The composition of the material of the storage device, the manufacturing method, the non-volatile memory device, method of manufacture, method of memorization and reproduction of two independent bits of binary data in one memory cell of the nonvolatile storage device

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the production of memory devices. Proposed composition of materials having ferromagnetic, piezoelectric and electro-optical properties. In a preferred embodiment, the composition of the materials (310, 350) contains the first layer Pbi-x-yCdxSiythe second layer Sei-zSzand the third layer of Fe(i-w)Crwwhere x, y, z, and w values are in the range of 0.09 x 0,11; 0,09 - y 0,11; 0,09 z of 0.11 and 0.18 w 0,30. In addition, each of the layers contains at least one of the elements Ag, Bi, O, and N. Also offered, nonvolatile random access, built using the proposed composition of the materials. This storage device is for storing two independent bits of binary information in one memory cell. Each cell contains two orthogonal address bus formed on opposite surfaces of a silicon substrate, and each of the address buses (340 and 320) formed the composition of the materials corresponding to the present invention, and over all composition materials of the formed electrode. Data are stored by electromagnetic means and the low power consumption. 6 S. p. and 69 C.p. f-crystals, 12 ill.

Computer technology requires a mass storage device with a large capacity and high performance. Typically, in a modern computer is used semiconductor memory as fast primary memory and magnetic disks as secondary memory of large capacity.

Prior to the development of semiconductor memory devices, high-speed primary memory created using memory on magnetic cores. Memory on magnetic cores contains a matrix ring-shaped ferromagnetic cores. Each memory cell on the magnetic core includes a ferromagnetic core having two or more wires passing through the center of the core, and the winding reader installed around the core.

When a wire, which passes through the core, serves current I, the induced magnetic field having the intensity H of the magnetic field, which is a function of the current I. the Magnetic field, the induced current causes the permanent magnetization of the core, which is determined by the magnetic induction B. the Relationship between B and H has significant hysteresis, resulting schedule for the about the merits of the square.

Magnetic induction B in the core has two state - Brand-Brthat correspond to opposite directions of the magnetic field. Therefore, each core can remember bits of binary data, linking one state to "1" and the other state is "0". As an example, the condition a +B can be associated with a binary one, and the condition Brwith a binary zero.

Binary data is written in the memory cell magnetic cores, applying appropriate currents on the wires. If the total current passing through the core is greater than the critical current Iwith, the magnetic induction of the core changes the state from-Br+Br. Similarly, if the current is less than - Ic, magnetic induction switches with a +Bron-Br. Mainly in the matrix of magnetic cores switching occurs as a result of coincidence of signals in two or more wires. Thus, if the magnetic induction originally had the value B corresponding to "0", a binary one remembers, applying the current I > Ic/2 to each of the two wires, so that the total current passing through the core, more than +Icthat causes the magnetic flux to change its value roemoe switching between the two magnetic States, above. The polarity of the induced voltage indicates the magnetic state of the core before switching.

Although the memory on magnetic cores mentioned above, memory is random access and non-volatile memory devices of this type are large, consume large amounts of energy, working with small performance and cannot be produced so that they had a greater density of information. To overcome these problems, have been developed storage devices on thin magnetic films. A storage device for thin magnetic films consists of a strip of thin ferromagnetic films, two or more wires for recording data is formed on the film, and winding around the film to read the data.

In the storage device on the thin film magnetic moment M of the film displays the memorized information. First, the magnetic moment M is oriented in the film plane and has two discrete orientations or two States M and M, which represent a binary one and zero. To remember bits of binary data, serves the currents on the wire, is made on a thin film. These currents induce a magnetic field that is sufficient and determining the induced voltage in the winding. As in the storage device on the magnetic cores, the currents are usually chosen so that the individual current has insufficient amplitude to change the magnetic moment of the film, so for storing data necessary for at least two matching current.

With the technology of storage devices on thin films involve serious disadvantages. First, the device thin films have a structure that is open to the magnetic flux, and therefore hysteresis loop have blurred due to the effect of Samarasinghe. To offset this effect, the film is usually made of rectangular, having a length much more than its width. Since the induced voltage in the winding around the film is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the film, the decrease of the film thickness also reduces the induced voltage. As a result, the signal read adversely affected by noise.

Secondly, the existing magnetic tapes magnetic moment has a preferred direction in the plane. Thus, the device is complicated due to the need of currents of different amplitude for storing and searching data in the selected orientations. In addition, the device thin films insufficient the disabilities on magnetic cores and thin films of a semiconductor storage device has a higher performance, consumes less power and can have a much greater density of information. For typical semiconductor memory devices include dynamic storage device, random access (ZUPU), a static storage device, random access (STOPV) and permanent memory (ROM).

ZUPU allows to obtain relatively high performance, high density, low power consumption and provides the opportunity to both read and write information. Nevertheless, ZUPU, and STOPV volatile, i.e., lose stored information when disconnecting the power. In addition, ZUPU requires constant updating of stored data, resulting in the need for complex circuits. Although STOPV and does not require updating the data, it suffers from high power consumption and does not have a high density of information.

ROM is nonvolatile, but stored in the device information cannot be updated, i.e., cannot easily write data in ROM.

In a typical storage system on magnetic disks ferromagnetic material having essentially a square hysteresis loop, n is rochade past the head. The disk is divided into circular tracks. Each track, in addition, divided into small areas in which the magnetic moment has two States representing binary values. The external magnetic field produced by the write head the read/modifies the magnetic moment in each small area to remember some binary value in this field. Thus, to write data, the magnetic head magnetizes the adjacent region of material of a rotating disk. The stored data is read in the form of a voltage induced in the head of the magnetic moment of a small area when it passes by the head.

Storage system on magnetic disks can memorize large amounts of data, such as 500 megabytes or more. However, the storage system on magnetic disks systems are not a random sample, work with a low speed in response to needs in the mechanical movement and require mechanical and electronic assemblies.

As should be obvious, none of the above technologies storage devices does not provide all distinctive characteristics that are desirable in the system storage devices. Thus, currently available for sampling, static, have the ability to update the data storage system.

A brief statement of the substance of the invention

The present invention relates to a new composition of materials, which has ferromagnetic, piezoelectric and electro-optical properties and can be used as a storage medium. This invention relates to non-volatile memory device is a random access based on the proposed composition of the materials. Also proposes a method of memorization and reproduction of two independent bits of information in one memory cell corresponding to the present invention.

In a preferred embodiment, the compositions of the materials contains layers Pb(1-x-y)CdxSiySe(1-z)Szand Fe(1-w)Crwwhere x, y, w and z denote the proportions of the elements in the respective layers. These values are preferably in the following range: 0,09 x 0,11; 0,09 y 0,11; 0,09 z 0,11; and 0,22 0,26 w. In a preferred embodiment, the layers of the composition of the materials may also contain the following elements: Bi, Ag, O, and N. These elements can be added by electrolysis in a solution containing Bi2O3and AgNO3.

etivoprosy sides of a flat substrate. Layers of a new composition of materials, as described above, are located on both sides of the substrate above the address buses, and outer layers are FeCr, and to the outer layer FeCr on each side of the substrate connected to the electrode. At each point of intersection of the address buses of the two groups is a separate memory cell.

Applying an appropriate current pulses to the two address buses, it is possible to realize a magnetic memorizing two independent bits of information in one memory cell. This information is reproduced in the form of a piezoelectric voltage between the electrodes, which is generated in response to an appropriate current pulses applied to the two address buses.

In particular, to remember and to reproduce the first data bit in the memory cell is served by two orthogonal address bus two synchronized current pulse having the same amplitude and polarity. The second bit memorize and reproduce in this memory cell, served by the same two address bus two synchronized pulse of the same amplitude but opposite polarity. The current pulses used for storing binary information, such that the amplitude of one pulse is insufficient to change the state Zapovednik is going to play the stored binary information, have an amplitude insufficient to change the stored information.

Such non-volatile memory cell, provides a random sample is static, works with high performance, consumes less energy, is adapted to read and write and can be element of the matrix with high density recording of information.

These and other technical challenges, features and advantages of the invention describes in more detail below in the detailed description.

The invention is illustrated in the drawings, which depict:

In Fig. 1 is a cross - section of the preferred option the proposed composition of the materials;

In Fig. 2 is a magnetization curve (hysteresis loop) of conventional ferromagnetic material;

In Fig. 3 is essentially a square hysteresis loop proposed composition of the materials;

In Fig. 4(a)-(j) - the process of generating piezoelectric voltage in the composition of the materials;

In Fig. 5(a) and (b) is a cross section and top view of the preferred option the proposed storage device;

In Fig. 6(a) and (b) the selection process media in a storage device;

In Fig. 7(a) and (b) - storing the first bit of the information;

In Fig. 9(a)and (b) - storing the second bit information in the storage device;

In Fig. 10 - current pulses used to play the second bit of information stored in the storage device, and a corresponding output signal;

In Fig. 11 - consolidated list of preferred ways of remembering and reproducing information from a storage device;

In Fig. 12(a) and (b) the dependence of the electric current from the technological time in the electrolysis process, used as a stage of manufacture of the composition of materials.

Detailed description

The present invention relates to the composition of materials having ferromagnetic, electro-optical and piezoelectric properties. Also proposed, nonvolatile random access, which used the proposed composition of the materials. Preferably, the storage device can remember two independent bits of information.

The preferred composition of the materials contains layers: Pb(1-x-y)CdxSiySe(1-z)Szand Fe(1-w)Crw. The value of x, y, z and w are preferably in the range of 0.09 x 0,11; 0,09 y 0,11; 0,09 z 0,11; and 0

In addition, in the layer Pb(1-x-y)CdxSiyyou can use Ge instead of Si and/or Zn, or Those can be used instead of Pb. In addition, other conductive elements such as Au, Pt or cu, can be introduced into the layer structure instead of Ag. The invention can also be carried out using such concentration of Cr in Fe(1-w)Crwthat is in the range 0,18 - 0,30.

In particular, as shown in Fig. 1, the preferred option proposed composition of materials contains layer 110 Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10the layer 120 Se0,90S0,10and layer 130 Fe0,76Cr0,24. A layer of Fe0,76Cr0,24mainly responsible for the ferromagnetic properties of composition materials and layers Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10and Se0,90S0,10mainly responsible for its electro-optical properties. All these three layers have piezoelectric properties.

In the devices described below, these layers are sequentially formed on the substrate 100, and each layer of Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10Se0,90S0,10and Fe0,76Cr0,24has a thickness of 0.5 micron.

The physical properties of the proposed composition of the materials described below. Understanding these properties will help to understand the work remember is, what ferromagnetic material has a constant magnetic field in the absence of an external magnetic field. Such materials can be described by presenting them in the form of a large number of small magnets, known as magnetic dipoles. An external magnetic field applied to the ferromagnetic material, orients the magnetic dipoles within the material in the direction of the applied field, so that the total magnetic field in the material is the sum of the external field and the field generated by the oriented magnetic dipoles. When the influence of an external magnetic field is interrupted, the orientation of the magnetic dipoles is not changed, resulting in the material has a permanent magnetic field. This property of ferromagnetic materials based magnetic storage of data.

In Fig. 2 depicts an exemplary magnetization curve of a typical ferromagnetic material. The curve of magnetization is also known as a hysteresis loop in the coordinates of B-H. the y-Axis in this drawing displays the axis of the magnetic induction B, which characterizes all of the magnetic field in the material, and the x-axis shows the intensity H of the external magnetic field. Thus, the hysteresis loop in the coordinates of the B-H displays the change masterasia, is depicted in Fig. 2 more. Assume that the first orientation of the magnetic dipoles of ferromagnetic material aimed ordered in all directions, and the total value of B in the absence of an external magnetic field is zero (point "a" on the curve). When the ferromagnetic material is applied an external magnetic field, the magnitude of B increases gradually with increasing H until, until you reach the point at which the magnetic induction B gets filled (point "b" on the curve). In other words, when H reaches a certain value, B remains essentially at the level of B0even if H increases. If after saturation of the external magnetic field is reduced to H=0, the induction B of the magnetic field is not returned to the point a (B=0). Instead, the value of B remains approximately at the level of B=B0(point "c" on the curve).

At point "c" direction of the external magnetic field H is changed to the opposite. At about H=-Hcthe external magnetic field changes the polarity of the field B, and the point "e" field is saturated with opposite polarity B=-B0.

The increase in the strength of the H field causes a change in B from point "e" on the curve to point "b", as shown in Fig. 2.

In Fig. 3 imaging of the magnetic field, and the y - axis magnetic induction B. it is Important to note that the proposed composition of the materials, the shape of the hysteresis loop is essentially square with the angle between the y axis and the hysteresis loop for the case B=0 is less than 1o. Since the magnetization curve is essentially square, magnetic induction B is almost invariably in one of two discrete stable States: a +B0or-B0. Therefore, a new composition of materials suitable for storing binary information.

The proposed composition of the materials also has piezoelectric properties. Generally speaking, if the mechanical pressure on the piezoelectric material is reduced is generated piezoelectric voltage. In the present invention, if the mechanical pressure on the composite material decreases in a direction essentially perpendicular to the plane of the layers in the composition of the materials generated piezoelectric voltage across the layers. In the present invention the change in the mechanical stress is due to a change in the magnetic state of the composition of materials.

Approximate structure having piezoelectric properties and the corresponding present invention, depicted in Phi is holding two layers of the proposed composition of the materials. In particular, the structure contains a first layer 200 FeCr, the first layer 210 SeS, the first layer 220 PbCdSi, the second layer 230 PbCdSi, the second layer SeS 240 and second layer 250 FeCr. In addition, through the middle of the structure passes the wire 260, parallel to the layers.

As shown in Fig.4(b), the electric current fed to the wire 260 in the direction of "page", generates essentially circular magnetic field, indicated by the circle Brin a counterclockwise direction, as shown by the arrow. Arrow 270 show the direction of the magnetic dipoles in the layers 200, 250 FeCr under the influence of an external field. If we divide the structure into two areas 275, 280, which are symmetrical relative to the vertical axis 265, perpendicular to the wire 260, as shown in Fig. 4(b), the location of the dipoles on the sections 275, 280 will be equivalent to two magnets of the same strength, with the North and South poles, indicated by arrows 282 and 284 in Fig. 4(c). The length of each arrow shows the amplitude of the magnetic induction B of the corresponding magnet. Because of the attraction between the South pole S and a North N of each magnet, a medium that mechanically compressed in the direction perpendicular to the layer structure.

Hysteresis loop of the magnetic induction Brand is to maintain a stable magnetic state of a +B0and-B0.

In addition, the magnetic field has a critical magnetic intensity Hc, which is defined as the amplitude of the magnetic field, which causes a switch between the +B0and-B0. Therefore, if H more Hc, magnetic induction Brwill have a value of +B0. If H is less than HcBrwill have a value of B0.

Suppose, first, under the influence of the applied external magnetic field state is described by the point "a" on the curve depicted in Fig. 4(d), where the induction is equal to +B0. To change the magnetic state of the storage environment with a +B0on-B0, it is necessary to reduce the current flowing through the wire 260 to reduce the intensity H of the magnetic field. When the current is zero, the magnetic intensity H is also equal to zero (point b on the hysteresis loop). As already mentioned, due to its ferromagnetic properties, even without an external magnetic field condition storage environment remains at the level of B0, i.e. the information of the magnetic induction B0is retained.

When the direction of the current is changed to the opposite magnetic field strength continues to decline. At point "c" the magician the AK is shown in Fig. 4(e), due to the fact that the dipoles begin to shift in the opposite direction. Therefore, the mechanical pressure on the layers caused by the pulling of the layers 200, 250 FeC reduced. Changing the pressure on the layers generates a piezoelectric voltage that is perpendicular to the layers and directed across layers. At point d, where H=-Hcand the magnetic induction B is equal to zero, the pressure applied to the layers, is minimal, because the dipoles are oriented in different directions. At this point induced piezoelectric voltage reaches its maximum value due to the maximum pressure change on the layers.

Since H continues to decrease to below-Hc, magnetic state switches from point "d" to point "e" and then to point "f" where it reaches a second steady state B=-B0. In Fig. 4(f) shows that at point "f" pole magnets are reversed. Therefore, at point "f" mechanical pressure on the layer returns to its original size, reducing the piezoelectric voltage. The increase in passing in the opposite direction of the current in the future (on the segment from point f to point g) must not increase the amplitude of the dipole moment and thus the mechanical stress, which corresponds to the different currents of the hysteresis loop shown in Fig. 4(d), when changing the induction of B0up-B0. In Fig. 4(h) illustrates the change with time of the piezoelectric voltage generated in response to the current pulse. The piezoelectric voltage is a pulse piezoelectric voltage, which is delayed from the moment of submission of the current pulse. The current pulse fed to the wire, has an amplitude of-I, which is sufficient to switch from a condition of B0in the condition B0.

Similarly, the switching of the magnetic state-B0in the magnetic state of a +B0generates a pulse of negative piezoelectric voltage.

As shown in Fig. 4(d), for switching from one magnetic state to another requires a current, which generates a field having an amplitude of more Hc. However, if you apply a current having an amplitude less than that which causes a change in B to the value indicated by point "c" in Fig. 4(e), the magnetic state is unstable. In this case, the magnetic induction B is prone to fluctuations between the values of B0(point "b") and Bc(point "c"). In Fig. 4(i) shows the pulse piezoelectric voltage is of less than the amplitude of the pulse generated by the switching of the state of the +B0in the condition B0(Fig. 4(g)).

In Fig. 4(j) shows the pulse current I, which causes B to be set to Bc. Piezoelectric pulse generated in response to this current, depicted in the lower part of the drawing. The shaded area reflects the oscillations between the two States (Bcand a +B0), which can be observed on the oscilloscope. As described below, the piezoelectric voltage generated in response to the current, which outraged magnetic state, but does not cause switching of the magnetic state can be used for reading information stored magnetically.

In Fig. 5(a) illustrates the cross-section (not to scale) and a top view of the preferred option part of the storage device 290 corresponding to the present invention. The storage device contains a silicon planar substrate 330, on one surface of which is formed the first address bus 320, and on the opposite surface of the substrate, the second address bus 340 orthogonal to the first address bus. The first group 310 and the second group 320 layers of materials that meet nastasemarian to the layers 310, 350, respectively, of the composition of materials.

First and second address buses are the silver strip with a thickness of approximately 1 μm. As an example, note that the interval between two adjacent address buses is approximately 9 to 20 μm, depending on the desired density of information in the storage device. For example, in one embodiment, the amount equal to 9.5 μm, and in another embodiment, this interval is equal to 19 μm. Each group of layers of materials 310, 350 contains a layer of Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10layer Se0,90S0,10and a layer of Fe0,76Cr0,24formed sequentially over one of the groups of address buses 320, 340 on a silicon substrate, and the outer layers are FeCr. In addition, each layer preferably has a thickness of 0.5 μm, so that each group preferably has a thickness of 1.5 μm. Each layer uniformly saturated Bi, Ag, O, and N. Preferably, the substrate has a thickness of 40 μm, and the electrodes are layers of silver with a thickness of 1 μm.

The manufacturer of this device begins with the deposition of the layers of metal (preferably silver) with a thickness of 1 μm on a flat silicon substrate thickness of 40 μm. As an alternative you can use is to use other substrate of an insulating material. The deposition is conducted in the usual way, such as thermal evaporation in vacuum, electron beam deposition or sputtering. Then besieged layers of silver is applied to the pattern by photolithography and tell these layers with the formation of a number of metal strips, each of which has a thickness of 2 μm. The number of stripes on one side of the silicon substrate orthogonal to the strips on the opposite side. Stripes on both sides of the substrate form an overlapping structure.

Subsequently precipitated layers Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10Se0,90S0,10and Fe0,76Cr0,24. Before the deposition is prepared, the components of the layers, blending the appropriate amount of powder each required element. The amount of powder each element corresponds to a desired proportion of this element in the corresponding layer. For example, for the deposition of a layer of Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10powders of Pb, Cd and Si are mixed, the mixture is pressed and molded with the formation of suitable source materials for the chosen deposition method. Sources of materials for the deposition of layers Se0,90S0,10and Fe0,76Cr0,24prepared in a similar manner.

Subsequently precipitated layers Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10diversified ways. For example, in the preferred embodiment, using the method of plasma spraying to create a layered structure. After deposition of each layer by the deposition temperature of the layer quickly (i.e., for a period of approximately 1.5 seconds) rises to a value of approximately 500oC, and then is lowered to about room temperature for deposition of the next sdoa. Typically, the sputtering is carried out in vacuum using Ar gas. As described above, each of the layers Pb0,80Cd0,10Si0,10Se0,90S0,10and Fe0,76Cr0,24have a thickness of approximately 0.5 μm, forming two structures with a thickness of approximately 1.5 μm each on the opposite surfaces of the substrate, and the outer are two layers of FeCr.

Then in the layers enter the elements Bi, Ag, O and by the process of electrolysis, which uses the heated electrolyte containing Bi2O3and AgNO3. The electrolyte is prepared by heating the high purity water to 97oC in the stainless steel container with a mixing device located at the bottom of the container. Then add the powders of Bi2O3and AgNO3in heated water to obtain an electrolyte. Preferably, the electrolyte was saturated AgNO3. Preferably the proportion by weight is to understand to achieve the desired current in the electrolyte. After adding powders of electrolyte support at a temperature of 97oC and continuously stirred. Preferably, a lot of substrates to simultaneously immerse in a solution in which carry out the electrolysis. For example, you can process 100 substrates with a size of 1 cm x 1 cm In this case, the metal bands of all substrates should be connected to a single electrode.

The entire process of electrolysis takes 45 days. Every day repeats the same cycle. In the first 10 hours of the cycle is applied an electric potential of +60V to substrates, and in the next 14 hours spare capacity-60V to substrates. The stainless steel container is always kept at zero potential. In addition, every 12 hours of electrolysis process provisions of the substrates in the container is changed, in order to ensure uniform processing. Throughout the process, the electrolyte is continuously stirred.

During the process of monitoring the amplitude of the current flowing in the electrolyte solution. In Fig. 12(a) shows the current I (in amperes) in the electrolyte during the first forty days of the process. The day is indicated along the horizontal axis "t". In Fig. 12(b) displays the magnitude of the od cut off from the substrate, and the substrate is removed from the electrolyte solution. At this point, the ions of the above elements have penetrated into the layered structure. Note that in another embodiment, it is possible to apply the methods of ion implantation for introducing these elements in a layered structure.

Then the composition of materials on both sides of the substrate is polished to until the surface becomes essentially smooth. After that, the surfaces of each substrate precipitated the silver layer with a thickness of about 1 μm to form the electrodes 300, 360.

Upon completion of this procedure, a new two-dimensional matrix of memory devices are ready. The area around each intersection of the orthogonal address buses 320, 340 represents a memory cell.

In particular, as shown in Fig. 5(a) and (b), the group of metal strips on the bottom surface of the silicon substrate forms a first group of address buses (designated as X bus), and the group of metal strips on the top surface of the substrate forms a second group of address buses (designated as bus Y). When two electric current Iiand Ijsimultaneously served on a given bus Xityres X and bus YjShin Y, respectively, is selected storage is s Iiand Ijyou can remember or reproduce information from a storage device (ij). Thus, the matrix of memory devices of the present invention is a matrix with random access.

The method of storing information in the cell will be apparent from Fig.6(a), 6(b), 7(a), 7(b), 8(a), 8(b), 9(a) and 9(b), 10 and 11. Fig.6(a) and (b) show the views from the top of one cell of the storage device.

Orthogonal address bus 325, 345 divide the cell into four quarters 370, 375, 380 and 385, as shown in Fig.6(a). As discussed below, the first bit of information is stored magnetically in the quarters 370 and 380, and the second bit of information is stored magnetically in the quarters 375 and 385. For simplicity quarter 370 and 380, where remembered the first bit of information, collectively referred to as the carrier "a", and a quarter of 375 and 385, remember where the second bit is called the carrier "b".

To remember bits of information in one of two media storage device, serves two electric current having a given amplitude and polarity at the first and second address bus 325, 345. Information reproduced from one of the two carriers, feeding two electric current on the address bus and measuring pletal the address bus, presents as Iiand current, submitted to the second address bus, represented as Ij. Directions Iiand Ijarrows included in the address bus. In a preferred embodiment, the currents Iiand Ijhave the same amplitude of I0. Each induced current generates a circular magnetic field around the address buses, as shown by arrows 390 and 395.

Direction of magnetic field Biand Bjinduced current Iiand Ijin each quarter, as shown in Fig.6(a) and 6(b). Dot () indicates that the field has the direction "up", and x means that the field is directed in the opposite direction or "down".

As shown in Fig.6(a), in the quarters and 375 385 (carrier "b") Biand Bjhave opposite directions and thus are mutually exclusive. For this reason, the currents shown in Fig.6(a), does not affect the information stored in the carrier "b". On the other hand, in the quarters 370 and 380 (carrier a) field Biand Bjinduced in the same direction. Therefore, these fields reinforce each other and, therefore, can change the stored information.

Thus, two current having the same polarity and amplitude and PEL. Similarly, two negative pulse can also choose and can save the data in the carrier "a". Note also that the amplitude of the currents, which choose the carrier "a" should not necessarily be equal, provided that their combined effect does not change the magnetic state in the carrier "b".

In Fig.6(b) illustrates the process of selecting the carrier "b". Two current having the opposite polarity: Ii= +I0and Ij= -I0serving respectively to the first and second address bus. As shown by the above mentioned signs dots and crosses in the media, "a", the fields generated by these currents are mutually exclusive, without affecting the magnetic state. However, in carrier "b" fields generated by these currents, reinforce each other, so that the selected carrier "b".

Similarly, two current Ii= -I0and Ij= +I0two address buses also choose the carrier "b". Thus, two current of the same amplitude, but opposite polarity, choose the carrier "b" to remember or reproduce information.

To remember information, the amplitudes of the two currents, acting together, should be sufficiently large to switch namag is existing together, should be small enough that a single shock itself could not change the magnetic state of the medium. This is necessary to ensure that only one carrier in the matrix of storage devices selected by the signal on the address bus.

To reproduce information, the amplitudes of the two currents, acting together, should be small enough induced field was not strong enough to change the magnetic state of the medium. However, the folded amplitude must be large enough to perturb the magnetic carrier status and consequently to generate a piezoelectric voltage across the storage environment. As mentioned above, the direction of this piezoelectric voltage displays the binary data stored in the media.

As an example in Fig.7(a) shows the method of recording binary units in the carrier "a" with simultaneous current pulses on the two address buses. First, all memory cells are assumed to be located in the zero state, which corresponds to the magnetic induction is B0. To write a binary one, two synchronized pulse current Ii= +20 µa and Ij= +20 µa served on two of the address bus, respectively. percentage induction of Bathese layers are shown in Fig.7(a) in the form of a closed loop arrow. For the structure shown in Fig.5 and having the above dimensions, the amplitude of the current Icnecessary to generate the critical tension Hcthe field required to switch between two discrete States, approximately 35 µa. In the cell, in which two pulse are the same, two of the current value of +20 μa create a field H, which otherwise could be generated, giving a current of 40 µa. Because the more current Ic, magnetic induction is equal to B0so remember a binary unit. As previously explained, after the passage of pulses of the magnetic induction in the cell Baremains equal to B0so in the carrier "a" is stored binary one.

As shown in Fig.7(b) to store a binary zero in the carrier "a", two synchronized pulse current Ii= -20 µa and Ij= -20 μa is applied to the two address buses, respectively. Since the sum of these currents is 40 μa, which is less than I, the current pulses switch the magnetic state with a +B0on-B0.

Switching between the +B0and-B0generates a pulse pied is and. Piezoelectric pulse is positive to switch between the +B0on-B0and negative for switching C-B0+B0. If the magnetic state is not changed, the piezoelectric pulse is not generated. So the generated pulses piezoelectric voltage can be used to ensure that bits of binary data stored.

To read the information stored in the media a" memory, two synchronized pulse current, Ii= -15 μa and Ij= -15 µa served on two of the address bus. Since the critical current Ic= -35 μa, the sum -30 µa these currents will not switch the magnetic state of the +B0in-B0. However, this current is sufficient to perturbations of the magnetic state without making the switch. As shown in Fig.8(a), assuming that the media stored binary unit filed a current pulse change Bafrom the value corresponding to this point as "a" on the curve of the magnetization to a value corresponding to the point "b" on the curve. Due to the presence discussed previously, the piezoelectric properties of the cell, the change of the magnetic induction generates positive piezoelectric voltage of preamps filed current will change Bafrom the value corresponding to the point "c" to the value corresponding to point "b" on the curve. However, in this case, the magnetic induction of the carrier "a" remains at the level of Ba= -B0so that the piezoelectric voltage is not guaranteed, indicating that the stored zero. The information stored in the device, does not change during the read process, since I is less than Ic.

This process of reproduction data in time illustrated in Fig. 8(b). The delay between the pulse piezoelectric voltage and synchronized current pulses is about 0.75 NS.

Memorization and reproduction of data in the case of carrier "b" is similar. As shown in Fig.9(a), two synchronized pulse current Ii= -20 µa and Ij= -20 μa is applied to the address bus, to remember the unit in carrier "b". As indicated above, these pulses do not affect the carrier "a". When the pulses overlap, the induced field, which is equivalent to the field induced by a current of 40 µa. Because the more current Ic= 35 µa, in carrier "b" is stored unit. As shown in Fig. 10, the pulse current Ii= +20 µa and Ij= -20 µa applied to memorize the zero carrier "b".

Data stored in carrier "b", plays the same manner described in connection with the carrier "a". As shown in Fig.10, in order to reproduce data stored in carrier "b", serves two synchronized pulse current Ii= +15 μa and Ij= -15 μa. Folded amplitude of these pulses do not give a value large enough to switch the magnetic state in the carrier "b". If the stored zero, the current pulses should not change the magnetic induction B0carrier "b", and the piezoelectric voltage between the electrodes is not guaranteed. If the stored unit, the applied voltage must perturb the magnetic condition of B0= B0but should not modify it, generating a pulse of positive piezoelectric voltage after a delay time t. Thus, for the carrier "b" the absence of the pulse piezoelectric voltage means that the stored zero and positive piezoelectric voltage means that the stored unit.

In Fig. 11 displays Ista.

You can also apply other methods of memorization and reproduction of information from the proposed storage device. For example, two synchronized current Ii= +15 μa and Ij= +15 μa can be used to play media from the media "a". Similarly, two synchronized current Ii= -15 μa and Ij= +15 μa can be used to reproduce data from the carrier "b". You can also use the method of reading with erasing information. For example, you submit two synchronized pulse current, Ii= +20 µa and Ij= +20 μa, which record unit in the carrier "a", and the piezoelectric voltage generated in response to these pulses, must identify the stored data, thereby performing reproduction of data from carrier "a" with erasing.

One of the advantages of the proposed storage device is its low power consumption in comparison with the known non-volatile magnetic storage devices. As a medium used in this device is very sensitive to the magnetic field generated by the driving currents, it can quickly switch between States of zero and units is upominanii and playing a little. In one embodiment, the device consumes approximately 3,410-10W to read and 610-10W memorizing bits of data.

We also note that the playback information in the form of a piezoelectric voltage generated between the sensing electrodes is substantially faster than the generation of induced electromagnetic voltage, as in the known magnetic storage devices.

Usually a delay between the current pulse and the corresponding piezoelectric voltage is in the range of subnanosecond. The switching of the state of the unit in the condition of zero usually takes a few nanoseconds.

Thus, the described storage device that is a device with random access, non-volatile and working in static mode. This storage device allows to work with high performance, low power consumption and can memorize information with high density placement.

Below is the claims, which should be regarded as covering all equivalent structures and methods. Thus, the scope of the invention is not limited to the above exemplary Oy layer of material M(1-x-y)CdxRywhere M is an element selected from the group consisting of Pb, Zn and Te, and R is an element selected from the group consisting of Si and Ge, and x-and y - values in the range 0 x 0, 1, 0 y 1, and 0 (x + y) 1; the second layer Se(1-z)Szformed on the first layer, and the z - value in the range 0 z 1; and a third layer of Fe(1-w)Crwformed on the second layer, and w is a value in the range 0 w 1.

2. The composition of the materials under item 1, wherein the first layer includes at least one of the following elements: Bi, O, N, and an element selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Pt and Cu.

3. The composition of the materials under item 2, wherein the second layer includes at least one of the following elements: Bi, O, N, and an element selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Pt and Cu.

4. The composition of the materials under item 3, wherein the third layer includes at least one of the following elements: Bi, O, N, and an element selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Pt and Cr.

5. The composition of the materials under item 1, characterized in that the value of x is in the range of 0.09 x 0,11.

6. The composition of the materials under item 5, is distinguished by the fact that what is the value of z is in the range of 0.09 z 0,11.

8. The composition of the materials under item 7, characterized in that the value of w is in the range of 0.18 w 0,30.

9. The composition of the materials under item 8, characterized in that the value of w is in the range of 0.26 0.22 w.

10. The composition of the materials under item 1, characterized in that the value of x is essentially equal to 0.10.

11. The composition of the materials under item 10, characterized in that the value of y is essentially equal to 0.10.

12. The composition of the materials on p. 11, characterized in that the value of z is essentially equal to 0.10.

13. The composition of the materials under item 12, characterized in that the value of w is essentially equal to 0.24.

14. The composition of the materials under item 13, wherein the first layer essentially has a thickness of 0.5 micron.

15. The composition of the materials under item 14, characterized in that the second layer essentially has a thickness of 0.5 micron.

16. The composition of the materials under item 15, wherein the third layer essentially has a thickness of 0.5 micron.

17. A method of manufacturing a composition of materials having ferromagnetic, electro-optical and piezoelectric properties, providing for the formation of the first layer of material having a composition of M(1- (1-z)Szon the first layer, and the z - value in the range 0 z 1; and forming a third layer of Fe(1-w)Crwon the second layer, and w is a value in the range 0 w 1.

18. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that it further includes the introduction of at least one of the elements: Bi, O, N, and an element selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Pt and Cu, in the first, second and third layers.

19. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that it further includes adding at least one element of Bi, O, N or Ag in the first, second and third layers.

20. The method according to p. 19, characterized in that the introduction of at least one element of Bi, O, N, Ag includes immersion of the composition of materials in the electrolyte containing Bi2O3and AgNo3and carrying out electrolysis.

21. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the electrolyte is saturated AgNO3.

22. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that it further includes a continuous mixing of the electrolyte.

23. The method according to p. 22, characterized in that Ni is et maintaining the electrolyte at a temperature essentially equal to 97o.

25. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that it further includes the application of a negative electric potential to the composition of the materials relative to the electrolyte.

26. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that it further includes alternating the application of positive and negative electrical potentials to the composition of the materials relative to the electrolyte.

27. The method according to p. 26, characterized in that within 24 h negative potential is applied mainly for 14 h, and a positive potential is applied mainly during the 10 o'clock

28. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the electrolysis is carried out mainly for 45 days.

29. The method according to p. 17, wherein the value x is in the range of 0.09 x 0,11.

30. The method according to p. 29, wherein the value y is in the range of 0.09 y 0,11.

31. The method according to p. 30, characterized in that the value of z is in the range of 0.09 z 0,11.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that the value of w is in the range of 0.26 0.22 w.

33. The method according to p. 17, characterized in that the value of x is essentially equal to 0.10.

34. The method according to p. 33, characterized in that the values of the ptx2">

36. The method according to p. 35, characterized in that the value of w is essentially equal to 0.24.

37. Nonvolatile random sample containing a substrate having first and second surfaces; a first address bus formed on the first surface of the substrate; a second address bus formed on the second surface of the substrate; a first composite material having ferromagnetic and piezoelectric properties, is formed on the first address bus and the first surface of the substrate, and a second composite material having ferromagnetic and piezoelectric properties, is formed on the second address bus and the second surface of the substrate.

38. The device according to p. 37, characterized in that the second address bus is essentially orthogonal to the first address bus.

39. The device according to p. 37, characterized in that it further comprises a first electrode formed on the first composition material, and a second electrode formed on the second composition materials.

40. The device according to p. 37, characterized in that the first and second compositions of the materials are essentially identical.

41. The device according to p. 40, characterized in that the first and watts ferromagnetic properties.

42. The device according to p. 41, wherein each of the first and second compositions of the material layer contains Se(1-z)Szlocated between the layer of M(1-x-y)CdxRywhere M is an element selected from the group consisting of Pb, Zn and Te, and R is an element selected from the group consisting of Si and Ge, and a layer of Fe(1-w)Crwand x, y, z, w values in the range 0 x 1, 0 y 1, and 0 (x + y) 1, 0 z 1 and 0 w 1.

43. The device according to p. 42, characterized in that the layers Pb(1-x-y)CdxSiySe(1-z)Szand Fe(1-w)Crwinclude at least one of the elements: Bi, O, N, and an element selected from the group consisting of Ag, Au, Pt and Cu.

44. The device according to p. 43, wherein x, y, z, w values are in the range of 0.09 x of 0.11, and 0.09 u of 0.11, and 0.09 z of 0.11 and 0.18 w 0,30.

45. The device according to p. 44, wherein w is a value in the range 0,22 0,26 w.

46. The device according to p. 44, wherein the value of x is essentially equal to 0.10, the value at essentially equal to 0.10, the value of z is essentially equal to 0.10 and the value of w is essentially equal to 0.24.

47. The device according to p. 41, characterized in that medievai substrate.

49. The device according to p. 41, wherein the substrate is a substrate of BaF2.

50. The device according to p. 41, characterized in that the first and second address bus is made of conductive material.

51. The device according to p. 50, wherein the conductive material is silver.

52. The device according to p. 51, wherein the address bus are metal bands.

53. A method of manufacturing the non-volatile memory with random access, providing for the formation of the first address bus on the first surface of the substrate; forming a second address bus to the second side of the substrate; forming the first composition of materials on the first address bus and the first surface of the substrate, with the first composite material has ferromagnetic and piezoelectric properties; forming a second composition material on the second address bus and the second surface of the substrate, and the second composite material has ferromagnetic and piezoelectric properties.

54. The method according to p. 53, characterized in that it further includes forming a first electrode on the first song of materials and fora second address bus is essentially orthogonal to the first address bus.

56. The method according to p. 53, wherein forming each of the first and second compositions of materials further includes forming a first layer of material having the composition of the Me(1-x-y)CdxRywhere M is an element selected from the group consisting of Pb, Zn and Te, and R is an element selected from the group consisting of Si and Ge, and a layer of Fe(1-w)Crwand x and y are values in the ranges 0 x 1, 0 y 1, and 0 (x + y) 1; forming the second layer Se(1-z)Szon the first layer, and the z - value in the range 0 z 1, and forming the third layer of Fe(1-w)Crwon the second layer, and w is a value in the range 0 w 1.

57. The method according to p. 56, wherein x, y, z and w are in the ranges of 0.09 x of 0.11, and 0.09 u of 0.11, and 0.09 z 0.11 and 0.22 w 0,26.

58. The method according to p. 57, characterized in that the value of x is essentially equal to 0.10, the value at essentially equal to 0.10, the value of z is essentially equal to 0.10 and the value of w is essentially equal to 0.24.

59. The method according to p. 56, characterized in that the formation of the address buses further includes the deposition of conductive layers on the surface of the substrate and the etching of the conductive layers.

60. How sapitwa random access, with reference to each such cell is performed in the first and second address buses, providing for the supply of two electric currents having the same polarity, the first and second address bus, respectively, for storing the first bit of binary data in the memory cell and supply two electric currents having opposite polarity, the first and second address bus, respectively, for storing the second bit of the binary information in the memory cell.

61. The method according to p. 60, characterized in that the currents supplied to remember the first bit of the data are essentially the same amplitude.

62. The method according to p. 61, characterized in that the currents supplied to remember the second bit of data, have essentially the same amplitude.

63. The method according to p. 62, characterized in that the amplitude of the electric currents supplied to remember the first and second data bits, such that the same current is not enough to change the binary value of the stored data.

64. The method according to p. 63, characterized in that each current supplied to remember the first bit of data is essentially equal to 20 μa.

65. The method according to p. 64, characterized in that each current filed for spoitelna includes identifying the piezoelectric voltage, showing that the binary data stored in the cell.

67. The method according to p. 60, characterized in that the submission of two electric currents for storing the first bit data includes memorizing the first binary value by filing two electric currents, both of which have a first polarity and the same amplitude, the first and second address bus, respectively, and storing the second binary value by filing two electric currents having the second polarity, which is opposite to the first polarity and the same amplitude, the first and second address bus, respectively.

68. The method according to p. 67, characterized in that the two electric current for storing the first bit data is served in the form of two synchronized pulses of electric current having the same polarity.

69. The method according to p. 67, characterized in that the submission of two electric currents for storing second data bits includes memorizing the first binary value by filing two electric currents having first and second polarity and the same amplitude, the first and second address bus, respectively, and storing the second binary value by filing two electric currents,/P> 70. The method according to p. 69, characterized in that the two electric current for storing a second bit of data is served in the form of two synchronized pulses of electric current having the opposite polarity.

71. How to play the first and second independent data bits stored in one memory cell of the nonvolatile storage device, random access, and accessing each cell are carried out by the first and second address buses, providing for the supply of two electric currents having the same polarity, the first and second address buses, respectively, to play the first bit of data, and the amplitude of the currents is essentially the same, and the combined amplitudes of the currents are not sufficient to change the binary value of the stored data, and submission of two electric currents having opposite polarities, the first and second address bus, respectively, to reproduce the second data bit, and the amplitude of the currents is essentially the same, and the combined amplitudes of the currents are not sufficient to change the binary value of the stored data.

72. The method according to p. 71, characterized in that it further includes reading piezoelectric is mplitude two electric currents, filed for playback of the first or second data bits, essentially equal to 15 µa.

74. The method according to p. 72, characterized in that the two electric current serves to play the first bit of data in the form of two synchronized pulses of electric current having the same amplitude and polarity.

75. The method according to p. 74, characterized in that the two electric current serves to play the first bit of data in the form of two synchronized pulses of electric current having the same amplitude and polarity.

 

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