The method of evaporation deeply refrigerated liquid working medium, in particular liquid hydrogen, and an evaporator for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The method of evaporation deeply refrigerated liquid working medium through which acts as a heat exchanger of the evaporator is that the hydrogen is first vaporized in the feed segment and to a certain extent, overheats, and after the passage of this segment is returned back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer. The input channel to be evaporation of the environment of the evaporator is connected through a slit with a return channel serving as an intermediate layer, and associated with the output. The described method allows to implement evaporators with extremely low weight with which you can handle the environment with extremely different temperatures. 2 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to a method and evaporator deeply refrigerated liquid working medium. Such evaporators, typically in the form of a plate or tubular heat exchangers and are used in those cases where the working environment is kept at low temperatures in the liquid state in the tank, but is used in a gaseous state. An example of such a case may be the use of cryogenic liquids such as liquid hydrogen>/P>The peculiarity of such evaporators is very low inlet temperature is subject to evaporation gas is about 20 K (= -253oC). As the heat source for evaporation (and, if necessary, overheating) cryogenic liquid to the evaporator is supplied either ambient air or, for example, exhaust gas of engines, or other heated medium, then contact this environment, with extremely cold surfaces there is a danger that this medium will be cooled below the corresponding temperature dew, respectively, temperature of freezing and partially condensed or ice forms on the surface of the evaporator.

Usually this danger prevent deterioration of heat transfer, which achieved higher surface temperature on the inlet side of heat in the evaporator. This leads, however, to bulky and heavy design of such evaporator, which is especially undesirable when used in aviation and Astronautics.

Therefore, the basis of the invention lies in the challenge to create this method and the evaporator to implement the method to effectively prevent condensation, respectively, the formation of ice heat carrier medium (e.g. air or processed gas), etc first evaporates in the input segment and to a certain extent overheats, and after the passage of this segment is returned back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer.

Preferred embodiments of the invention are given in the dependent claims.

The invention is explained below using the drawings on which is shown:

Fig.1 - evaporator in longitudinal section.

Fig.2 is an embodiment of evaporator according to Fig.2.

Fig.3 is an embodiment with a tubular spiral.

Fig.4 is an embodiment with an additional partition.

Fig.1 shows a possible execution of the evaporator 1 according to the invention, for example, evaporation of hydrogen for turbine aircraft engine. The evaporator 1 is the principle of the three inserted one into each of the pipes 2, 3 and 4, the outer surfaces of both the inner tubes 3 and 4 created passing spirally around the perimeter of the channels 5, respectively, 6 and the walls of the channels are connected with the internal surfaces located above them pipes. The outer tube 2 and inner tube 4 at their ends are tightly connected to each other end wall 7, respectively, 8, the average pipe 3 is also connected tightly with the front wall 7. Between the working medium in the direction of the arrow 9 is provided to the input 10, coupled with channel 5. For selection of a gaseous working medium is connected to channel 6 output 11, through which the supplied gas is released in the direction of the arrow 12. Very cold during operation, the outer surface with insulation 13 to prevent condensation, respectively, the formation of ice. While working through the inner tube 3 in the direction of the arrow 14 flows radiating heat to the environment. Now if you want to evaporation of the working environment to apply through the inlet 10 into the channel 5, then it goes in the drawing from left to right and through the gap s enters the channel 6 through which it passes in the opposite direction to exit 11. Thus, subject to evaporation of the working medium passes first through the feed line segment formed by the channel 5, and then return the segment formed by the channel 6. Possible in principle equally directed and oppositely directed implementation of spiral channels 5 and 6.

Fig.2 shows an embodiment of evaporator according to Fig.1. While the walls of the channels 5 and 6 in the radial direction are arranged one above the other. This provides increased strength of the evaporator. In this embodiment, only equally aimed spirago from the outer casing 16, the inner casing 17, the two end walls 18 and 19, the inlet 20 and outlet 21 and the insulation 22. The outer casing 16 and the inner casing 17 and end walls 18 and 19 are tightly closed hollow space 23. In this evaporator 15 path, which is subject to evaporation of the working environment, again consists of a subject and return segments. To do this, in the hollow space 23 so placed tubular helix 24, which forms a spiral tube equally in contact with the outer casing 16 and the inner casing 17. Left on the image end of the tubular helix 24 is connected only to the input 20 and the right end of the tubular spiral is open and extends into the hollow space 23. If you want to evaporation of the medium is input to 20, it passes the tubular coil 24 in the image from left to right and at the end of the tubular spiral 23 enters the hollow space 23. Hence, the working medium located between the spiral and the outer casing 16, respectively, the inner casing 17 channels with a wedge-shaped cross-section runs back and gets to the exit 21. Due to the heat flowing in the direction of the arrow 25 environment vaporized working medium exits through the outlet 21 in the gaseous state.

Fig. 4 shows variations is Juha wound spiral partition 26 and is welded with him. At high internal pressures in the evaporator, it promotes the inner casing. This limit ensures the indentation of the inner casing.

Thus the method for evaporating the working medium is that the working environment, such as hydrogen, is first vaporized in the feed segment and to a certain extent, overheats, and after the passage of this section back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer. This returned and superheated working environment due to their low temperature 20 K to condense only when it will again be cooled to this temperature, which can be easily prevented by a corresponding execution of the evaporator.

The open method of evaporation in the reverse flow, or return evaporation has advantages when processed environment with extremely different temperatures, and when it is necessary to provide an extremely low weight.

In practice the inner tube 4 or the inner casing 17 are an integral part of the pipeline for hot gas. This method can however be successfully applied also when radiating the warmth of the project with integrated evaporator.

1. The method of evaporation of liquid hydrogen by acting as a heat exchanger of the evaporator, characterized in that the hydrogen is first vaporized in the feed segment and to a certain extent, overheats, and after the passage of this segment is returned back along the surface and serves as an intermediate layer for heat transfer.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the hydrogen in the feed and return segment passes along a helical line.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the hydrogen in at least one segment passes along a helical line.

4. The evaporator containing a channel for environment, radiating heat, and a channel environment which is subject to evaporation, characterized in that the feed channel (5) subject to evaporation of the environment associated with the input (10), the gaseous environment of the employee as an intermediate layer return channel (6) is removed through the outlet (11), and between channels (5) and (6) there is a connection (slot S).

5. Evaporator under item 4, characterized in that the design of the channels (5, 6) made spiral.

6. Evaporator under item 5, characterized in that the direction of torsion of the helical segments in the same way.

7. Evaporator under item 5, characterized in that licausi fact, what in the cavity (23) formed between the outer and inner membranes (16, 17) mounted tubular helix (24).

9. The evaporator according to one of paragraphs.4 to 8, characterized in that the channel for radiating heat of the environment is the combustion chamber.

Installed Convention priority from 03.05.96 according to the first application N 19617916.5 filed in the patent office in Germany.

 

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