A retaining structure in the form of walls, composite unit masonry and forming a site for the production of composite blocks for masonry

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a retaining structure in the form of walls and to the composite block for the stone masonry retaining structures. An object of the invention is the creation of a retaining structure in the form of a wall of the composite blocks for masonry, having high structural integrity and does not require the use of complex pivotal connection systems and additional fastening means. The unit has front and rear, upper and lower surfaces and first and second lateral sides. Each side plate has first and second recesses extending from the upper surface of the block to its lower surface. The upper surface of the block has at least one protrusion located near the first and second cavities on the upper surface. The block has first and second anchoring legs. The first paw passes from the first side of the block, and the second from its second side. The anchor legs of the block may lie in a plane parallel to its front surface, or to be directed forward, to the front surface. Blocks stacked on top of each other with the formation of the retaining structures with mutual satsignal for the production of composite blocks for masonry retaining structures. Blocks can be stacked with the formation of structures with variable slope. 3 S. and 26 C.p. f-crystals, 1 tab., 18 Il.

The invention generally relates to a retaining structure in the form of walls and to the composite block for the stone masonry retaining structures. In a narrower sense, the invention relates to concrete blocks masonry used for the construction of various retaining structures.

Pocotaligo, protection of natural and artificial structures, the increase in land use are just some of the aims of landscape structures. For example, the soil on the slope often save by growing leafy plants on its surface. The root system of trees, shrubs, grass and other natural vegetation holds the soil and resists wind and water. However, when relying on natural mechanisms is not necessary, often resort to artificial structures such as retaining walls.

In the construction of retaining walls, depending on their purpose can be used in a variety of materials. If the retaining wall is intended for use as part of a support for a highway, it may b the and pocotaligo around residential or office building, can be used a material appropriate to the architectural style of the building, fastening wood or concrete blocks.

All of these materials concrete block has found wide application in the construction of retaining walls, etc., Among others, are used for this purpose blocks, as proposed in U.S. patent for invention N 4802320 and industrial design N 296007.

Known blocks made for stacking with the "ledge" at an angle to counteract the pressure of the soil with the wall. The ledge is usually called the distance that one row of a masonry wall is behind the front surface of the next overlying rows of facing the same wall. If the blocks have the same dimensions, the ledge can also be considered the distance that the rear surface of the overlying row of blocks is relative to the rear surface of the lower row of masonry walls.

Partly there is a need in improvement of facilities such as highways, retaining walls and bridges to ensure maximum use of suitable land and a clear definition of the boundaries of the property. This definition of boundaries is often impossible when using these blocks for masonry, which are intended for the construction of obivok does not provide maximum use of the useful lands either on the top, neither the lower level. Obviously, essentially vertical wall in this case is more appropriate.

However, in such cases, vertical walls may be held in place, keeping the vertical profile, using well-known means, such as rod, ground, traction, and other anchors. Such anchoring device, such as a system of rods, is not only difficult, but often also completely depend only on a single thread or the supporting communication in case razryvov that the structural integrity of the entire wall is broken. The distrust of such complex structures often limit the use of retaining walls ordinary homeowners. Designers of landscapes wherever possible avoid the use of complex systems retaining walls, as the cost of time and money in the construction of these systems do not pay off.

In addition, the use of retaining structures is often desirable in cases where you want a vertical wall, but there is no possibility of using any number of anchoring devices or connections. For example, during the construction of a retaining wall adjacent to the building or other structure is nevozmoznoje propped up deep in the soil to ensure reliable maintenance of the wall. Without fastening devices of this kind per unit area of the front surface of many of the blocks may be too high for use in retaining structures, with virtually vertical profile.

In the application Germany N 9015196 describes the block with two tapered protrusion on the upper surface and the transverse groove on the bottom surface designed to mate with the protrusions of the other blocks.

In U.S. patent N 5044834, CL E 02 D 29/02, 1991, describes a retaining wall containing blocks having top, bottom, front and rear surfaces and first and second lateral sides and connected to each other by means of Z-shaped fastening elements. The units are feet, protruding from the rear side. The construction of retaining structures of these units requires the use of fasteners, complex pivotal connection systems and additional fastening means, such as anchor rods and traction.

Lack of integrity and strength of the structures may also arise from the production technology. Creating blocks that do not require a complex system of rods or other additional means of retention and alignment, but which nevertheless Ave the system of formation of the blocks, described in assigned U.S. patents NN 5062610 and 5249950 included in the present description by reference. Both systems used prior calculation and design for optimum strength of the blocks and, therefore, structures, without the use of auxiliary devices, such as rods, etc., In these patents the proposed form, in which, due to the variable amount of padding, to provide an even pressure distribution.

In the author's certificate of the USSR N 1500005, class E 04 G 9/00, 1986, describes forming a site for the production of concrete blocks containing the base plate of the stripper, having upper and lower surfaces and form. However, the molding concrete blocks through such a molding site does not provide a satisfactory quality of execution elements of a block having a small size and complex shape, such as protrusions, without applying filler to the corresponding surface of the molding node in place of forming these elements.

The present invention is the creation of a retaining structure in the form of the walls of the composite blocks for masonry, having high structural integrity and does not require Another objective of the present invention is a composite unit masonry retaining structures which provides high structural integrity of this building and you are using does not require complex pivotal connection systems and additional fastening means.

In addition, the present invention is the creation of a moulding unit for production of composite blocks for masonry retaining structures, providing a satisfactory quality of execution elements of a block having a small size and complex shape, such as protrusions, without applying filler to the corresponding surface of the molding node in place of forming these elements.

The solution of this problem is provided by creating a retaining structure in the form of a wall containing at least one row that includes at least one composite unit masonry, containing the front surface, rear surface, top and bottom surfaces, first and second sides, the first side plate unit has a first recess extending from the top surface of the block to the bottom surface, the second lateral side of the block has a second recess extending from the top surface of the block to its lower surface is placed with the first or second recess of the block, located in the adjacent row, and the relative rotation of the ledge and it is associated with deepening.

Thus, the presence of the recesses and protrusions on the surfaces of the adjacent blocks, as well as their size and shape allow construction of retaining structures with high structural integrity and does not require the use of complex pivotal connection systems and additional fastening means.

The projection unit, part of the retaining structures may be located near at least one of the recesses of the block, first or second, and the unit may have first and second anchoring legs, with the first paw passes from the first side of the block, and the second paw from the second side of the block, while the front surfaces of the first and second legs of the block can be formed for passage in the direction of the front surface of the block, while the legs are extended from the block.

The front surface of the block, part of the retaining structure may be made essentially flat, polyhedral and convex.

In addition, the protrusion unit, part of the retaining structures may have first and second products is any of the above first and second elongated portions, and the first side surface and second side surface, and the angle of inclination of the second side surface of the protrusion of the block with respect to the vertical may be approximately in the range of 10-25oalso the angle of the first side surface of the protrusion of the block with respect to the vertical may be approximately 5othe angle of inclination of the second side surface of the protrusion of the block with respect to the vertical is approximately 20oand the ledge can bridge the gap between the first and second recesses of the block.

The retaining structure may include at least adjacent the upper and lower row, and blocks at least one row containing indentations, located on the edges of the blocks of the adjacent row.

The retaining structure may include a support matrix, which is located between the blocks of the upper and lower rows and which may contain anchor thrust, located between the blocks of the upper and lower rows, or grid, is also located between the blocks of the upper and lower rows.

The solution of this problem is also provided by creating a composite unit masonry, which has a high mass per unit front surface to the part, the first side plate has a first recess extending from the top surface of the block to the bottom surface, the second side plate has a second recess extending from the top surface of the block to the bottom surface and the top or bottom surface of the block has at least one protrusion configured to engage with the first or second recess of the block, located in the adjacent row, and the relative rotation of the ledge and it is associated with deepening.

Thus, the presence of the recesses and protrusions on the surfaces of the adjacent blocks, as well as their size and shape provide for the construction of retaining structures with high structural integrity and does not require the use of complex pivotal connection systems and additional fastening means.

In addition, due to the high weight per unit area of the front surface of the block can be used for the construction of vertical or terraced walls without the use of pins or other fastening devices.

The protrusion of the composite unit may be located near at least one of these recesses, the first or second, and the unit may contain pervo the side of the block, the front surface of the first and second legs can be formed to pass in the direction of the front surface of the block, while the legs are extended from the block.

The front surface of the composite block can be made essentially flat, polyhedral and convex.

The ledge composite block may have a first and second oblong or circular parts, between which there is a connecting part which width less than the width of any of the first and second elongated portions, and the first side surface and second side surface, and the angle of inclination of the second side surface of the protrusion with respect to the vertical can approximately be in the range of 10-25oalso the angle of the first side surface of the protrusion with respect to the vertical may be approximately 5othe angle of inclination of the second side surface of the protrusion with respect to the vertical is approximately 20oand the ledge of the composite block can bridge the gap between the first and second recesses.

The solution of this problem is provided by the fact that forming the site of production of composite blocks for stone clothest and form has on the lower surface of the plate, at least one recess, and on the upper surface near the notch - at least one heating element.

The presence of heating elements in forming the node through which the heating of certain surfaces site provides quality molding of structural elements of composite unit masonry retaining structures, such as recess or protrusion, or a combination thereof without causing the filler to the base plate of the stripper, but due to the heat. The constructive element of the block thus formed by surface hardening concrete structures near the heating element. This contributes to a constructive element of the block, which not only has attractive appearance but also a high degree of structural integrity.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, in which Fig.1 depicts an axonometric view of a first preferred variant of the proposed unit, Fig. 2 depicts a side view of the block depicted in Fig.1; Fig.3 depicts a top view of the block depicted in Fig.1; Fig.4 depicts an axonometric view of another preferred variant obratnogo in Fig. 4; Fig.7 depicts an axonometric view of a support structure constructed of blocks made according to the first embodiment; Fig.8 depicts a cross-section of 8 - 8 vertical wall shown in Fig.7; Fig. 9 depicts an axonometric view of another version of the execution unit; Fig. 10 depicts an axonometric view of another version of the execution unit; Fig. 11 depicts a top view of the block depicted in Fig.10; Fig.12 depicts a section of the retaining structure, built of blocks depicted in Fig. 9 and 10; Fig.13 depicts a top view of the block corresponding to another preferred variant implementation of the invention; Fig.14 depicts a top view of the block corresponding to another preferred variant implementation of the invention; Fig.15 depicts a side view of the block shown in Fig. 13; Fig.16 depicts an enlarged side view of the block depicted in Fig.15 and shows in detail the ledge 26; Fig. 17A depicts an axonometric view of the base of the stripper and site head part in a disassembled state; Fig. 17B depicts an axonometric view of the molding site with the installation of the heating element on the basis of the stripper; Fig. 18 depicts a diagram of the molding process.

In the drawings, where n is(Fig. 1). The block has a front surface 12 and rear surface 18 connected respectively to the first and second lateral sides 14 and 16, as well as the top 10 and the bottom 8 of the surface adjacent to said surfaces 12 and 18 sides 14 and 16. Each of these sides has a first 22A and second 22B deepening over the entire height of the block from the top 10 to the bottom 8 of the surface. The upper surface 10 of the block may have at least one projection 26. In the preferred embodiment, each protrusion is located on the upper surface 10 of the block near the recesses 22A or 22B.

The rear surface 18 of the block usually contains the first 24A and second 24B anchor legs, with the first paw 24A passes from the first side 14 of the block, and the second claw 24B from the second side 16 of the block, while the front surfaces of both legs formed for passage in the direction of the front surface of the block, while the legs are extended from the block.

The body 5 of the block is intended for podpiranja soil without the use of additional devices such as anchor traction, ground anchors, anchor grid, etc., it is Advisable that the body of the block was a supporting structure made with the possibility of its installation the I block, as a rule, perform hex.

Typically, the front surface 12 of the unit, providing a decorative appearance of the retaining structures (Fig. 1-3), is in sight. The front surface of the block may be smooth, rough cut, chipped, convex, concave, or with star cutting. On the front surface can be applied to any pattern. Two preferred options for performing the front surface shown in Fig. 1-3 and 4-6. In addition, two other variants of execution of a block according to this invention is shown in Fig. 9-11. The block of this invention may include a flat or rough front surface 12, produced by spallation of material (Fig. 1-3). In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, the block may be chipped or cut the front surface with three sides (Fig. 4-6).

The proposed unit usually has two sides 14 and 16 (Fig. 1-6), which define its shape and contribute to its alignment during installation. The sides of the block may have a different shape, for example, be flat, sloped, or curved. The sides may also have notches, grooves or other relief items that match any of the Tr is entrusted embodiment of the sides shown in Fig. 1-6. As can be seen from the drawing, the sides 14 and 16 is inclined so that limited their block in the area of the front surface 12 is wider than the area of the rear surface 18. The angles formed by the sides (see Fig. 3 and 6) with the rear surface, denoted by , can be in the range of 70 - 90o, preferably 75 - 85o.

The sides may also have recesses 22A and 22B for attachment and alignment of the blocks at their installation. In accordance with one implementation of the invention the grooves on the entire height of the block from the top 10 to the bottom 8 of the surface. In addition, these grooves may be inclined at an altitude block for a wall, which, rising in height, gradually steps back. Depressions mating with the tab 26 can also be inclined in order that the retaining wall was essentially vertical.

The angle and dimensions of the recesses according to the invention can vary. However, the size of the recesses in the area of the bottom surface 8 of the block should be approximately equal to the area of mating with him protrusion 26 or more. It is advisable that the square holes near the top surface 10 of the block were more what aromasine blocks of any structures in the place of their installation, and some variance backward blocks of the overlying series of retaining structures. In addition, by changing the size and location of the recesses relative to the protrusion 26 may change the deflection of the wall. In addition, by changing the position of the protrusion in the recess of a larger relative size may change the deflection of the retaining structures. For example, when the shift blocks the way forward can be achieved deviation of the wall approximately 3 mm (1/8 inch). Shear blocks all the way back can be obtained deviation to 19 mm (3/4 inch). Here, under the foward and back means moving protrusion 26 within the recesses 22A and 22B.

Usually the functions performed by the top 10 and the bottom 8 of the surfaces of the block are similar to the functions of its sides. The top 10 and the bottom 8 of the surface determines the shape of the unit and contribute to its alignment when installed in any of the retaining structure. For this reason, the upper and lower surfaces of the block are usually flat.

As shown in Fig. 1-6, the upper or lower surface preferably has a ledge 26. The ledge in cooperation with the recesses 22A and 22B sides is used to secure the blocks in place under the can be of arbitrary shape, but it is preferable to form oval or bone. As can be seen from Fig. 1-6 and 9-11, the protrusion may have a first and second circular or oblong part, United in the middle of the narrower part of the same height. The narrow Central part of the projection 26 (Fig. 1-6) allows the orientation of the blocks and provides installation support for the walls with the inner and outer curvature, and the possibility of relative rotation of the protrusion 26 within the recess 22A or 22B. In turn, the portion of the protrusion in the form of the bone, which has a large surface area, increases its resistance to the action of forces, which could cause movement of individual blocks of the wall or the destruction of the block element.

The protrusions can be formed on them thickening or a shoulder height of about 9.5-19 mm (3/8 - 3/4 inch), preferably 13-16 mm (1/2-5/8 inches). The width or diameter of the protrusions may be in the range 25-76 mm (1-3 inches), preferably 38-64 mm (1.5-2.5 inches). When transporting the tabs can be protected from damage by turning blocks for stacking, as the tabs are placed in the holes 30.

In General, the projections 26 and recesses 22A and 22B can be used the tion include anchor thrust, ground anchors and anchoring grid such as GEOGRID, supplied by the Corporation Mirafi, or GEOMET supplied by Amoco.

The rear surface 18 of the block is typically used to determine its shape, for block alignment as part of any retaining structures, and to podpiranja soil or embankment. From this point of view, the rear surface of the block may have any shape consistent with the specified functions.

One preferred embodiment of the rear surface of the block shown in Fig. 1-6. The rear surface may be flat and have parts 28A and 28B projecting beyond the sides of the block. In order to improve the transportability of the unit, it may be formed with any number of holes, including the Central hole 30, which can reduce the weight by molding. In addition, these holes allow you to fill the unit with soil or other materials, such as stone, gravel, crushed stone, etc., contributing to the increase of the effective mass unit per area of the front surface. Holes can be made in the front of the unit, for example, the holes 34 and 36. Additional filler can filling in the holes 30, 34 and 36, as well as in the hole at back is 2">

When using the blocks preferably set close to one another with formation of a number of filled cavities. It is advisable that each block had a Central fill cavity 30, and a second cavity formed between any two adjacent defined blocks. This second cavity is formed opposite lateral sides 14 and 16 and installed adjacent the rear surfaces 28A and 28B. A second cavity formed in the bearing construction of the two neighboring blocks, holds the filler and, in addition, increases the weight or the actual specific weight per unit area of the front surface of any structures made of blocks.

The blank block in the middle to weigh 52-70 kg (115-155 pounds), preferably 52-57 kg (115 - 125 pounds) 0,093 m2(1 ft2) the front surface. After filling the unit weight will change depending on the use of the filler and in the preferred embodiment, will be 73-82 kg (160-180 pounds), preferably 75-80 kg (165-175 pounds) 0,093 m2(1 ft2) the front surface using stone backfill such as gravel or crushed stone class 5 used in the construction of road bases.

Two alternative predpochtitelney block, with cavities 34 and 36 for filling. In addition, this unit has performed at the lateral sides of the recesses 22A and 22B and the ledge for proper mating with the blocks shown in Fig. 1-6 or 10-11. In combination with the other options described here perform block this block is used to complete the masonry walls having a support series, composed of heavier blocks, blocks that are smaller, lighter and easier to install on the higher and highest ranks. If not specified additional requirements, the unit depicted in Fig. 1-6 and 10-11, may have a greater size from the front to the rear surface than the block of Fig. 9 that allows you to build structures like that shown in Fig. 12. In addition, the use of the protrusion 26 in the form of bones helps to ensure mutual engagement of these blocks with the blocks of the lower rows of masonry for the construction of walls with high structural integrity (see Fig. 12).

The blocks depicted in Fig. 9 can be approximately 27-45 kg (60 - 100 pounds), preferably 34-43 kg (75-95 pounds) and most preferably 36-41 kg (80-90 pounds), and after backfill unit weight will be 41-59 kg (90-130 lbs), preferably 43-57 kg (95-125 lbs) and most preferably 48-52 kg (105-115 pounds) 0,093 m2(who, romenay in the construction of road bases.

Another alternative embodiment of the unit according to this invention is shown in Fig. 10 and 11. The unit depicted in Fig. 10 and 11, has an angled anchor legs 24A and 24B, as well as ramps 18A and 18B of the rear surface 18.

The respective rear surfaces 28A and 28B (Fig. 11) have a reduced angle , which increases structural integrity of the wall by increasing its resistance to the forces seeking to destroy it. Inclined rear surfaces 28A and 28B provide natural static force opposing the pressure exerted mound depending on the angle of repose on any retaining structure. Inclined rear surfaces 28A and 28B can be fixed in the filling between adjacent blocks. Any force tending to move the block forward, counteracts the resistance created by the inclined forward of the rear anchor legs, dvigausciesya in the filling or, in the case of the reference number of masonry, in the ground under the wall.

In addition, the use of inclined rear surfaces facilitates the production of the proposed units. Characteristically, the inclined rear surfaces 28A and 28B nets for curing of concrete. The close location of the blocks on the conveyor may lead to their contact. If it happens at high speed, the units may be damaged. In addition, a conveyor having a curved section on the way of transport, can lead to contact between the blocks and their damage. The implementation of the legs 24A and 24B of the rear inclined surface allows the use of simpler and more universal conveyor transport, and contributes to the strength of the rear anchor legs.

Running back surfaces of the sloping block also contributes to the formation of a cavity in the adjacent two blocks in the same plane. This cavity can be used for placing the filler of any type, including gravel, sand or even concrete. The construction of the unit allows the installation of units with rotation or displacement during the construction of retaining walls. The inner hole 30 made in blocks, is shown in Fig. 1-6 and 10-11 may be used in combination with cavities formed adjacent blocks, to create a network of channels for placement of the fill. It should be noted that the displacement of the blocks of one series relative to the blocks of the other series, the hole 30 blocksom, the hole 30 of the second row of blocks is set flush with the cavity in the bottom row, which can be filled with gravel, sand, etc. through the hole of the second row of blocks. Install subsequent rows of masonry allows you to form a series of vertical channels in the bearing structure (see Fig. 7).

The legs 24A and 24B may have a deviation from the axis passing through the rear surface 18 toward the front surface of the block at an angle of approximately 5-20opreferably 7-15oand most preferably 10-12o. The angle may lie in the range of 60-80opreferably 60-75oand most preferably 65-70o. The weight of this unit (see Fig. 10 and 11) can be 45-68 kg (100-150 pounds), preferably 50-64 kg (110-140 pounds) and most preferably 52-57 kg (115-125 pounds), and after filling 95-120 kg (210-265 pounds), preferably 100-116 kg (220-255 pounds) and most preferably 102-109 kg (225-240 pounds) 0,093 m2(1 ft2) the front surface in the case of stone forwarding them, such as gravel or crushed stone class 5 used in the construction of road bases.

Another preferred embodiment of the unit according to this invention is shown in Fig. 13-16. Mouth what may be important factors such as the block size, length, and height of structures, properties of the environment, including the type of embankment behind the wall, and the place of its location, including terrain, weather conditions, etc. in Addition, depending on the applied method of making block some of the factors associated with the size of the block, also with a variety of bumps, holes and other structural elements of the unit can also be set. In particular, during the construction of landscape structure such as shown in Fig. 8, the construction is being built on one row with the placement of the rear wall of the respective filling. After the completion of each subsequent number is the pressure at the wall tends to move his units forward. The mutual engagement of the protrusion 26 and recesses 22A and 22B, in General, prevents the relative movement of any two blocks of rows.

It is established that the structural integrity of the structures of shaped blocks for masonry in General depends on the coefficient of friction of the blocks of adjacent rows, the supporting surface of the blocks used in the construction, and the lip 26. Typically, the protrusion serves for mounting unit on which it is placed, or blocks of the next adjacent row, thanks to its conjugate is ncie to push blocks out of the wall, caused by the pressure of the embankment, is significantly reduced. In addition, it was found that when using tabs, side surfaces of which have variable angles of inclination, the organization of production can be optimized, and its efficiency increased.

As can be seen in Fig. 13 and 14, the composite blocks for masonry in accordance with this variant implementation of the invention is basically similar to those shown in Fig. 9-11. These blocks have holes 30 and 35, and the front surface 12 may be ohranenii (see Fig. 13, portions 12A and 12B) or uncut (see Fig. 14). The blocks have recesses 22A and 22B and the protrusion 26, which may be part of the upper surface 10 of the block and the edge of the grooves 22A and 22B.

As shown in Fig. 13 and 14, the ledge, as a rule, has the first, second, third and fourth side surfaces. In accordance with this invention the angle of inclination of each side surface may be different from each other to improve the reliability of the units and facilities of their processing. The first side surface 26A, having a length A, can usually be located adjacent to the opening 35. The second side surface 26B of the protrusion having a length B, can usually be located near the hole at back the recesses 22A and 22B.

Due to the fact that the proposed unit can be used in buildings of any configuration, an additional kind of ledge, made in accordance with the preferred implementation of the invention shown in Fig. 15, which shows three side surfaces of the protrusion 26: surface 24A and 26B and connecting surface -26 C. In this case, the surface 26B of the ledge 26 is turned to the rear surface 18 of the block, tilted and thus plays the role of a retainer or Deposit device that can reliably prevent any unit that is installed close to him from moving forward when laying with mutual coupling, i.e., by the mutual engagement of the projection of one block with the grooves of the second adjacent block.

In addition, due to such change in the slope of the surface 26A of the projection, in which the angle between the upper surface 10 of the block and the surface 26A of the protrusion (or with respect to the vertical) is reduced, the execution of the ledge when forming unit becomes more convenient. The decrease in the angle of inclination of the surface 26A with respect to the vertical allows installation and removal of the heated base of the stripper in a way that reduces the tendency to jam filling materials in , how to use the unit, and the surface 26B is positioned to prevent movement ahead of the subsequent rows of blocks, and the surface 26A so as to simplify the manufacture of the block, but without compromising structural integrity of the construction, such as a wall.

It is advisable that the protrusion 26 overlaps a portion of the upper surface 10 of the block between the recesses 22A and 22B. In this case, the surface -26 C ledge extends a distance C, as can be seen from Fig. 13 and 14. Moreover, the lateral surface of -26 C of the protrusion 26 can be located at any angle relative to the vertical, which contributes to the ease of fabrication and structural integrity of any structure made of the proposed units.

The passage of the protrusion 26 across a portion of the upper surface 10 of the block also facilitates manufacture. Typically in the manufacture of the proposed block form fill composite mixture to the required volume. Then heated the base of the stripper down on the fill material for sealing and molding unit with the simultaneous formation of the protrusion 26 through the corresponding notches 79 in the lower surface of the stripper (see Fig. 17A).

Protezirovanija around its outer edge, which extends across the entire width of the base. If the fill material is accidentally left inside the notches 79, used for the formation of the protrusion 26, it can be effectively removed using automated tools, such as brush, scraper, etc., the output of the notch 79 on the outer edge of the base of the stripper allows the brush to move along the bottom surface of the base plate to remove the fill material, accidentally left in the area.

In accordance with the preferred mode of carrying out the invention and Fig. 16 shows an enlarged cross section of the protrusion 26. In Fig. 16 you can see that the surface 26B of the protrusion is located at an angle relative to the vertical, indicated by axis x-x'. In order to provide the greatest resistance to the forward block in the next row of masonry, the angle is 0 to 10opreferably 2-7oand most preferably about 5owith respect to the vertical.

Further, in order to facilitate the production of the surface 26A of the projection is at an angle that allows you to simplify production and to prevent sticking of the material to fill the bottom surface of the base of the stripper. In the General case, the angle at which the compared to the vertical, it is shown in Fig. 16 axis z-z'.

Furthermore it is obvious that the orientation of the surfaces 26A and 26B of the protrusion may vary depending on the block design and method of its use in the overall landscape structure. It is advisable to use surface 26B for holding the blocks of adjacent rows of masonry in place and to combat their shift forward under the pressure created by an embankment during construction. In addition, the surface 26A of the ledge, as a rule, is located in the unloaded zone of the ledge in order to facilitate production. As noted previously, the angle of deviation from the vertical surface -26 C of the protrusion may be within permitted for surface 26A of the ledge. In the General case, the angle of deviation of a surface -26 C ledge should be such as to preserve the structural integrity of the unit, provided the maximum resistance of the blocks of adjacent rows and convenience in the production.

In practice, the protrusion 26 may extend from the recess 22A to deepen 22B on the portion of the upper surface of the block. In accordance with this variant implementation of the invention, as shown in Fig. 13-16, the height of the ledge will be a 6.4-19 mm (1/4-3/4 inch), preferably 9.5 to 12.7 mm (3/8-1/2 inch). The full width of Wye preferably about 64 mm (2.5 inches). Furthermore it is obvious that these intervals can be modified within the scope of the invention.

Since all the blocks depicted here, can be made with different sizes, the table is a basic guide.

The proposed composite unit 5 masonry retaining structures may be used for construction of various landscape structures. Examples of structures that can be constructed from the proposed blocks shown in Fig. 7 - 8. In Fig. 7 shows that the proposed unit can be used for construction of the retaining wall 10 by stacking the individual rows of blocks and structures thus any desired wall height.

As a rule, the construction of structures such as retaining wall 10, begins with the laying of the trench below ground level to contain the first row of blocks. Thereafter, the trench is partially poured and tamped or level. Then in a trench lay the first row of blocks, then install subsequent rows of blocks on the previous series, falling asleep while wall at ground level.

Blocks made according to this invention can be used in the construction trivoli the convexity and concavity. For the construction of the concave wall blocks are set close to each other with decreasing surface 28A or surface 28B of one or both blocks. This reduction can be achieved by splitting the legs 24A or legs 24B near the groove 19 (see Fig. 1 and 4) by means of a chisel. It is advisable that the groove 19 located on the rear surface 18 of the block, allowing you to reduce the corresponding paw (24A or 24B) when saving between blocks is enough space for filling. Buildings constructed from composite blocks for masonry presented in U.S. patent N 5062610 included in the present description by reference.

The design does not require the use of supportive devices, however, for fastening blocks in a dirt embankment behind the wall can be used for supporting the anchor mesh. One of the advantages of the proposed unit is that despite the absence of rods interaction of the projections 26 with the grooves 22A and 22B leads to deformation of the mesh and pin it to when it is clamped between two adjacent blocks of different rows of masonry.

In addition, another embodiment of a block according to this invention allows the use of blocks 40, like the image is, ground anchors and anchor mesh can be used to install a retaining wall 46. A large weight per unit area of the front surface of the blocks pictured here allow the use of Foundation in the ranks of masonry such blocks, which is shown in Fig. 1-6 and 10-11, and in the overlying rows of blocks like shown in Fig. 9. Furthermore, the design of all of the blocks described in the invention allows the use of such fastening means as geometric anchor grid, ground anchors and traction. Such fastening devices may be useful when installing smaller units used, for example, in the upper part of the retaining structure.

The invention also relates to heated the base of the stripper, the node is made up of the base of the stripper and forms and method of molding concrete blocks using the base and forming a node.

The base of the stripper and the molding site in General contain a plate 70 having a bottom 75 and the upper surface 77 (Fig. 17A). The plate 70 may have a notch similar to the notch 79 on the lower surface 75 for molding block elements (see 26 in Fig. 1 and 4). The heating elements 78 can be installed the diversified elements 78 on the upper surface of the plate, the base of the stripper is the heat shield 80. The shape of the lower side of the heat shield is such that it closes the heating elements 78. After installation of the screen 80 on the upper surface 85 of the plate 70 electrical heating elements 78 may be passed through the screen 80 and then to the head node.

The site may also contain a rack 90 to attach it to the head portion 95 of the unit for the production of blocks. Hour 90 provides the installation plate 70 in the unit for the production of blocks with the required amount and isolates the head part from the heat coming from the surface of the plate 70.

The site also contains a form 50, the inner perimeter of which corresponds to the outer perimeter of the plate 70. The form has an open Central portion 63, which is surrounded by the walls of the mold. Installed from bottom to form a pallet (not shown) is used to keep it concrete pouring and transporting the finished blocks from the molding Assembly.

Plate 70 serves for installing the heating elements 78 and to form the body of the unit, as well as its elements with grooves 79 in the lower surface 75 of the plate. The plate 70 is used to seal the fill material placed in the form, and after molding DLL form, including those that involve the formation of decorations or structural elements to form a block. For making the base of the stripper can be used in various alloy steels, if they have sufficient elasticity and firmness to resist abrasive materials commonly used in the concrete. The plate 70 is generally made from alloy steel that can withstand long pressing and save tolerances in Assembly, at the same time transmitting heat from the heating elements through the plate 70 to the fill. Thus, all the heat of the heating elements is absorbed by the concrete mix.

It is advisable that the plate 70 is made of case-hardened steel which, in addition, can be termoobrabotka after forging. Preferred metals include alloy steel, having a hardness on the Rockwell (slag "C") from approximately 60-65 units that provide optimal wear resistance and rigidity. For example, there may be used high carbon steel 40-41 AISI (hardened steel with high Nickel content), carbon steel 40-50 (with Nickel), etc., the Preferred materials are Otel ASTN 42 to 40 (tempered for hardness on a scale of "C" Rockwell to 20 thousandths of 25.4 mm (1 inch). The execution of the plates 70 and fastening it to the host, the head part can be carried out by any known means, including using a bolted connection.

One preferred design of the heated base of the stripper, the corresponding form of the block shown in Fig. 17A. The base of the stripper contains a first section 72 and a second section 74, and the first section 72 has a notch 79 on the lower surface 75 of the base. The heating element 78 is mounted above the recess 79. The outer perimeter of the plate 70 may generally correspond to the inner contour of the form 50. The heating elements 78 are preferably installed in the immediate vicinity of the notch 79 on the lower surface 75 of the base to facilitate molding of such parts of the block that is formed with a notch 79 in the plate 70. The drawing shows one form of the notches 79, however, the plate 70, depending on destination molded block may be used to generate different variants of its execution by means of recesses in its lower surface 75.

The invention can contain at least one heating element 78. In the General case, the heating element is designed for the generation and transmission of radiant energy n the positioning in the lower surface 75 of the base plate.

In the General case, in accordance with the invention can be used for the different number of heating elements 78 different types. However, as the preferred heating elements should be taken such that withstand strong vibration, dirt and dust, typical of such an environment. Preferred are such heating elements that are easily installed and retrieved from the device. This allows easier maintenance of the site the base of the stripper in the absence of danger of injury to personnel due to thermal effects and without the need for complete separation of the form 50, the plate 70, the screen 80 and 90 hours.

The heating element can contain multiple electrical resistance, which may, for example, to have a layout with a hard erection, solids, semiconductor circuits, and so on, the Heating element 78 is generally installed above the slots 79 in the lower surface 75 of the base of the stripper (Fig. 17A). Thanks to this installation, the heating element 78 is able to heat the plate 70 in the zone where it is most needed, i.e. where the formed structural elements of the block (in this case, the protrusion 26, see Fig. 1) from Batmanov. Usually the heating element power is 300 watts and above, depending on application conditions. The power of the heating element may be in the range of 400-1500 W, preferably 450-750 W, and most preferably about 600 watts. The power of the heating elements may be made from a variety of sources, including for example, the power supply 110 volts automatic circuit breakers for 20-25 And that allow the site to work on a standard consumer electric current. If possible, the node can be powered from three-phase power sources 220, equipped with automatic switches 50 A, or other known power sources. Otherwise, the low power node can be used in any environment with minimal energy.

Elements for use in the invention may be useful include replaceable heaters supplied Vulcan electric Company through its distributor Granger Industrial Co., the state of Minnesota. These elements has been found to provide ease of installation on the base of the stripper and removal, as well as sufficient resistance to vibration, dirt, dust and other n may be powered sources with rigid mounting, and any other known power sources. When using sources with hard mounting the power can be fed through the holes 88 in the screen 80 and the rack 90. Control of the heating element 78 can be accessed from the outside by means of various known digital and analog devices, placed outside the unit for the production of blocks.

The heating elements 78 of the base of the stripper allows you to create structural elements of the unit, such as indentations or protrusions, or combinations thereof without contamination of the plate 70 of the base. The constructive element of the block is essentially formed by surface hardening concrete structures near the element 78. This contributes to the formation of a constructive element of the block, which not only has attractive appearance but also a high degree of structural integrity.

The invention can also contain such means mounting the heating element 78 to the plate 70 stripper, as a heating unit. Examples of the fixing device for heating elements 78 can be found in the assigned application for U.S. patent N 07/828031, filed January 30, 1992, is incorporated into this description by reference.

The basis of the specifications and insulation of heating elements 78 and the molding unit. The heat shield 80 also serves to reflect the heat of the heating elements 78 on the plate 70.

In accordance with the invention, the heat shield 80 may have different shapes and sizes. In a preferred embodiment, the heat shield 80 should cover the heating elements. In this case, it is advisable that the heat shield had inside the cavity was made with the possibility to install it over the heating elements 78, mounted on the upper surface 77 of the plate 70. It is reasonable to screen 80 was installed flush with the top surface 77 of the base of the stripper.

In a preferred embodiment, between the upper surface of the heating element and the hole or cavity in thermal screen 80 there is a gap. The air in this extra gap also serves to isolate the column and the molding unit from the heat generated by thermal element 78.

In the General case, the heat shield 80 may contain any metal alloy having a low thermal conductivity. Metal alloys such as brass, copper or combinations thereof suitable for the manufacture of a heat shield 80. Also suitable aluminum and its oxides and alloys. Alloys and oxides of aluminium prefer the ASTM 6061-T6 and 6063-Kzt52, in General are preferred to pure aluminum.

In addition, the node can contain a rack 90 a head part attached to the plate 70 to install node head in position, facilitating the seal, and attach it to the unit for the production of blocks.

In the General case 90 hour head part may have a number of options for achieving this goal. It can also be used to support and accommodate different wiring or other parts of the site the base of the stripper, which failed to place on the plate 70 and thermal screen 80.

The bracket 90 head part can be made of various metal alloys that can withstand operating loads that occur during molding of the block. Preference is given to alloyed steels having a hardness on the Rockwell scale ("C" ) of approximately 60-65 units that ensures optimum durability and the desired rigidity.

In the General case, for the manufacture of the rack head part forms using high quality carbon steel 40-41 AISI (hardened steel with high Nickel content), carbon steel 40-50 (with Nickel), etc., the AE 90 hour head part can be manufactured using known means.

The site may also contain the form 50. Form for molding blocks. Accordingly, the shape can be made of any material capable of resisting the pressure applied to the fill of the block from the side of the head part. The preferred metal is an alloy steel having a hardness on the Rockwell scale ("C") of approximately 60-65 units that ensures optimum durability and the desired rigidity.

Other metals suitable for manufacturing molds according to this invention, is of high quality carbon steel 40-41 AISI (hardened steel with high Nickel content), carbon steel 40-50 (with Nickel), etc., the Preferred material is carbon steel, having the structural index ASTM A36.

Form 50, used in the invention can take various shapes depending on the species forming unit and can be manufactured by any known method. Typically, the form is made by milling of steel billets with a further markup of the processed surface, advanced welding forming elements and heat treatment forms. Heat treatment, as a rule, can be produced by deformation and warpage. After heat treatment is the final welding of the form elements.

Returning to the description of the individual form elements, it should be noted that the walls of the form, as a rule, serve to counteract the pressure created by the unit for the production of blocks. In addition, the walls determine the height and thickness of the manufactured units. The walls of the form should have a thickness that will provide the operating parameters of the molding process unit due to the design features of the form.

In the General case, as can be seen from Fig. 17B, the form has a front wall 52, a back wall 54, and side walls 51 and 58. As noted, each of these walls serves to hold the fill in the workspace when the seal and thus provides a molding unit. Accordingly, the shape of each of these walls must be consistent with its purpose.

The side walls 51 and 58 form can take any shape in accordance with the purpose of the form. In the preferred embodiment, each side wall has a protrusion 64 is essentially constant height dimensions of the mold for molding the block recesses 22A and 22B.

However, if you want recesses 22A and 22B had a cone is received in the recesses 22A and 22B can be seen in different versions of the block, it is shown in Fig. 1-6 and 9-11, which also include the ability to retrieve the block from the mold 50 during production.

The form may also contain at least one supporting rod 60 and at least one forming the core 62. Supporting rods 60 hold the core 62 in the cavity 63 of the form. The support rods can be of any shape, size or material, which correspond to their value.

It is evident from Fig. 17B shows that the preferred length of the support rod 60 allows it to overlap the width of the form 50 supported on opposite side walls 51 and 58. The support rod 60 holds the core 62 in the Central hole 63 of the form. In accordance with this purpose the supporting rod 60 is typically installed in a Central area 63A of the opposite side walls 51 and 58. The core 62 may also be held in place by means of additional supports 62A (shown in outline), placed between the rear wall 54 and forms 50 and the core 62. Fixing the support rod 60 may also be provided by a bracket 85 fixed to the outer top edge of the form 50 at the edges of the walls 51, 52, 58 and 54. The use of these support structures reduces the vibration of the core during formula 50 across the width of the pillar on the opposite side walls 51 and 58. The cores have a number of assignments. They serve for forming cavities in the visitors box. In addition, the cores facilitate blocks, reduce the amount of fill material required for the manufacture of the block, and improve its portability, which facilitates transport and installation of the blocks.

As shown in Fig 17B, in the preferred embodiment, the core 62 is attached to the support rod 60 in the areas of installation 60A. Region 60A facilitate the installation of the cores in the desired position. As you can see in the drawing, the reference pin 60 protrudes upward from the mold 50. As a result, the plate 70 and 90 hour can be divided into pieces corresponding grooves 76 and 96 (Fig. 17A). A separate part of the plate 70 and racks provide the opportunity for adequate compaction of fill material without interference from the supporting rods 60. Different parts of the plate 70 and the rack 90 can, in turn, to hold the head part 95.

The Assembly proposed form can be carried out in various ways, one of which is shown in Fig. 17B. It is advisable that the form was fastened by means of two outer beams 55 and 56, each of which has an internal recess 61 and 67, respectively. As you can see from th the 8 forms can be fastened to the outer beams using flat washers 65, fitting size for installation in grooves 61 and 67 can be locked in the notches 61 of the outer beams by bolts 53. Thus registration form 50, despite the fact that it was assembled from the individual parts.

An additional aspect of the present invention is the process of casting or molding of composite blocks for masonry using team form masonry unit (Fig. 17A and 17B). In General, the manufacturing process includes forming unit by filling in the form the mixture and the formation of the block by the compression of the mixture in the form by the application of pressure to the processed mixture into the open top end of the block shape. The main stages of the process shown in the process flow depicted in Fig. 18.

When the production site is set in the molding machine on a moving or sliding tray (not shown). Then form 50 is loaded with a mixture or fill material. As shown in Fig. 17A and 17B, the form for molding a single block. After molding and curing these blocks can be cut in the direction of the grooves created by the tabs 66 that are located on the inner side of the side walls of the mold. Before you seal the top wall FoA surplus. Then the form is compressed directly by the plate 70 by means of the parent of the node.

When the compression plate 70 causes movement of the concrete pouring towards the edges of the forms in the notch 79 of the base of the stripper, to create in the generated block ledge 26 (see Fig. 1). The dimensions of the notches are in the range of, for example, 25-76 mm (1-3 inches), preferably 38-64 mm (1.5 - 2.5 inches) and most preferably 44-51 (about 1.75-2 inches).

The recess 79 is heated elements 78 and, thus, the tabs 26 having the minimum size and variable shape can be molded without causing the filler plate 70 in place of the recess 79. When such work site can be used for automatic production units.

It is possible to design blocks with different properties, relevant ASTM standards, depending on the primary use of the unit. For example, the fill may contain 75-95% of sand and gravel in varying proportions, depending on the physical properties, which should have a ready-made unit. In addition, the fill contains cement any brand, volumetric, which accounts for 4-10%. Then you can add in-fill other components in minor amounts is engaged in the fill can be mixed in the mixer with the formation of aggregates of sand and gravel and then adding cement. One to two and a half minutes add any plasticizers that will be used. Then portions, every one or two minutes add water. The concentration of water in the mixture can be controlled by changing the electrical resistance of the mixture at different points in the process. Despite the fact that the amount of water may vary depending on the recipe fills, it usually takes 1-6%.

After completing the form, alignment, fill through, for example, eject the boot box and mixing sealing device, such as the head part containing the proposed site, combined with the treated surface of the fill. The node 30 to the base of the stripper seals fill in the form for a time sufficient for the formation of solid products. Usually the duration of the seal may be 0.5 - 4, preferably 1.5 to 2 C. the Pressure applied to the head part, varies in the range 7-56 MPa (1000-8000 pounds/inch2), preferably about 28 MPa (4000 pounds/inch2).

After completion of the pressing plate 70 together with the underlying pallet pushes the block from the mold 50. At this point, the forming block. Can be ispolzovaniem, is the machine Besser V-3/12.

During or prior to pressing form may be subjected to vibration treatment. The fill material is transported from the mixer to the boot hopper, which then fills the form 50. The mould is then shaken 2-3 with the time needed to fill were evenly distributed along the entire form. Then the blocks are formed under the action of the pressure generated by the head part. In addition, the vibration treatment can occur simultaneously with the sealing action of the head part to fill in the form. In this case, the vibration treatment will last the same amount of time during which the filler is compacted head part.

After molding blocks they can be cured by any known means. Such means keeping as easy keeping on the air, autoclave processing, steaming or curing in a moist environment, ideal for the cutting block. Keeping on the air is simply placing blocks in the open air, where they are certain time. Autoclave treatment consists of placing blocks at a certain time in a sealed chamber at elevated temperatures. Then pressure is dropping it, that helps pull the moisture out of the blocks.

Another tool is keeping couples. The temperature in the chamber is gradually increased within 2 to 3 h, and then stabilize at 4 o'clock Pairs gradually block and the blocks are maintained at the final temperature 49-96oC (100 - 200oF) from 2 to 3 hours Then heat shut off, and the blocks are cooled. In all cases, the blocks are usually incubated for 12 to 24 hours before you lay down or to send to storage. The most important moment during curing is slow temperature rise. If the temperature increases too quickly, the formation on the blocks "peel". Grasp the top layer occurs when the outer shell hardens, while the interior remains uncured and raw. While running any of these devices can withstand, the preferred method is to autoclave treatment.

After conditioning units, it may be podrobnee to create any functional or aesthetic options. Suitable for use with this invention means include a hand chisel and hammer, as well as the known device. The tabs 66 (Fig. 9) may be located on the inner surface of the side walls of the mold 50 for obesiy obtained smooth or rough the front surface 12 (Fig. 1-6 and 9-11), one (Fig.1) or polyhedral (Fig.4), and flat or curved. For example, podrobene blocks can be obtained faceted front surface 12A, 12, 12B, as shown in Fig. 4-6. In a preferred embodiment, the chipping perform hydraulic jackhammer. After splitting the blocks can be stacked for storage.

1. A retaining structure in the form of a wall containing at least one row of masonry, which includes at least one composite unit masonry, containing front, rear, top and bottom surfaces, first and second lateral sides, wherein the first lateral side of the block has a first recess extending from the top surface of the block to the bottom surface, the second lateral side of the block has a second recess extending from the top surface of the block to the bottom surface and the top or bottom surface of the block has at least one projection, made with the possibility of engagement with the first or second recess of the block, located in the adjacent row, and the relative rotation of the ledge and it is associated with deepening.

2. Construction under item 1, characterized in that the protrusion of the block is 2, characterized in that the unit contains the first and second anchoring legs, with the first paw passes from the first side of the block, and the second paw from the second side of the block.

4. Building on p. 3, characterized in that the front surfaces of the first and second legs of the block is formed for the passage in the direction of the front surface of the block, while the legs are extended from the block.

5. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the front surface of the block is made essentially flat.

6. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the front surface of the block is made versatile.

7. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the front surface of the block is made convex.

8. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-7, characterized in that the projection unit has a first and second oblong or circular parts, between which there is a connecting part which width less than the width of any of the first and second elongated parts.

9. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that the projection unit has a first side surface and second side surface.

10. Building on p. 9, characterized those who are within 10-25o.

11. Construction under item 9 or 10, characterized in that the angle of the first side surface of the protrusion of the block relative to the vertical is approximately 5oand the angle of the second side surface of the protrusion of the block with respect to the vertical is approximately 20o.

12. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-11, characterized in that the protrusion of the block overlaps the interval between the first and second recesses of the block.

13. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-12, characterized in that it comprises at least adjacent the upper and lower rows, and blocks at least one row containing indentations, located on the edges of the blocks of the adjacent row.

14. Structure according to any one of paragraphs. 1-13, characterized in that it comprises a support matrix located between adjacent blocks of the upper and lower rows of masonry.

15. Building on p. 14, characterized in that the supporting matrix has thrust anchor located between the blocks of the upper and lower rows of masonry.

16. Building on p. 14, characterized in that the supporting matrix contains a grid located between the blocks of the upper and lower rows of masonry.

17. Composite unit masonry, aderiva side plate has a first recess, passing from the upper surface of the block to the bottom surface, the second side plate has a second recess extending from the top surface of the block to the bottom surface and the top or bottom surface of the block has at least one protrusion configured to engage with the first or second recess of the block, located in the adjacent row, and the relative rotation of the ledge and it is associated with deepening.

18. The block under item 17, characterized in that the protrusion is located near at least one of these recesses, the first or the second.

19. The block under item 17 or 18, characterized in that it contains the first and second anchoring legs, with the first paw passes from the first side of the block, and the second paw from the second side of the block.

20. The block under item 19, characterized in that the front surfaces of the first and second legs formed for passage in the direction of the front surface of the block, while the legs are extended from the block.

21. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 17-20, characterized in that its front surface is made essentially flat.

22. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 17-20, characterized in that its front surface is made of mnogo the Loy.

24. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 17-23, wherein the protrusion has a first and second oblong or circular parts, between which there is a connecting part which width less than the width of any of the first and second elongated parts.

25. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 17-24, wherein the protrusion has a first side surface and second side surface.

26. The block on p. 25, characterized in that the angle of inclination of the second side surface of the protrusion with respect to the vertical is approximately in the range of 10-25o.

27. The block on p. 25 or 26, characterized in that the angle of the first side surface of the protrusion relative to the vertical is approximately 5oand the angle of the second side surface of the protrusion with respect to the vertical is approximately 20o.

28. Unit according to any one of paragraphs. 17-27, wherein the protrusion overlaps the interval between the first and second recesses.

29. Forming a site for the production of composite blocks for masonry containing the base plate of the stripper, having upper and lower surfaces and form, characterized in that on the lower surface of the plate ipolniteley element.

 

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