The method of producing ermantraut in a rotary tube furnace
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the production of electrode products, namely, the calcining of carbonaceous materials for the production of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces. Prepare anthracite class size of 20 - 60 mm Before it enters the furnace is treated with water in an amount of 2 to 5% by weight of anthracite. Heating and burning anthracite conduct heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel and anthracite in the ratio 1 : (2,7 - 3,7). Cool ermantraut at the outlet of the furnace dusiruumis stream of water up to 500 - 700oC. Then cooled by the air supplied to the burning fuel ratio of the air flow rate is equal to 4 - 5. The improved method allows to increase the number obtained calcined ermantraut 2.8 - 3 times and the output of ermantraut 20.4 - 23.3 per cent, reduce waste material by 10%. table 1. The invention relates to the production of electrode products, namely, to the calcining of carbonaceous materials for the production of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces.Currently ermantraut and other calcined carbonaceous materials obtained by calcining furnaces of three types: rotary, rotary, and electric. The calcining apeca. In industrial practice, the anthracite is calcined in a rotary Prokhladny furnaces length of 40 - 45 m (see E. F. Chalykh, Technology and equipment of the electrode and technology electro enterprises. M., "metallurgy", 1972, S. 372 - 394).Along with used by way of the known methods equivalents.Method of calcining anthracite in the 60-meter rotary tube furnace followed by cooling of ermantraut in the refrigerator drum type (see proceedings of NIGROVIC "Production of carbon materials". M., 1981, S. 62 - 67).As a prototype of the adopted method, consisting in the preparation and submission of anthracite coal in a rotary kiln, operating on gaseous fuels, combustion and cooling ermantraut in a separate unit. Ermantraut of the rotary calcining furnaces were poured through a cooled heat in the dryer refrigerator. In the refrigerator the material is cooled. Dryer refrigerator constantly irrigated with water. The flow of cold water is 15000 l/t calcined materials (see E. F. Chalykh. "Calcining furnaces were of the electrode industry. M., 1963, S. 31 - 39).The disadvantages of the known methods and the prototype method are:
1. Low quality prokalenny.2. High waste material in the furnace due to burn-out the entire length and additional waste material up to 10% of the drum in the refrigerator.The essence of the proposed technical solution is that the anthracite prepare a class size of 20 - 60 mm In size within the specified limits, the processes of recrystallization during calcination occur throughout the piece, penetrating to the Central areas of large and small pieces.Anthracite before feeding into the furnace treated water to surface wetting all the pieces of a specified size class. The range of size of pieces of anthracite from 20 to 60 mm allows to obtain a layer of material with the index of porosity, providing a uniform surface wetting all the pieces of anthracite.The amount of water to the processing of anthracite is from 2 to 5% of its mass. Moist anthracite load in a rotating tube furnace. Under the influence of hot exhaust gases is heated anthracite and steaming. In the process of steaming is loosened the surface of the lumps of anthracite, which provides favorable conditions for the removal of volatile from the Central zone of the pieces of anthracite. In the heating zone due to the additional costs which result slowly, with a little speed.After heating anthracite lead his calcination heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel and anthracite. The ratio of heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel to heat from the combustion of anthracite is 1 : (2,7 - 3,7). This ratio is kept in a prescribed range by feeding the estimated amount of fuel depending on the number loaded into the furnace of anthracite.The total quantity of heat (Q) required to conduct the process of calcination, is calculated from a heat balance. The gas flow is established from the calculation of the heat loss from the combustion of gaseous fuels is equal to Q / 3.7 to 4.7. The total number of parish of heat annealing is the sum of the heat content of gas (one part from Q) and heat burned anthracite (2,7 - 3,7 part from Q). The share of heat from the combustion gas (1) support the estimated gas consumption, the share of heat from the combustion of anthracite (2,7 - 3,7) support the amount of air supplied to its oxidation. At these ratios, the amount of heat released in the furnace volume and the layer of anthracite, is provided by heating the latter to a temperature of 1350 - 1400oC, at which recrystallization occurs and ordering patterns thermoantracite water.Ermantraut at the outlet of the furnace is cooled dusiruumis the flow of water from a temperature of 1200 - 1300oC to 500 - 700oC. Cooling ermantraut under the influence of water occurs at an increased rate due to the cost of heat for the complete evaporation of water and superheat the resulting water vapor. The resulting water vapor come into the calcining zone and improve heat transfer in the furnace volume from the gas phase to proklinaemogo material. Cooling ermantraut water with high speed stabilizes the structure of ermantraut and stops his stupor from oxidation by the oxygen of the air.Subsequent cooling of ermantraut carry out air supplied to the furnace for combustion of the fuel with excess air coefficient equal to 4 - 5. The excess air supplied to the combustion of gaseous fuel , equal to 4 - 5 provides a complete combustion of gaseous fuel and partial combustion of anthracite with allocation of the total amount of heat sufficient for efficient combustion of anthracite in the volume of the layer.If in anthracite are pieces of size less than 20 mm, then decreases the porosity of the material in the layer and, consequently, worsen the diffusion processes of removal of volatile anthracite is the CTL large pieces.If the amount of water for processing anthracite less than 2% of its mass, the calcining zone is extended, moves to the cold end of the furnace and, consequently, increases the waste material in the furnace. If the amount of water more than 5% by weight of anthracite, increasing the cost of heat for evaporation of excess moisture, reduces the calcining zone and, consequently, worsen thermal characteristics of the calcined ermantraut.If the ratio of heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel to heat from burning anthracite less than 2.7, there is a frenzy of material and consequently its loss; if the specified ratio of 3.7, the amount of heat in the layer is not sufficient for high quality baking anthracite.If the temperature of ermantraut after cooling water is less than 500oC, it increases the residual moisture of ermantraut. If the temperature is more than 700oC, ermantraut optionally oxidized in the air.If the coefficient of excess air supplied to the combustion gas, less than 4, then decreases the amount of heat dissipated in the material layer, which leads to deterioration of thermophysical properties of ermantraut, and if more than 5, it increases the waste of material and loss of PR is 73.5 m and a diameter of 2.5 m Hot head of the kiln is equipped with 10 recuperators, diameter 0,88 mFor calcination used anthracite Obukhov field of fractions of 20 - 60 mm with a volatile content of 2%, ash content of 4.1 - 4.6%, the specific resistivity 90000 - 100000 Mmm2/m and a moisture content of 3-4%.the calcination was carried out according to the three variants of the proposed technology. On disc feeder original filed anthracite in the amount of 6.5 t/h Anthracite on the disc feeder moistened with water in an amount of 2 to 5% by weight of anthracite. Moist anthracite with disc feeder came in cochlear feeder, then through trebaticky into the rotary kiln.The residence time of material in the furnace was 2.3 hours of heat in the furnace came from natural gas combustion in infectious burner. Consumption of natural gas at the beginning of the process was 350 - 400 nm3/h, then at steady-state heat mode, the consumption of natural gas was 200 - 250 nm3/h Air for combustion of natural gas were served abundantly with equal 4 and 5 through the holes on the front end wall of the heat exchanger. The remaining part of the heat for the process came from the burning of anthracite in the calcining zone. The ratio between the number of th is 3,7.The material temperature in the calcining zone was 1350 - 1400oC. In the cooling zone in the furnace area 5 - 7 m ermantraut was cooled to a temperature of 1000 - 1200oC. Ermantraut at the outlet of the furnace in a heat exchanger cooled dusiruumis the flow of water in 90 - 120 l/T. At a temperature of 500 to 700oC ermantraut was admitted to the heat exchanger where it was cooled by a stream of air entering through the holes on the front end wall of the heat exchanger, due to the vacuum generated in the furnace exhaust fan, and due to the injection of a jet of natural gas at the outlet of the burner.The fourth option corresponds to the prototype method, where the calcination of anthracite was performed in a 20-metre rotary tube furnace with a diameter of 2.2 m, the cooling ermantraut carried out in a rotating drum with a length of 12 m and a diameter of 1, 2 m, the outer surface of which is cooled by water.The performance gain ermantraut the kilns on the four options presented in the table.The table shows: the use of the proposed method for options 1 to 3 in comparison with the prototype (option 4) showed that turns ermantraut 2.8 - 3.0 times more output from a given anthracite 20.4 - 23,3>/m, virtually no moisture, ash content is the same).In addition, the method prototype for cooling ermantraut using the optional rotary drum, in which the waste material is 10%. The method of producing ermantraut in a rotary tubular furnace, including the preparation and submission of anthracite coal in a rotary kiln, operating on gaseous fuels, roasting it in the oven and then cooling ermantraut, characterized in that the anthracite prepare a class size of 20 - 60 mm and before feeding into the furnace is treated with water in an amount of 2 to 5% by weight of anthracite coal, the burning of anthracite is carried out with respect to the heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel to heat from burning anthracite 1 : (2,7 - 3,7), and subsequent cooling of ermantraut spend at the outlet of the furnace dusiruumis the flow of water to a temperature of 500 to 700oC, then air supplied to the combustion of gaseous fuel with air excess factor equal to 4 - 5.
FIELD: petrochemical industry; heat and power industry; other industries; method and the device for simultaneous production of the combustible product-gas and the solid product containing predominantly carbon.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and the device for simultaneous production from the condensate propellants of the combustible product-gas and the solid product containing predominantly carbon. The fuel (1) is fed into the reactor (3) representing the tunnel-type furnace, transfer the fuel towards to the gaseous oxidizing agent containing oxygen and fed through the device (5) and produce the coke (10) in the section of the pyrolysis and charring of the fuel arranged in the reactor (3) between the points of introduction in the reactor of the fuel (1) and the oxidizing agent (5). The solid end-product (8) is produced as the result of the coke quenching of the fluidic water (7) fed into the reactor (3) for refrigeration of the end-product before its unloading. The mixture of the combustible gases (9) produced at the interaction of the coke (10) with the formed in the process of the coke quenching steam is directed towards to the transported through the reactor (3) coke to the point of the oxidizing agent introduction into the reactor, where this mixture (9) is burnt producing the heat necessary for the coking, the pyrolysis and drying of the fuel. The heat is fed to the fuel (1) as the counter current of the flue gases formed at combustion. The fuel (1) and the gaseous oxidizing agent (5) are fed into the reactor (3) at the ratio of the mass of carbon to the mass of oxygen being in the range from 1.0 up to 4.0. The invention allows to produce the solid products without the outer heat input or the usage of the additional fuel with the simultaneous production of the fuel product-gas for production of the heat and-or electric power.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the solid products without the outer heat input or the usage of the additional fuel with the simultaneous production of the fuel product-gas for production of the heat and-or electric power.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: invention refers to field of reprocessing of solid carbon containing materials.
SUBSTANCE: In reactor 1 provided with in-series located zone of heating 2, zone of carbonization 3 and zone of activation 4, they load raw materials through pipeline 5. Raw materials are transferred through all zones along screw channel 15 with gradually diminishing axial component of speed due to rotation of inner shell 12. Warmth carrier is received in fuel burning chamber 7 and directed into boiler for utilization. External supply of heat is executed with flow of warmth carrier through ring channel 14 formed with inner cylinder surface of body 10 and external shell 11. Simultaneously they execute inner supply of warmth with flow of warmth carrier through cylindrical channel 16, formed with inner shell 12. Warmth carrier is received in fuel burning chamber 7 and is directed in boiler 6 for utilization, where part of warmth is spent on receiving of activating agent-heated water steam. In heating zone 2 raw materials are heated till temperature of carbonization - no less then 650°C. In zone of activation 4 they execute activation at temperature no less then 750°C of carbonizate-solid product received in zone of carbonization 3. Received hot activated coal is fed along pipeline 36 into cooler 8.
EFFECT: increases quality of received activated carbon and energy effectiveness of technological process executed in uninterrupted regime.
22 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating material at 150-750°C in a reactor in the medium of a reducing gas and removing the residual treatment fraction. The reducing gas is mixed in ratio of 1:(0.1-10) with thermochemical treatment process gases from which the liquid fraction has been separated and the mixture of gases is fed into a reactor, wherein the reactor consists of an element (or elements) through which the material is moved in controlled mode by a motor. The gases are mixed in the reactor element (or elements) in a proportion which ensures the required treatment mode and which corresponds to production conditions of products with given parameters.
EFFECT: use of the present method widens the technological capability of treatment and improves the quality of controlling the process by using additional types of carbon-containing material, controlling the travelling speed of the material in different treatment zones, enabling to obtain products with a controlled composition and ratio, low power consumption of the process.
3 cl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to extraction of light oil and/or fuel out of natural bitumen from oil shale and/or oil-berating sand. According to the method natural bitumen is extracted by water separation from oil shale and/or oil-berating sand with formation of solid residue, volatile hydrocarbons are distilled from natural bitumen, at that insoluble oil coke remains with inclusion of up to 10% of sulphur, gaseous hydrocarbons upon distillation are divided by fractional condensation into light oil, raw oil and different fuels. The method is featured by the fact that solid residue of water separation and/or oil coke are used thermally, at that they are converted by substochiometric oxidation by oxygen-containing gas (26) in counteflow gasifier (19) interacting with movable layer of loose material (21), at addition of alkali substances at temperature <1800°C to gaseous split products with low sulphur content these split products are further converted by substochiometric oxidation to sensible heat, which is used for generation of heated water medium for physical grinding of oil-bearing sand and/or oil shale (A) and/or for separating natural bitumen from rock mass and/or as process heat for thermal breaking of natural bitumen, and by adding alkali substances at reductive conditions gaseous sulphur-containing products produced in counterflow gasifer (19) are converted at temperature of more than 400°C from ingredients of carbon- and sulphur-containing residues by chemical reaction with alkali substances to solid sulphur-containing compounds, and these solid sulphur-containing compounds are treated at least partially by gaseous products of the reaction and removed from gaseous phase by separating fine-grain materials at temperature higher than 300°C.
EFFECT: improved energy balance, prevented threat to environment.
13 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.
EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.
EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.
EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.
57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation, pre-heating and tempering of source oil stock, at the same time moist oil stock is exposed to grinding to fraction of 0-25 mm, dried by internal smoke gases with rated speed of 60-90 m/sec and temperature of 350-400°C in the suspended layer with fountain-like circulation of coke particles to 0.5-2% of moisture content, exposed to cyclone separation with provision of trap ratio of more than 97% and with sifting of dust-like particles with fraction from 0 to less than 2 mm, which is treated with greasing agent with consumption of 0.5-1.0 wt %, per 1 one of coke, and stabilised hot coke with T-60-90°C of fraction more than 2-25 mm is tempered in a rotary drum furnace.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase productivity of tempering furnaces, to stabilise process mode of coke tempering, to improve quality of oil coke, to reduce specific power inputs, to produce commercial product, to reduce anthropogenic emissions into environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).
EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.
1 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).
EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.
20 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.
EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass for getting of the product with high content of carbon that features hydrophobic properties. Proposed process comprises the steps that follow. First, fine biomass is produced to be fed into at least one heater for drying purposes. Said dried biomass is fed into at least one spinning reactor of low-temperature pyrolysis. Note here that said reactor is equipped with heating jacket and inner cooling pipes spaced apart in circle. Note here that said cooling pipes are arranged so that at least some of them get in contact at reactor spinning with biomass to cool it down.
EFFECT: ruled out formation of sticky tarry matter on reactor inner surfaces.
10 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: annealing; measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method of biomass burning includes determination of surface temperature of the biomass in the device with the help of an infrared thermometer in presence of an inert, not active in the infrared region gas which is fed into a space between the lens of the infrared thermometer and the biomass, while the temperature of the inert purge gas at the outlet is above 150°C.
EFFECT: method and device for accurate monitoring and control of annealing temperature, which enables to accurately control quality and properties of annealed material.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: coal industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of creating a temperature-dependent carbon film cladding by application of liquid phase on surface of coal, wherein liquid phase used is liquid sodium glass with silica modulus higher than 3.5, film is applied with thickness of not more than 250 mcm, after which light short-term heating of film is performed until its volume increases by not more than 30 %.
EFFECT: method enables to avoid or sharply reduce problem of oxidation of coal fuel during storage on open warehouses and prolonged transportation, freezing during transportation and reloading, and corresponding complexity of unloading, and avoid spontaneous ignition and spontaneous heating of coal in storages near thermal power plants.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex