Method for processing chlorine-containing waste organic solvents and disposing of the components

 

(57) Abstract:

The method refers to the processing of waste generated during the chemical cleaning of clothes and containing trudnoudaljaemye chlorinated compounds that incineration pollutes the air, and when the burial poison the soil. Method of recycling by distillation under vacuum to return in the manufacture of chlorinated solvents and applied to the cleaning soap and other surfactants may be used in the manufacture of concrete mixes.

The invention relates to the processing of chlorine containing waste and using components obtained from processing.

The known method of regeneration haloesters solvents from waste cleaning in which to more fully extract haloesters solvents from waste and reducing the temperature of the distillation waste add 25-100% water, haloesters solvent allocate azeotropic distillation with water, and the remaining waste is burned (EN 2046862 C1, 27.10.95).

The disadvantage of this method is that it does not allow trademark tetrachloro - or trichloroethylene, because distillates contain moisture, statarray waste organic solvents and disposing of the components, namely, that with liquefy waste and more complete extraction of VAT residue of organochlorine compounds, to recycling waste type organic solvent which boils at 40oC higher than warded off chlorinated compounds, and allocated solvents return in the manufacture of dry (EN, 2079589 C1, 20.05.97.).

The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of using flammable solvent (kerosene, alcohols or ethers) that are added to non-combustible perchloroethylene and high temperature distillation process 239oC, at which detergents in Cuba distilling decompose and make the process environmentally harmful, and technologically - dangerous.

Thus, the known methods do not solve the problem of waste, not receiving new waste, which, in turn, need to burn as VAT residue after the distillation of chlorinated compounds, or in addition to clean tetrachloro - or trichloroethylene in order to return it to the manufacture of dry cleaning.

Technical result achieved in the implementation of this invention is to provide a complete separation of the cubic residue from chlorine organizers chlorinated wastes organic solvents and disposing of the components, includes return allocated solvents in the production of dry, according to the invention, waste management, leading to a distillation column under vacuum, and the VAT residue is used for preparation of concrete mixes.

Generated during the cleaning of the waste processed to a distillation column efficiency 15 theoretical plates in the vacuum of 40 mm Hg, select "head" containing water and low-boiling organic impurities washed from clothing and a small amount of chlorine-containing solvent, not more than 2% by weight of waste. Allocated following this, the solvent meets the requirements of a commercial product and can be returned in the manufacture of cleaning, and the remaining in Cuba, the residue does not contain chlorine-containing impurities and is directed to the preparation of concrete mixes for road pavements or building blocks. Collected in a separate container "head" as the accumulation of re-distillation.

The proposed method allows to completely separate VAT residue from chlorine-containing organic compounds, without raising the temperature of the columns in the cube above 150oC and, thus, to avoid thermal decomposition and to obtain tovarnytsia examples illustrate the invention.

Example 1. Single-stage recycling.

In the cube distillation columns effectiveness of 15 theoretical plates upload the processed liquid of the following composition, %:

Perchlorethylene - 40

Water - 0,6

High-boiling impurity - 0,4

VAT residue - 59,0

Created in the vacuum of 40 mm RT.article and include the heating 33-40oC, the temperature of the liquid in the cube when it is changed from 41 to 61oC.

Fraction has the following composition, %:

Water and low-boiling impurity - 17,3

Perchlorethylene - 82,7

The weight fraction is 3% of the loaded fluid. This fraction is sent to storage for subsequent dehydration.

The fraction of commodity perchlorethylene is selected within the temperature in pairs 40-40,5oC and Cuba 61-140oC. After the distillation of all of perchloroethylene temperature in pairs falls and the distillation is terminated.

The weight fraction of commodity perchlorethylene is 40% of the loaded liquid.

VAT residue, the weight of which is 59% of the weight of the loaded fluid is cooled to a temperature of 70oC and transmitted to the receiving vessel for shipment to the consumer.

Example 2. Two-stage processing of the waste and of the same composition, as in example 1, includes a vacuum pump and heated cube. When a vacuum of 40 mm RT. tbsp. distilled perchlorethylene raw. The ends distillation at a temperature in the cube 103-105oC. Weight distilled PCE raw is 390 kg composition: PCE-340 kg; water - 40 kg; impurity - 10 kg VAT residue weight 610 kg are sent to the receiving container to send to the consumer, and PCE raw load into the cube of the distillation column described in example 1 and distilled under a vacuum of 40 mm RT. Art. in the following modes:

Fraction 1 (head): temperature Cuba 25-43oC;

the temperature of the vapor 23-41oC;

phlegm 2-3;

the weight of 39.5 kg;

composition: water of 9.5 kg, PCE 30 kg.

Fraction 2 (trademark) temperature Cuba 43-46oC;

the temperature of the vapor 41-41,5oC;

phlegm 1;

weight 260,5 kg;

ingredients: water 0:49 kg PCE 259,9 kg

Cube -10 kg

Fraction 1 is sent to storage for subsequent dehydration, the cube is sent on the subsequent operation of the pickup of the waste.

Method for processing chlorine-containing waste organic solvents and disposing of the components, including the return allocated solvents in the production of dry, characterized in that the recycling lead to re

 

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FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods and devices for extraction of nitrogen trifluoride.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of extraction of nitrogen trifluoride and the installation for its realization. The invention is pertaining to the technology extraction of thee mixed gases components by rectification. The substance of the invention consists that they developed the method of extraction of nitrogen trifluoride by the cold rectification of the base mix, which is different by the fact, that this admixture is fed into the column of the low temperature rectification with efficiency of no less than 200 theoretical plates, and at the level of the eightieth-ninetieth theoretical plate from the top at the temperature of from minus 65°C to minus 75°C, at the pressure of 1.7-1.9 MPa and at the reflux-to-product ratio of 250-270, extraction of the admixture of tetrafluoromethane and nitrogen trifluoride is conducted from the upper part of the column above the 6-th theoretical plate, and the admixture of the low-boiling components is extracted from the upper part of the dephlegmator. For realization of this method the installation has been developed including the rectification column, the dephlegmator and the boiler different by the fact, that the column is filled in by the head with the efficiency of no less than 200 theoretical plates with the inlet for the reaction mixture arranged at the level of the 80-th - 90-th theoretical plates from the top part, and with the outlet for the tetrafluoromethane and nitrogen trifluoride arranged above the 6-th theoretical plate from the top part and the outlet for the low-boiling components from the upper part of the dephlegmator and with the outlet of nitrogen trifluoride from the boiler. The method allows to separate the reaction mixture containing of no more than 0.3 mass % of tetrafluoromethane and of no more than 2 mass % of the low-boiling impurities with production of two products: the first product - nitrogen trifluoride with the contents of the main substance of no less than 99.9 mass %, with the admixture of tetrafluoromethane - of no more than 0.05 mass %; and the second product containing nitrogen trifluoride with the contents of the main substance of no less than 98 mass % and tetrafluoromethane - of no more than 1.9 mas %.

EFFECT: the invention ensures separation of the initial reaction mixture and production of two products: the first - nitrogen trifluoride with the main substance share exceeding 99 mass % and the negligible share of tetrafluoromethane; the second - nitrogen trifluoride with the main substance share of 98 mass % and tetrafluoromethane with the main substance share about 2 mass %.

3 cl, 4 ex, 4 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: first version of the method involves the following steps: distillation of a mixture which contains methyl iodide and acetaldehyde in a distillation apparatus in order to obtain an overhead fraction and a residue, measuring density of the said overhead fraction, determination of relative concentration of methyl iodide, acetaldehyde or both in the overhead fraction based on the measured density and regulation of at least one process variable, associated with the said distillation apparatus. As a response reaction to the said measured density or relative concentration calculated from the measured density, the said process variable is selected from heating intensity, column pressure, the composition fed, condensate composition and coefficient of flow reversal.

EFFECT: effective reduction of amount and removal of acetaldehyde and methyl iodide from a carbonylation system.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining n-propyl bromide in form of a raw reaction mixture containing at least 95 % n-propyl bromide on GC area. The process involves supply of (A) oxygen-containing gas, (B) propene in gaseous form and (C) hydrogen bromide in gaseous form or successively or in parallel into a liquid-phase mixture containing n-propyl bromide and hydrogen bromide, where hydrogen bromide in the liquid-phase mixture is in amount ranging from 1.1 wt % to 1.5 wt % in terms of the weight of the liquid-phase mixture. At least the oxygen-containing gas (A) and gaseous propene (B) are fed directly under the surface of the liquid-phase mixture provided that: i) either (a) the oxygen-containing gas and propene are not fed together in the absence of hydrogen bromide or (b) the oxygen-containing gas and propene are fed together in the absence of hydrogen bromide only in molar ratio of propene to oxygen ranging from 145:1 to 180:1, and ii) the method is realised in reaction equipment having contact surfaces essentially without reaction inhibitors.

EFFECT: higher thermal stability of the obtained product, and specifically during storage in a closed chemically inert container at 60C for 480 hours, the mixture has APHA colour index equal to or less than 10, the absence of any stabilising component in the mixture.

19 cl, 5 dwg, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: to obtain a high-purity product, atmospheric stripping of light impurities is carried out first, after which the desired product is extracted via azeotropic rectification with water in the presence of a stabiliser - sodium or potassium carbonates, hydrocarbonates, sulphites or mixtures thereof in amount of 1-20% or more preferably 3-5% of the weight of the added water.

EFFECT: high degree of purity of 1,2,3,4,4-hexafluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobutane, prevention of corrosion and contamination of equipment.

1 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to an azeotropic or close-to-azeotropic mixture for producing Z-1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene containing 61.0-78.4 mol % Z-HFC-1225ye and hydrogen fluoride. Described also is a method of separating an azeotropic or close-to-azeotropic mixture from HFC-236ea, a method of separating Z-HFC-1225ye from a mixture of Z-HFC-1225ye and hydrogen fluoride which is azeotropic or close to azeotropic, a method of separating -HFC-1225ye from a mixture of Z-HFC-1225ye, HFC-236ea and hydrogen fluoride with dehydrofluorination, as well as a method of producing Z-HFC-1225ye.

EFFECT: obtaining an azeotropic mixture characterised by that the difference between dew-point pressure and pressure at which bubbles appear is less than or equal to 3% of the pressure at which bubbles appear.

20 cl, 11 ex, 11 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method of producing an azeotropic composition containing fluorohydroolefin with 3-8 carbon atoms via dehydrofluorination of a fluorine-containing hydrocarbon. The invention also discloses methods of separating fluorohydroolefins from fluorine-containing hydrocarbons and from hydrogen fluoride.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain fluorohydroolefins without using a catalyst.

9 cl, 33 ex, 35 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of using a distillation column to remove water and components with boiling point lower than that of 1,2-dichloroethane from 1,2-dichloroethane. The method is characterised by that at least a portion of condensation heat of water-containing secondary steam from the distillation column is used to evaporate sodium hydroxide solution.

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to optimise use of released heat and reduce consumption of cooling water.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: described are methods of separating any of HFC-1225ye, HFC-1234ze, HFC-1234yf or HFC-1243zf from HF. One of methods includes separation of mixture, which contains HF and fluorolefin, where said method includes a) supply of composition, containing HF and fluorolefin, to first distillation column; b) discharge of azeotropic composition, containing HF and fluorolefin as first distillate and either i) HF, or i) fluorolefin as composition of vat residue of first column; c) condensation of first distillate with formation of two liquid phases: i) HF-saturated phase and ii) fluorolefin-enriched phase; and d) recirculation of first liquid phase, enriched with the same compound, which is removed as vat residue of first column, where said first liquid phase is either i) HF-enriched phase, or ii) fluorolefin-enriched phase, back into first distillation column.

EFFECT: invention presents more efficient method of HF separation from olefins.

33 cl, 13 ex, 14 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: one of the versions involves: a. feeding a composition containing HF and HFO-1234ze into a first distillation column; b. removing the azeotropic composition containing HF and HFO-1234ze as a first distillate and either i) HF or ii) HFO-1234ze as a composition of distillation residues of the first column; c. condensation of the first distillate to form 2 liquid phases which are i) a phase rich in HF and ii) a phase rich in HFO-1234ze; and d. recycling the first liquid phase rich in the same compound, which is removed as distillation residues of the first column, said first liquid phase being either i) a phase rich in HF or ii) a phase rich in HFO-1234ze, back into the first distillation column. The invention also relates to a method of separating HFO-1234yf from HFO-1234ze to form an azeotropic mixture containing HF and HFO-1234ze.

EFFECT: invention provides a novel method of separating HF from HFO-1234ze.

17 cl, 9 ex, 9 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a range of versions of separating a mixture containing HF and HFO-1234yf. One of the versions involves: a. feeding a composition containing HF and HFO-1234yf into a first distillation column; b. removing the azeotropic composition containing HF and HFO-1234yf in form of a first distillate and either i) HF or ii) HFO-1234yf in form of a composition of first still residues; c. condensation of the first distillate to form two liquid phases which are i) a phase rich in HF and ii) a phase rich in HFO-1234yf; and d. recycling the first liquid phase rich in the same compound, which is removed in form of still residues of the first column, said liquid phase being either i) a phase rich in HF or ii) a phase rich in HFO-1234yf, back into the first distillation column.

EFFECT: present invention provides a novel method of separating HF and HFO-1234yf.

14 cl, 9 ex, 9 tbl, 8 dwg

FIELD: method and equipment for dry chemical cleaning of articles through utilization of siloxane solvents.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has cleaning drum for receiving of articles and at least one tank containing siloxane solvent. Pump for dipping of articles into drum containing siloxane solvent is connected between tank and cleaning drum. Distiller is used for distilling of contaminated siloxane solvent in order to provide pure siloxane solvent. Condenser is connected to cleaning drum and/or distiller for regeneration of condensed vapors. Separator is connected to condenser for separating water from siloxane solvent, said separation of water from siloxane solvent in condensed mixture is provided by gravity. Fan is connected to cleaning drum for circulating air along condenser and heating spirals into cleaning drum for drying and cooling of articles.

EFFECT: increased efficiency in cleaning of articles, and improved ecology control owing to utilization of siloxane solvent harmless for human health and for environment.

23 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: textile industry.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of a cleaning drum for arranging items therein and one or several tanks containing siloxane solvent. The pump for putting items into the drum filled with siloxane solvent is connected between the tank and the cleaning drum. Distiller is used for distilling dirty siloxane solvent in order to reduce clean siloxane solvent. Condenser is connected to the cleaning drum and/or the distiller in order to reduce condensed vapours. For draining all the water from siloxane solvent coming from the condenser, a separator is connected to the condenser. To the cleaning drum there connected is the fan providing air circulation along the condenser, heating coils, and to the cleaning drum for drying and cooling items.

EFFECT: developing the installation for dry chemical cleaning of items by using siloxane solvent, which provides effective cleaning of items by means of the method that is safe for people's health and environment.

32 cl, 4 dwg

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