The method of producing ermantraut in a rotary tube furnace


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of electrode products, namely, the calcining of carbonaceous materials for the production of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces. Prepare anthracite class size of 20 - 60 mm Before it enters the furnace is treated with water in an amount of 2 to 5% by weight of anthracite. Heating and burning anthracite conduct heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel and anthracite in the ratio 1 : (2,7 - 3,7). Cool ermantraut at the outlet of the furnace dusiruumis stream of water up to 500 - 700oC. Then cooled by the air supplied to the burning fuel ratio of the air flow rate is equal to 4 - 5. The improved method allows to increase the number obtained calcined ermantraut 2.8 - 3 times and the output of ermantraut 20.4 - 23.3 per cent, reduce waste material by 10%. table 1.

The invention relates to the production of electrode products, namely, to the calcining of carbonaceous materials for the production of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces.

Currently ermantraut and other calcined carbonaceous materials obtained by calcining furnaces of three types: rotary, rotary, and electric. The calcining apeca. In industrial practice, the anthracite is calcined in a rotary Prokhladny furnaces length of 40 - 45 m (see E. F. Chalykh, Technology and equipment of the electrode and technology electro enterprises. M., "metallurgy", 1972, S. 372 - 394).

Along with used by way of the known methods equivalents.

Method of calcining anthracite in the 60-meter rotary tube furnace followed by cooling of ermantraut in the refrigerator drum type (see proceedings of NIGROVIC "Production of carbon materials". M., 1981, S. 62 - 67).

As a prototype of the adopted method, consisting in the preparation and submission of anthracite coal in a rotary kiln, operating on gaseous fuels, combustion and cooling ermantraut in a separate unit. Ermantraut of the rotary calcining furnaces were poured through a cooled heat in the dryer refrigerator. In the refrigerator the material is cooled. Dryer refrigerator constantly irrigated with water. The flow of cold water is 15000 l/t calcined materials (see E. F. Chalykh. "Calcining furnaces were of the electrode industry. M., 1963, S. 31 - 39).

The disadvantages of the known methods and the prototype method are:

1. Low quality prokalenny.

2. High waste material in the furnace due to burn-out the entire length and additional waste material up to 10% of the drum in the refrigerator.

The essence of the proposed technical solution is that the anthracite prepare a class size of 20 - 60 mm In size within the specified limits, the processes of recrystallization during calcination occur throughout the piece, penetrating to the Central areas of large and small pieces.

Anthracite before feeding into the furnace treated water to surface wetting all the pieces of a specified size class. The range of size of pieces of anthracite from 20 to 60 mm allows to obtain a layer of material with the index of porosity, providing a uniform surface wetting all the pieces of anthracite.

The amount of water to the processing of anthracite is from 2 to 5% of its mass. Moist anthracite load in a rotating tube furnace. Under the influence of hot exhaust gases is heated anthracite and steaming. In the process of steaming is loosened the surface of the lumps of anthracite, which provides favorable conditions for the removal of volatile from the Central zone of the pieces of anthracite. In the heating zone due to the additional costs which result slowly, with a little speed.

After heating anthracite lead his calcination heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel and anthracite. The ratio of heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel to heat from the combustion of anthracite is 1 : (2,7 - 3,7). This ratio is kept in a prescribed range by feeding the estimated amount of fuel depending on the number loaded into the furnace of anthracite.

The total quantity of heat (Q) required to conduct the process of calcination, is calculated from a heat balance. The gas flow is established from the calculation of the heat loss from the combustion of gaseous fuels is equal to Q / 3.7 to 4.7. The total number of parish of heat annealing is the sum of the heat content of gas (one part from Q) and heat burned anthracite (2,7 - 3,7 part from Q). The share of heat from the combustion gas (1) support the estimated gas consumption, the share of heat from the combustion of anthracite (2,7 - 3,7) support the amount of air supplied to its oxidation. At these ratios, the amount of heat released in the furnace volume and the layer of anthracite, is provided by heating the latter to a temperature of 1350 - 1400oC, at which recrystallization occurs and ordering patterns thermoantracite water.

Ermantraut at the outlet of the furnace is cooled dusiruumis the flow of water from a temperature of 1200 - 1300oC to 500 - 700oC. Cooling ermantraut under the influence of water occurs at an increased rate due to the cost of heat for the complete evaporation of water and superheat the resulting water vapor. The resulting water vapor come into the calcining zone and improve heat transfer in the furnace volume from the gas phase to proklinaemogo material. Cooling ermantraut water with high speed stabilizes the structure of ermantraut and stops his stupor from oxidation by the oxygen of the air.

Subsequent cooling of ermantraut carry out air supplied to the furnace for combustion of the fuel with excess air coefficient equal to 4 - 5. The excess air supplied to the combustion of gaseous fuel , equal to 4 - 5 provides a complete combustion of gaseous fuel and partial combustion of anthracite with allocation of the total amount of heat sufficient for efficient combustion of anthracite in the volume of the layer.

If in anthracite are pieces of size less than 20 mm, then decreases the porosity of the material in the layer and, consequently, worsen the diffusion processes of removal of volatile anthracite is the CTL large pieces.

If the amount of water for processing anthracite less than 2% of its mass, the calcining zone is extended, moves to the cold end of the furnace and, consequently, increases the waste material in the furnace. If the amount of water more than 5% by weight of anthracite, increasing the cost of heat for evaporation of excess moisture, reduces the calcining zone and, consequently, worsen thermal characteristics of the calcined ermantraut.

If the ratio of heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel to heat from burning anthracite less than 2.7, there is a frenzy of material and consequently its loss; if the specified ratio of 3.7, the amount of heat in the layer is not sufficient for high quality baking anthracite.

If the temperature of ermantraut after cooling water is less than 500oC, it increases the residual moisture of ermantraut. If the temperature is more than 700oC, ermantraut optionally oxidized in the air.

If the coefficient of excess air supplied to the combustion gas, less than 4, then decreases the amount of heat dissipated in the material layer, which leads to deterioration of thermophysical properties of ermantraut, and if more than 5, it increases the waste of material and loss of PR is 73.5 m and a diameter of 2.5 m Hot head of the kiln is equipped with 10 recuperators, diameter 0,88 m

For calcination used anthracite Obukhov field of fractions of 20 - 60 mm with a volatile content of 2%, ash content of 4.1 - 4.6%, the specific resistivity 90000 - 100000 Mmm2/m and a moisture content of 3-4%.

the calcination was carried out according to the three variants of the proposed technology. On disc feeder original filed anthracite in the amount of 6.5 t/h Anthracite on the disc feeder moistened with water in an amount of 2 to 5% by weight of anthracite. Moist anthracite with disc feeder came in cochlear feeder, then through trebaticky into the rotary kiln.

The residence time of material in the furnace was 2.3 hours of heat in the furnace came from natural gas combustion in infectious burner. Consumption of natural gas at the beginning of the process was 350 - 400 nm3/h, then at steady-state heat mode, the consumption of natural gas was 200 - 250 nm3/h Air for combustion of natural gas were served abundantly with equal 4 and 5 through the holes on the front end wall of the heat exchanger. The remaining part of the heat for the process came from the burning of anthracite in the calcining zone. The ratio between the number of th is 3,7.

The material temperature in the calcining zone was 1350 - 1400oC. In the cooling zone in the furnace area 5 - 7 m ermantraut was cooled to a temperature of 1000 - 1200oC. Ermantraut at the outlet of the furnace in a heat exchanger cooled dusiruumis the flow of water in 90 - 120 l/T. At a temperature of 500 to 700oC ermantraut was admitted to the heat exchanger where it was cooled by a stream of air entering through the holes on the front end wall of the heat exchanger, due to the vacuum generated in the furnace exhaust fan, and due to the injection of a jet of natural gas at the outlet of the burner.

The fourth option corresponds to the prototype method, where the calcination of anthracite was performed in a 20-metre rotary tube furnace with a diameter of 2.2 m, the cooling ermantraut carried out in a rotating drum with a length of 12 m and a diameter of 1, 2 m, the outer surface of which is cooled by water.

The performance gain ermantraut the kilns on the four options presented in the table.

The table shows: the use of the proposed method for options 1 to 3 in comparison with the prototype (option 4) showed that turns ermantraut 2.8 - 3.0 times more output from a given anthracite 20.4 - 23,3>/m, virtually no moisture, ash content is the same).

In addition, the method prototype for cooling ermantraut using the optional rotary drum, in which the waste material is 10%.

The method of producing ermantraut in a rotary tubular furnace, including the preparation and submission of anthracite coal in a rotary kiln, operating on gaseous fuels, roasting it in the oven and then cooling ermantraut, characterized in that the anthracite prepare a class size of 20 - 60 mm and before feeding into the furnace is treated with water in an amount of 2 to 5% by weight of anthracite coal, the burning of anthracite is carried out with respect to the heat from the combustion of gaseous fuel to heat from burning anthracite 1 : (2,7 - 3,7), and subsequent cooling of ermantraut spend at the outlet of the furnace dusiruumis the flow of water to a temperature of 500 to 700oC, then air supplied to the combustion of gaseous fuel with air excess factor equal to 4 - 5.


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