The method of evaporation deeply refrigerated liquid working medium, in particular liquid hydrogen, and an evaporator for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The method of evaporation deeply refrigerated liquid working medium through which acts as a heat exchanger of the evaporator is that the hydrogen is first vaporized in the feed segment and to a certain extent, overheats, and after the passage of this segment is returned back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer. The input channel to be evaporation of the environment of the evaporator is connected through a slit with a return channel serving as an intermediate layer, and associated with the output. The described method allows to implement evaporators with extremely low weight with which you can handle the environment with extremely different temperatures. 2 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to a method and evaporator deeply refrigerated liquid working medium. Such evaporators, typically in the form of a plate or tubular heat exchangers and are used in those cases where the working environment is kept at low temperatures in the liquid state in the tank, but is used in a gaseous state. An example of such a case may be the use of cryogenic liquids such as liquid hydrogen>/P>The peculiarity of such evaporators is very low inlet temperature is subject to evaporation gas is about 20 K (= -253oC). As the heat source for evaporation (and, if necessary, overheating) cryogenic liquid to the evaporator is supplied either ambient air or, for example, exhaust gas of engines, or other heated medium, then contact this environment, with extremely cold surfaces there is a danger that this medium will be cooled below the corresponding temperature dew, respectively, temperature of freezing and partially condensed or ice forms on the surface of the evaporator.Usually this danger prevent deterioration of heat transfer, which achieved higher surface temperature on the inlet side of heat in the evaporator. This leads, however, to bulky and heavy design of such evaporator, which is especially undesirable when used in aviation and Astronautics.Therefore, the basis of the invention lies in the challenge to create this method and the evaporator to implement the method to effectively prevent condensation, respectively, the formation of ice heat carrier medium (e.g. air or processed gas), etc first evaporates in the input segment and to a certain extent overheats, and after the passage of this segment is returned back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer.Preferred embodiments of the invention are given in the dependent claims.The invention is explained below using the drawings on which is shown:
Fig.1 - evaporator in longitudinal section.Fig.2 is an embodiment of evaporator according to Fig.2.Fig.3 is an embodiment with a tubular spiral.Fig.4 is an embodiment with an additional partition.Fig.1 shows a possible execution of the evaporator 1 according to the invention, for example, evaporation of hydrogen for turbine aircraft engine. The evaporator 1 is the principle of the three inserted one into each of the pipes 2, 3 and 4, the outer surfaces of both the inner tubes 3 and 4 created passing spirally around the perimeter of the channels 5, respectively, 6 and the walls of the channels are connected with the internal surfaces located above them pipes. The outer tube 2 and inner tube 4 at their ends are tightly connected to each other end wall 7, respectively, 8, the average pipe 3 is also connected tightly with the front wall 7. Between the working medium in the direction of the arrow 9 is provided to the input 10, coupled with channel 5. For selection of a gaseous working medium is connected to channel 6 output 11, through which the supplied gas is released in the direction of the arrow 12. Very cold during operation, the outer surface with insulation 13 to prevent condensation, respectively, the formation of ice. While working through the inner tube 3 in the direction of the arrow 14 flows radiating heat to the environment. Now if you want to evaporation of the working environment to apply through the inlet 10 into the channel 5, then it goes in the drawing from left to right and through the gap s enters the channel 6 through which it passes in the opposite direction to exit 11. Thus, subject to evaporation of the working medium passes first through the feed line segment formed by the channel 5, and then return the segment formed by the channel 6. Possible in principle equally directed and oppositely directed implementation of spiral channels 5 and 6.Fig.2 shows an embodiment of evaporator according to Fig.1. While the walls of the channels 5 and 6 in the radial direction are arranged one above the other. This provides increased strength of the evaporator. In this embodiment, only equally aimed spirago from the outer casing 16, the inner casing 17, the two end walls 18 and 19, the inlet 20 and outlet 21 and the insulation 22. The outer casing 16 and the inner casing 17 and end walls 18 and 19 are tightly closed hollow space 23. In this evaporator 15 path, which is subject to evaporation of the working environment, again consists of a subject and return segments. To do this, in the hollow space 23 so placed tubular helix 24, which forms a spiral tube equally in contact with the outer casing 16 and the inner casing 17. Left on the image end of the tubular helix 24 is connected only to the input 20 and the right end of the tubular spiral is open and extends into the hollow space 23. If you want to evaporation of the medium is input to 20, it passes the tubular coil 24 in the image from left to right and at the end of the tubular spiral 23 enters the hollow space 23. Hence, the working medium located between the spiral and the outer casing 16, respectively, the inner casing 17 channels with a wedge-shaped cross-section runs back and gets to the exit 21. Due to the heat flowing in the direction of the arrow 25 environment vaporized working medium exits through the outlet 21 in the gaseous state.Fig. 4 shows variations is Juha wound spiral partition 26 and is welded with him. At high internal pressures in the evaporator, it promotes the inner casing. This limit ensures the indentation of the inner casing.Thus the method for evaporating the working medium is that the working environment, such as hydrogen, is first vaporized in the feed segment and to a certain extent, overheats, and after the passage of this section back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer. This returned and superheated working environment due to their low temperature 20 K to condense only when it will again be cooled to this temperature, which can be easily prevented by a corresponding execution of the evaporator.The open method of evaporation in the reverse flow, or return evaporation has advantages when processed environment with extremely different temperatures, and when it is necessary to provide an extremely low weight.In practice the inner tube 4 or the inner casing 17 are an integral part of the pipeline for hot gas. This method can however be successfully applied also when radiating the warmth of the project with integrated evaporator. 1. The method of evaporation of liquid hydrogen by acting as a heat exchanger of the evaporator, characterized in that the hydrogen is first vaporized in the feed segment and to a certain extent, overheats, and after the passage of this segment is returned back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydrogen in the feed and return segment passes along a helical line.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the hydrogen in at least one segment passes along a helical line.4. The evaporator containing a channel for environment, radiating heat, and a channel environment which is subject to evaporation, characterized in that the feed channel (5) subject to evaporation of the environment associated with the input (10), the gaseous environment of the employee as an intermediate layer return channel (6) is removed through the outlet (11), and between channels (5) and (6) there is a connection (slot S).5. Evaporator under item 4, characterized in that the design of the channels (5, 6) made spiral.6. Evaporator under item 5, characterized in that the direction of torsion of the helical segments in the same way.7. Evaporator under item 5, characterized in that licausi fact, what in the cavity (23) formed between the outer and inner membranes (16, 17) mounted tubular helix (24).9. The evaporator according to one of paragraphs.4 to 8, characterized in that the channel for radiating heat of the environment is the combustion chamber.Installed Convention priority from 03.05.96 according to the first application N 19617916.5 filed in the patent office in Germany.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power supply system generating electric power using self-forming gas contains gas motor, gas turbine, gas collector for self-forming gas, device to separate gas and device to control calorific value for selective mixing of gases differing in content of fuel component. Gas separating device continuously separates gas delivering from gas collector whose fuel component content changes in time according to content of fuel component of gas. Calorific value control device for selective mixing of gases differing in content of fuel component which are separated by gas separating device, controls content of fuel component of gas which is to be supplied to gas motor and gas turbine. System control device is provided to control operation of gas motor, gas turbine and calorific value control device.
EFFECT: provision of power supply system maintaining stable generation of power, irrespective of changes of amount of self-forming gas and its calorific value.
13 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas turbine comprises compressor linked up with the drive. In its turn, compressor drive comprises 1st and 2nd stages, inner and outer shafts with blower fitted on inner shaft and compressor fitted on outer shaft. It includes also HP and LP turbines with cooling system, primary combustion chamber arranged between compressor and HP turbine. Gas turbine comprises also outer combustion chamber and heat exchanger-heater arranged behind HP turbine and communicated, via heat carrier circulation lines, with heat exchanger arranged behind outer combustion chamber.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: burner (4) for gas burner includes: swirler (21), plate (58), the first channel (18) via which fuel gas with low calorific value is supplied, and second channel (17) via which combustion air is supplied. The first and the second channels (17, 18) are located concentrically relative to longitudinal axis (2). Output of the first channel (18) is formed with convergent nozzle (50). Swirler (21) is installed at the outlet of the second channel (17). Plate (58) is tightly installed in the first channel (18) upstream nozzle (50) and has many holes (56) with calibrated section of the passage. Holes (56) are inclined in tangential direction relative to longitudinal axis (2) at the specified angle. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of less than 300 mm/s, plate (58) has 36 to 38 holes (56) the diameter of which is 11.5 to 12.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is approximately 22°. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of 300 mm/s to 400 mm/s, plate (58) has 80 holes (56) the diameter of which is 8.5 mm to 9.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is 17° to 22°. If calorific value of gas with low calorific value from the first channel (18) is less than 4.0 MJ/kg, then natural gas consumption is assumed from pilot line (46). Burner (5) is used only when gases with low calorific value are not available.
EFFECT: high burner flexibility; operation is possible at the gas used with low calorific value and of any type within the whole working range of gas turbine.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: peak hydrogen steam turbine plant includes steam turbine and compressor, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks and combustion chamber, which are installed on one shaft. Steam turbine and compressor are connected by means of system of steam pipelines so that closed steam circuit is formed. Combustion chamber is located before steam turbine and connected by means of pipelines to receivers. Regenerative heat exchanger and cooler are included in closed steam circuit. Condensing turbine with condenser is connected to steam pipeline connecting the steam turbine to compressor. Electrolysis unit is connected to condenser via pipeline on which there mounted is water pump, and interconnected with hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks via pipelines on which gas compressors are installed. Plant capacity is controlled by changing the hydrogen and oxygen supply to combustion chamber and steam discharge from closed circuit to condensing turbine.
EFFECT: increasing the plant efficiency and decreasing thermal stresses in turbomachines at variable loads due to almost unchangeable temperature in closed steam circuit.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises air compressor, steel work gas compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, transmission for coupling drive shaft with steel work gas compressor. Turbine is driven by combustion chamber waste gas to transmit mechanical power to air compressor and using equipment, in particular, to AC generator and drive shaft. Compressed air and steel work compressed gas and/or natural gas are fed into combustion chamber. Transmission comprises means of coupling/uncoupling steel work gas compressor with/from drive shaft during rotation of the latter.
EFFECT: increased electric power output, decreased idle time, higher efficiency at restart of turbine and AC generator.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: gas turbine system fed by depleted fuel comprises compressor, first catalytic chamber, turbine, recuperator, channel burner and extra device to feed auxiliary fuel arranged on compressor side to increase fuel concentration in the mix by adding extra auxiliary fuel in the mix. Compressor compresses aforesaid air-fuel mix with concentration equal to or lower than ultimate inflammability to obtain compressed gas. First catalytic combustion chamber allows combusting compressed gas by catalytic oxidation. Turbine may be driven by gas fed from first catalytic combustion chamber. Recuperator heats compressed gas by turbine exhaust gas while compressed gas is forced from compressor into said chamber. Channel burner is arranged between turbine and recuperator to combust exhaust gas with the help of auxiliary fuel in plasma burning.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, simplified design, ruled out fuel gas loss.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: gas turbine plant for conversion of associated petroleum gas into power comprises an air compressor, a turbine, a combustion chamber, a power generator and a device o air heating downstream the compressor, comprising a heat exchange regenerator device arranged in an exhaust pipe. The combustion chamber with the exhaust pipe are arranged in the form of a surface flare for burning of associated petroleum gas. The compressor is equipped with an electric drive. The turbine at the outlet side is communicated with environment with the help of an autonomous pipe. The surface flare at the side of associated petroleum gas supply is made with a device of atmospheric air intake.
EFFECT: expanded area of gas turbine plant application, increased efficiency of carbon fuel usage and improved environmental capability of environment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises compressor, catalytic combustion chamber, turbine, regenerative heat exchanger, burner and valve. Compressor serves to compress working gas, said gas being of combustible component concentration smaller than that of its inflammability. Catalytic combustion chamber is designed to combust compressed air by catalytic reaction with the help of catalyst arranged therein to produce gaseous combustion products. Said products fed from catalytic combustion chamber drive the turbine. Regenerative heat exchanger serves to heat compressed air fed from compressor into said combustion chamber via used gas fed into turbine via used gas channel into regenerative heat exchanger. Burned serves to combust the gas forced from compressor along with fuel for forming the heating gas and feeding heating gas into used gas channel. Valve is designed to control the amount of gas to be fed to the burner.
EFFECT: ruled out loss of power output or discharge system pressure loss, compact design.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: power system comprises an oil boiler with a pipeline for removal of spent gases with a control valve, a circuit with intermediate coolant, which connects the oil boiler and the plant on the basis of organic Rankine cycle, which is a closed circuit with an organic fluid, comprising a turbine on a shaft with a power generator and a cooling system with a heat exchanger and a circulation pump. It is equipped with a burner device installed in the oil boiler for complete combustion of associated petroleum gas with a connected line of air supply, passing via the heat exchanger of the cooling system on the plant based on the organic Rankine cycle, and a bypass line with a control valve, which connects the pipeline for removal of spent gases with a control valve and the combustion space of the oil boiler.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of combustion of associated petroleum gas due to use of organic Rankine cycle, reliability of operation of a power system and the possibility to convert heat of combustion of associated petroleum gas into power in place of oil production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Power plant comprises combustion chamber, inside which there is a burner, which is a blind branch pipe with attached thereto pylons, uniformly arranged in a circle and having in cross section a V-shape, in which there are channels for fuel outlet, ignition device arranged on side surface of combustion chamber, turbocompressor consisting of interconnected turbine and compressor connected with electric generator, wherein turbocompressor turbine is located in inlet part of combustion chamber, and output of compressor is connected by pipelines with a heat exchanger located in outlet part of combustion chamber, wherein at output of heat exchanger there is a flue pipe.
EFFECT: invention provides high efficiency and compactness by increasing thermal efficiency.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wire-tubular evaporator is provided with guide plate whose body is extended lengthwise and at least one tubular clip for securing the plate to evaporator tube. Tubular clip is mounted on bracket extending aside from plate body.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of fitting the guide plate along center line of evaporator.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: cooling and air conditioning system components, particularly evaporators.
SUBSTANCE: evaporator comprises of the first elongated flat multi-channel pipe having serpentine configuration defined by elbow members bent across the minor dimension thereof. The pipe has a number of spaced apart parallel parts extending between ends of the first pipe. Inlet member of clamping means is connected to the first pipe end, outlet member thereof is fastened to the second end thereof. Ribs are located between neighboring parts of the first pipe. The second elongated flat multi-channel pipe forms suction radiator loop. The second pipe is connected to the first one so that side wall of the second pipe defining major pipe dimension is connected to side wall of the first pipe directly upstream of the outlet member of the clamping means to provide improved heat exchange between the pipes. The second pipe ends are also fitted with inlet and outlet members of clamping means.
EFFECT: increased compactness.
20 cl, 8 dwg