted video signals received from the transducer to the input 3 of the mixer 22. The mixture of signals, azimuth marks and marks the distance coming from the output of the mixer 22 with the control electrode 6 of the tube, providing playback on the display screen of the three-dimensional image and the grid azimuth-range.

To visualize the process of forming on the display screen of the three-dimensional image, instead of the currently used two-dimensional, in Fig. 3 presents the mapping of the signals forming the above image on the screen of the indicator placed on different levels (1. - 5.).

On level 1. shows the screen of the existing sectoral indicator azimuth-range with display on the screen stretch of sea objectives, from which the screen of the indicator received five discrete marks at different positions of the antenna in azimuth and exposure to different parts of the extended target (ship).

On the screen indoline.

On the sleigh 2., 3. and 4. presents stresses at various points of the transducer amplitude-duration" three-dimensional indicator for different positions of the radar antenna in azimuth. For each video impulse the horizontal axis represents the signal amplitude, vertically - time.

Level 2. shows diagrams of videokursov in the coordinates of the amplitude (horizontal) - time (vertically), the image which is reproduced on the screen of the sector indicator azimuth-range listed on level 1.

On level 3. given the stress distribution in the mixer Converter "amplitude-duration" (see Fig. 2). Here Uop- reference DC voltage proportional to the amplitude of the video impulse, and Up- sawtooth voltage with a fixed initial level and rate of increase of voltage. As follows from the description Converter operation, the comparison circuit provides for the issuing of pulse comparison at the time of coincidence of voltages Upand Uopensuring the formation of the trigger 5 of the Converter and the inverter output amplitude-duration rectangular pulses of different duration Uoproportional to the amplitude videoimaging level 5., converted videospussy have an image in the form of vertical lines of different lengths, proportional to the amplitude of the corresponding video impulse. The aggregate reproduced on the screen of the reflected videokursov forms a three-dimensional radar image of the long sea objective.

In the General case, the amplitude of the reflected separate areas of extended target signals proportional to the irradiated area of the target is its height-as the length of the exposed section of the same. Therefore reproducible three-dimensional display image of the target is equivalent to its visual image. In this regard, it is obvious that the proposed three-dimensional indicator provides a better image on both marine and terrestrial long goals.

Thus, on the screen of the indicator plays reflected the irradiated area target signal, beginning at the point of location of the target in range and direction by the length corresponding to the length of the converted echo signal proportional to the amplitude of the echo signal.

Due to the rotation of the radar antenna and movement sweep across the screen of the indicator agreed with the rotation of the antenna, the reflected postrestoration-level three-dimensional image of the target coordinates, the azimuth-range level.

The level of the reflected signal is a function of the size of the irradiated area goals and reflective abilities of this section. Except "bright" spots, the surface of the target, taking into account the integration level of reflections within the antenna directional diagram, can be considered homogeneous. In connection with this radar image of the spatial objectives, such as large vessels, coastal areas, etc., can be considered similar to their visual image.

Obviously, a spatial image of the radar targets on the screen are three-dimensional indicator will be the better to reflect its true (visual) image, the greater the number of consecutive exposures goals chart the direction of the radar station will be visible transverse size of the target.

Thus, the best conditions for the reproduction of the spatial objectives of the screen are three-dimensional indicator radar will be in conditions where the observed angular size of the target will exceed the width of the beam radars in the horizontal plane in five to ten or more times.

Separate parts of the surface spatial targets irradiated within the pattern width of the station. In connection with these is smoothed.

From the above it follows that the proposed three-dimensional indicator is operable and provides better display quality objectives on the screen of the indicator radar.

In Fig. 4 depicts a silhouette of the target (tanker). In Fig. 5 shows a radar image of the target (tanker), shown in Fig. 4, on the screen of modern radar. In Fig. 6 shows a radar image of the same target on the screen of the proposed three-dimensional indicator.

Presents illustrations allow us to conclude that the quality of the external display marine and coastal environment on the screen are three-dimensional indicator much more expressive and better, which provides a better recognition of the objectives and the external environment when swimming in the open sea and near the coast.

Listed in the application description one of possible variants of the technical implementation of the proposed three-dimensional indicator radar and the characteristics of qualitative differences obtained on the screen of the proposed indicator radar images allow to draw the following conclusion.

Technical implementation of the proposed three-dimensional indicator surveillance radars possible, because Given in the description of the invention the data of the qualitative advantages of three-dimensional images of sea and ground targets in the proposed three-dimensional display obvious and allow sufficient reliability to argue about the benefits of image quality goals on-screen display before the image quality goals on the screens of the existing types of indicators surveillance radars.

1. Three-dimensional indicator radar station, comprising a cathode-ray tube deflection systems in range and in azimuth, with the first anode and the focusing and control electrodes, the channel scan range in the composition of the cascade run, the delay circuit, the sawtooth generator, the circuit of the illumination and the output stage scan, channel scan in azimuth in the scheme of forming the source voltage of the azimuthal scan, as well as an amplifier, a method of forming the pulse illumination sweep azimuth, a method of forming azimuth marks the shift circuit of the sweep range, the shift circuit of the scan in azimuth, the scheme focusing, a method of forming the marks range the mixer and amplifier, and the first input of the deflecting system range is connected to the output of the output stage channel scan scan range, the second input - output circuit of the shift of the scan range, the first input of the deflecting system in azimuth is connected to the first amplifier output channel scan in azimuth, the second input - output circuit of the shift scan in azimuth, the first anode connected to the output of the circuit of the illumination channel scan range and output of the circuit formirovanii electrode coupled to the output of the mixer, in the channel scan range the start-up pulses fed to the input of the cascade run, the output of which is connected via the dip switch to the input of the delay circuit or the input of the sawtooth generator, the output of the delay circuit is connected through a switch, coupled with the above mentioned two-position switch, with the input of the sawtooth generator or free contact, the first and second outputs of the sawtooth generator is connected to the input circuit of the illumination source and to the input of the output stage of the scan, respectively, in the channel scan in azimuth input shaping circuit voltage azimuthal scan is connected mechanically with the axis of rotation of the antenna, and the output from the amplifier input, the second output of which is connected to the input circuit forming pulse illumination sweep azimuth, input shaping schemes azimuth marks are mechanically connected to the rotation axis of the antenna, and the output to the first input of the mixer, a second input connected to the output of the circuit forming the above range, the input of the amplifier connected to the video output of the radar receiver, and the output from the third input of the mixer, characterized in that the indicator is entered Converter amplitude - GDS - the duration that converts coming from the amplifier of videokursov different amplitude in videospussy fixed amplitude varying duration proportional to the amplitude at the input of Converter videokursov, and playback on the display screen of the third coordinate is the amplitude of the video impulse in the form of a luminous line of length proportional to the amplitude of the video impulse starting at the location of the irradiated area target direction and distance and aimed in the direction of increasing range, and a set of glowing lines and marks from different parts of the extended target corresponds to a radar image of the target, approximated to the corresponding visual image.

2. Three-dimensional indicator radar station under item 1, characterized in that the transducer amplitude-duration enabled storage device amplitude videokursov, generator trigger pulses, sawtooth generator, a comparison circuit and a trigger, and the log storage device of the amplitude of videokursov and the generator input trigger pulses are connected through input preobrazovatelyakh voltage, the output of the storage device of the amplitude of videokursov connected to the first input of the comparison circuit, the second input of which is connected to the output of the sawtooth generator, the first and second outputs of the comparison circuit respectively connected to the second input of the trigger and with the second log storage device of the amplitude of videokursov, a trigger connected to the first input with the second generator output trigger pulses, the trigger output is output amplitude - duration, thus issuing through the mixer to the control electrode of the cathode ray tube indicator converted videokursov fixed amplitude and varying duration proportional to the amplitude at the input of the inverter, the amplitude - duration videokursov.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to radar

Radar device // 2105320

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: detector comprises a main detection channel, an additional detection channel and a subtractor unit, as well as a register for storing given signal detection probability values, a unit for calculating a lower detection threshold level, a register for storing a confidence coefficient, a unit for calculating an upper detection threshold level, a switch, an additional threshold device which is the output of the device, a display and a programmable interface, wherein the main detection channel includes two quadrature phase detectors, a cosine-sine generator, two integrators, two square-law detectors, an adder and a threshold device; the additional detection channel includes a third square-law detector and a third integrator. The listed devices are connected to each other in a certain manner and a binary level of an additive mixture of the signal and noise in form of digital readings is transmitted to the combined inputs of the main and additional detection channels, which are the input of the device.

EFFECT: fewer false alarms at the output of a digital panoramic detector.

2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in pulse radar with wobbulation of inter-pulse interval for displaying the targets as per their identity criterion of targets located in working area ("Normal Targets") and beyond maximum uniquely measured range of radar ("Off-Scale Targets"), classification of targets as per criterion "Normal Target" and "Off-Scale Target". At that, marks of "Normal Targets" are displayed on the display of coordinate-character indicator (CCI) in the form of crosses (on modern CCIs for marking the detected targets there used are various characters, namely a cross), and marks of "Off-Scale Targets" are displayed on CCI in the form of arrows located on external side of circle corresponding to the chosen scale. To the device containing a synchroniser, shaper of azimuth cursors, shaper of range cursors, mixer, display adapter and monitor; in addition, there connected is data storage device, selection diagrams of range codes of "Normal Targets" and "Off-Scale Targets", diagram for calculation of character of distance change to "Off-Scale Targets", selection diagram of arrow colour, data processor and character generator of arrow.

EFFECT: increasing detection accuracy of targets and enlarging radar operating range.

5 dwg

FIELD: radar.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of displaying radar information on screens of radar station displays. Said result is achieved by receiving, by a radar station, radio signals reflected from objects, converting signals received from objects in digital form, displaying converted signals on a flat screen in form of light marks on z0y plane, and azimuth and range scales in form of crossing lines also on z0y plane, wherein screen plane z0y is virtually inclined in planes z0x and y0x, mark from an object is transferred in parallel to axis 0z and is indicated above inclined plane of screen by a value of height of object and converted to virtual mark, to said virtual mark is added a dash in parallel to axis 0z, with a scale of height on dash, in direction of inclined plane of screen, dash of height by end rests in virtual mark from an object, and by second end rests on point of actual values of azimuth and range of object on inclined screen, on which is displayed point with values of azimuth and range of object relative to point of radar station, and inclined plane of screen displays either earth horizon plane or plane of earth's surface relative to point of radar station (depending on operating mode of radar station), wherein length of dash of height, with a scale of height, characterises height of object over horizon or above ground level (depending on operating mode of radar station). Speed and direction of movement of object in space are displayed by dash-speed vector, beginning of which rests against displayed virtual object mark, and direction of dash-velocity vector characterises direction in space relative to point of radar station, and also on dash-velocity vector a speed scale is applied, which characterises value of speed of object in space, and plane, which characterises earth's surface, is displayed as part of spherical surface, radius of which is proportional to radius of earth at point of radar station, and perimeter of spherical surface is limited by radar detection range, while radius of spherical surface is rapidly changed according to operator request from proportional radius of earth to infinity, thereby turning curvature line of earth into straight line, that is into a horizon line, and inclination of planes z0y and y0x is varied from 0 to 90 degrees, thereby converting isometric image of space observed by radar into a Cartesian image, and pseudo-volumetric four-dimensional image into three-dimensional image plane, that is into a three-dimensional indicator azimuth - range - speed or into three-dimensional indicator range - height - speed, and plane, which characterises earth's surface, is turned at desire of operator about axis, crossing point of radar station and perpendicular in this point to plane of earth's surface. Near point of reflecting object, at desire of operator, model-portraits objects taken from database of radar station are displayed, configuration of which is proportional to configuration and size of detected objects.

EFFECT: technical result is improved reliability and information value of radar information on parameters of aerial, surface and ground objects.

1 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: cascode differential operational amplifier includes: input differential cascade with an overall emitter chain, consistent with the first bus of power supply, the first, second, third, fourth additional transistors, bases of the first and the second additional transistors are connected to the first current output if differential input cascode, bases of the third and fourth additional transistors are connected to the second current output of differential input stage, the combined first and second emitters of additional transistors are connected with the emitter of the second output transistor, combined emitters of the third and fourth additional transistors are connected to the emitter of the first output transistor, headers of the second and third additional transistors are connected with the first current output of input differential cascade, and collectors of the first and fourth additional transistors are connected to the second current output of the differential input cascade.

EFFECT: increase of the open gain on the voltage of operational amplifier.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: in radar scanning method consisting in electronic and mechanical scanning by the phased array antenna beam with respect to the elevation angle and the azimuth in mechanical direction, change the scanning electron plane of the phased array antenna (FAA) by rotating or rocking of the FAA about the axis perpendicular to its plane, with the possibility to provide electronic scanning by FAA beam in the azimuth-angle sector for radar stations with one-dimensional electronic scanning when the rotation or rocking of the antenna in the azimuth plane is stopped.

EFFECT: providing electronic scanning by the phased array antenna beam in the azimuth-angle sector for radar stations with one-dimensional electronic scanning when the rotation of the antenna is stopped in the azimuth plane.

1 dwg

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