Automatic process control aeration during the fermentation of organic raw materials
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the microbiological industry, and can be used in agriculture to control the fermentation process of organic raw materials. The technical result is to expand the functionality of the control system aeration during the fermentation of organic materials. Automatic process control aeration during the fermentation of organic raw materials contains the fermenter with the feedstock, the blower and the control loop air supply for aeration. It includes sensor oxygen content in the feedstock, the airflow switch and the actuator. Introduction to control system temperature sensor and functional Converter that implements the dependence of the oxygen content in the feedstock from its temperature, allows to compare the actual level of oxygen in the raw material required and then to adjust the air supply in raw materials. 1 Il. The invention relates to the microbiological industry, and can be used in agriculture to control the fermentation process of organic raw materials.The world is 8, class. C 12 Q 3/00, 1986, prototype), containing the fermenter and the stabilization loop air supply for aeration, which includes the oxygen sensor in the processed substrate, the Converter oxygen concentration, air flow sensor, air flow regulator and the actuator. In this system implements a process of cultivation of microorganisms, monitored only by the level of oxygen in the substrate: O2= const. However, in some cases, the processes of cultivation of microorganisms and fermentation require control of the content of a certain level of oxygen in the feedstock, depending on other parameters characterizing the processes occurring in the feedstock under the influence of aeration. Often this parameter is the temperature of the processed material. In this case, the aeration process is described in more complicated functional dependence, namely the dependence of the oxygen content in the feedstock from its temperature: O2= f(to) by means of which, through the circuitry in the process control system aeration under cultivation of microorganisms and fermentation with their participation, you can extend the functionality of the systems of control of technological processes of production of composts in agriculture.The claimed invention is directed to solving the problem of extending the functionality of the process control system aeration during the fermentation of organic materials.The problem is solved by introducing a system of automatic process control aeration during the fermentation of organic material containing fermenter with the feedstock, the blower and the control loop air supply for aeration, including sensor oxygen content in the feedstock, the airflow switch and the actuator, a temperature sensor and functional Converter that implements the dependence of the oxygen content in the raw materials from its temperature, and the functional input of the inverter connected to the temperature sensor, and its output connected to the input of the regulator air flow.Introduction in the claimed control system temperature sensor feedstock allows you to control the processes of aerobic cultivation and fermentation of one parameter - the temperature of the raw material, and using the function of the Converter is to realize the dependence of the oxygen content in the raw materials from its current temperature. Thus, in the proposed system of control is it optimal for the current temperature that will allow: 1) along with the use of control systems to solve specific problems in the field of Microbiology to control the technological processes of production of composts in agriculture by aeration of organic raw materials; 2) to expand the range of the final product depending on the source of raw materials and the implementation of system-specific dependencies: O2= f(to), where O2- the calculated amount of oxygen in the feedstock required to implement a given process; to- the temperature of the processed substrate in the fermenter; 3) greater flexibility to manage the process of fermentation of organic materials, for example to speed up the process of composting; 4) to improve the quality of the final product, because the management of the fermentation process of organic raw materials (composting) is carried out by the two parameters related to a specific functional dependence; 5) to reduce energy consumption by controlling the fermentation process of organic raw materials according to a certain program, best for a particular fermentation process.The invention is illustrated in the drawing. The drawing shows a block diagram sitestogo control aeration during the fermentation of organic raw materials contains the fermenter with 1 raw, the oxygen sensor 2 in aerated raw materials, the temperature sensor 3, a functional Converter 4, the airflow switch 5, the actuator 6 and the blower 7.The automatic control system operates as follows. In the fermenter 1 load of processed organic raw materials and provide air to the aeration from the air blower 7. The flow rate of air supplied to the aeration of the raw materials is regulated by the actuator 6, which is controlled by a flow regulator air 5. The airflow switch 5 is the comparison of the signal measured oxygen content in the raw material fed to the input of the regulator air flow 5 from the output of the sensor 2 oxygen content in the raw material, and the signal of the specified oxygen content in the raw materials supplied to another input of the airflow switch 5 with the output function of the Converter 4, to the input of which is connected to the temperature sensor 3. During the fermentation process the signal from the temperature sensor 3 is fed to the input of the functional Converter 4, which implements the required functional relationship between the temperature of the source of organic raw materials and the optimal oxygen concentration in the raw material for this temperature regulation aeration of raw materials processed by the content of oxygen in it, optimal for the current temperature. Automatic process control aeration during the fermentation of organic material containing fermenter with the feedstock, the blower and the control loop air supply for aeration, including the oxygen sensor in raw materials, the airflow switch and the actuator, characterized in that it further equipped with a temperature sensor and a functional Converter that implements the dependence of the oxygen content in the feedstock from its temperature, and the functional input of the inverter connected to the temperature sensor, and its output connected to the input of the regulator air flow.
FIELD: biotechnology and microbiological industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns governing periodical air-intake biotechnological process carried out in bioreactor. Method comprises measuring oxygen content in effluent gas, working volume of culture medium, concentration of biomass, and concentration of intermediate product of its vital activity. Measured parameters allow specific oxygen consumption rate and velocity of intermediate product concentration change to be determined to enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration, supplying nutritional medium, and agitating culture medium. Moreover, temperature of culture medium, temperature of supplied and withdrawn cooling agent, and consumption of the latter are measured to use these parameters for determining biomass heat release rate and velocity of intermediate product amount change. The two latter parameters enable regulation of feeding air used in aeration and supplying nutritional medium. The following characteristics are thus improved: elevating power by 8.1%, maltase activity by 7.9% and resistance by 7.4%.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of governing biotechnological process and improved qualitative characteristics of process.
FIELD: chemistry; biochemistry.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method can primarily be used in biotechnology, biochemistry and industrial microbiology. Fermentation apparatus are used to study growth and metabolism of microorganisms and for solving several other tasks. Proposed solution involves measurement within given time intervals of flow of liquid and gaseous media through a fermentation vessel at the beginning of the fermentation process and during the said process after selected time intervals necessary for measuring heat production of microorganisms and evaluating destabilising inputs of heat power from operation of apparatus for moving the culture fluid. Heat production is calculated as the increment of current values of heat power to the initial value of the measured heat power while making corrections for the effect of the said destabilising inputs. The method is realised in a fermentation apparatus in which a fermentation vessel is placed inside a controlled thermostating screen and is fitted with an additional mixing device for controlling temperature of the fermentation vessel. Pipes running to the fermentation vessel are in thermal contact with the controlled thermostating screen.
EFFECT: more accurate measurement of heat production of microorganisms in a fermentation vessel in continuous or periodic processes.
4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: initial nutrient medium together with an inoculated autotrophic microorganism is supplied from a technological container into an input section of a photobioreactor with forming a suspension film of a photoautotrophic microorganism flowing down by gravity on an internal surface of transparent cylindrical tubes. Simultaneously, mixed air and carbon dioxide are reverse-flow supplied inside the tubes with using sleeves with suspension film outflow. The photoautotrophic microorganism suspension flowing in the internal surface of the transparent cylindrical tubes gets into a light section wherein it is continuously illuminated with a fluorescent tube. From the transparent cylindrical tubes, the photoautotrophic microorganism suspension flows down in an output section of the photobioreactor wherein it is bubbled to saturate the cells with carbon dioxide additionally and illuminated with a horizontal toroidal lamp. An external surface of the transparent cylindrical tubes is sequentially cooled in cooling air in the light section and in cooling water in the cooling section with cooling air and cooling water flowing in the respective recirculation loops. The photoautotrophic microorganism suspension is added with a nutrient medium of main and correction flows supplied into a technological container at first and then into the suspension recirculation loop at the input of the input section of the photobioreactor. Waste mixed air and carbon dioxide are supplied from the photobioreactor into the mixer by means of a compressor through the mixed air and carbon dioxide recirculation loop and temporarily collected in a gas tank. Post-bubble foam is continuously discharged from a lower section of the photobioreactor into an anti-foaming separator and separated into a suspension supplied into the input section of the photobioreactor and mixed air and carbon dioxide combined with waste mixed air and carbon dioxide in a regulation loop, while being temporarily collected in the gas tank and supplied into the mixer with extra saturation of waste mixed air and carbon dioxide with a required amount of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide saturated mixed air and carbon dioxide are discharged from the mixed by two ducts one of which being a main flow is reverse-flow directed inside the transparent cylindrical tubes; the other one is supplied into the output portion of the photobioreactor when bubbling the suspension. From the output portion of the photobioreactor, the microorganism suspension is discharged from the suspension recirculation loop with intermediate vented out oxygen release accompanying a cultivation process with using a desorber; another portion of the photoautotrophic microorganism suspension is discharged in a finished biomass collector to be measured for the required values for the purpose of creating optimal conditions for photoautotrophic microorganism cultivation.
EFFECT: invention provides higher effectiveness of photoautotrophic microorganism cultivation, enabled integration of the presented method into the current production lines, improved energy efficiency and performance of photoautotrophic microorganism cultivation.
2 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring heat production by variation of heat rate consumed by maintenance of the isothermal mode of a fermentation vessel with intermitted fluid and gas flows through the fermentation vessel with adjusted heat power consumption by mixing the culture fluid. It is combined with eliminating heat power consumption by heat production in the fermentation vessel of the culture fluid mass due to maintaining its initial value at the pre-set accuracy in the environment of the conducted continuous and periodic cultivation processes by equation of energy gain, consumed for each heating cycle of the fermentation vessel, the energy gain value derived by calibration heating of the fermentation vessel filled with the initial culture fluid mass with the heat production value and the maintenance of the culture fluid mass during the microorganism cultivation process are spread out over a period of time.
EFFECT: increased measurement accuracy of continuous and periodic microorganism heat production in the fermentation vessel.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: bioreactor has a vessel (1) with a cover (2) and a device for mixing and aerating microorganisms, having pipes (3 and 4) on the cover for inlet of aerating gas and outlet of gaseous medium, respectively. The vessel (1) is fitted with multiple coaxially arranged and spaced apart annular partitions (12 and 13) with floats (14 and 15) which are open at the bottom, on a vertical hollow shaft (11) with possibility of rotation and back-and-forth movement thereon with formation of a gap between the wall of the vessel (1) and the annular partitions (12 and 13). The vessel (1) and the cover (2) of the reactor are made from transparent materials. The bioreactor has a meant (19) of holding the reactor afloat in a liquid medium and sources (20 and 21) of artificial light, which are mounted inside the floats (14 and 15) of the annular partitions (12 and 13). The latter are made from optically transparent material. The vessel is in form of a disposable or reusable dismountable envelope (22) and has means (23 and 24) of fastening it to the cover (2) and the bottom (17) of the vessel, respectively. The method of culturing photosynthesising microorganisms involves creating biochemical and physical conditions for growth of the microorganisms in a culture medium and maintaining culturing temperature conditions. The latter is carried out in the bioreactor, which is immersed and held afloat in a natural or manmade water body at water temperature which is favourable for growth of photosynthesising microorganisms in said water body, wherein the culture medium used is the filtered water from the water body in which the bioreactor is located.
EFFECT: high output of biomass of photosynthesising microorganisms, while reducing power consumption and simplifying maintenance.
6 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biochemistry. A method and an apparatus for producing biogas from organic substances are disclosed. The method includes feeding a substrate into a container with two mixing mechanisms with impellers. A common area is created in the container for mixing the fermentation substrate. The average speed of the fermentation substrate and/or average viscosity of the fermentation substrate in the mixing area are determined. The measurement data are sent to a control unit and controlled quantitative values are varied by the control unit. The apparatus comprises a container, a feeding system, a sensor for monitoring the process and mixing mechanisms, a control unit and mixing mechanisms with impellers. The impellers enable to generate horizontal streams of the contents of the container.
EFFECT: larger amount of the converted fermentation substrate and the generated amount of methane gas.
20 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biochemistry. A method and an apparatus for producing biogas from organic substances are disclosed. The method includes feeding a substrate into a container with a mixing mechanism, measuring rheological properties of the fermentation substrate in the region near impellers of the mixing mechanism. The measurement result is compared with a given value which is the desired value for a specific apparatus. The apparatus for producing biogas from organic substances comprises a container, a feeding system, a mixing mechanism, a sensor for measuring rheological properties of the fermentation substrate and a control unit.
EFFECT: larger amount of the converted fermentation substrate and the generated amount of methane gas.
18 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: claimed is system for control of photosynthetic ad respiratory CO2-gas exchange in culture in vitro. System is connected in hermetic way via standard sealant with transparent technological volume in vitro with cultivated whole plants at different stages of ontogenesis, regenerants, isolated organs and tissues. System together with connected technological volume forms common hermetic air contour. Contour consists of successively connected with each other said technological volume and air pump, rotameter, air drier and CO2-gas-analyser. Contour between CO2-gas-analyser and technological volume in vitro is additionally equipped with on-off gas switch.
EFFECT: invention provides multiple reproducibility of measurement procedure.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of production of a biomass of photoautotrophic microorganisms is offered. The method includes the preparation of liquid inoculum in an inoculator at continuous lighting and aeration by carbon dioxide with the subsequent supply of the obtained culture into the fermenter. Cultivation of the biomass in the fermenter is performed with the film-size flow of liquid in transparent tubes with simultaneous lighting by a lamp and aeration by carbon dioxide and supply of the ready culture of microorganisms into the ready culture collector. From the collector the biomass is supplied to the spray dryer where it is dried by warm air and the ready-made product is obtained in a powdery form with the content of solids of 95…97%.
EFFECT: increase of the yield of the biomass, decrease of specific energy consumption, ensuring ecological safety, improvement of quality and increase of periods of storage of the finished product.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biochemistry. Disclosed is a fermentation plant for methane-assimilating microorganisms. Plant comprises a column fermenter and two reactors. Fermenter comprises a housing, an exhaust gas outlet pipe, a tube for feeding nutrient salts, process water, food components and seed biosuspension, a pipe for inlet of gas-liquid flow into fermenter from reactor and a pipe for outlet of biosuspension from fermenter into reactor. Each reactor comprises a sampling tube for gas-liquid flow in fermenter, a disc mixer with a drive, a pipe for feeding biosuspension from fermenter into reactor. First reactor comprises a pipe for feeding methane-containing gas, second reactor comprises a pipe for feeding oxygen-containing gas. Fermenter additionally contains temperature maintenance means, means of maintaining pH of medium, means of maintaining level of dissolved oxygen, exhaust gas analyser. Mixer drive in each reactor is equipped with power transducer connected via logical device controller with flow rate regulators of incoming gas flows and with control valves of supply of liquid in each reactor.
EFFECT: invention reduces power consumption on process of aerobic fermentation, high degree of usage of oxygen and methane, increased efficiency, as well as possibility of making efficient industrial plants with volume of up to 100-400 m3.
12 cl, 1 dwg