The method of obtaining coal briquettes
(57) Abstract:Usage: as a fuel for combustion in domestic and industrial furnaces. The inventive method of obtaining coal briquettes includes dewatering of the coal slurry to 10 - 35% moisture content, mixing the coal particles and the mineral component of the original sludge, the subsequent formation of dewatered sludge with a particle size of minus 1 mm not less than 90%, with a total ash content of 30 to 70% when the content in the ash of silicon oxide 25 - 60% and / or aluminum oxide 17 - 50%, at a pressure of 0.001 to 20 MPa and subsequent heat treatment at 200 - 700oC for 1 to 60 min in a non-oxidizing environment; advanced coal slurry contains at least 25% of conglomerating coals. You get a coal briquette solid, porous, water-resistant, low moisture content, organic and volatile matters, which has rational molding surface; mechanical strength, resistance of the briquettes from coal slurry ensure good protection during transport and during adverse atmospheric influences. 2H.p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to a process for the agglomeration of coal slimes and fine grades of coal. Received Brik is ten how agglomeration of coal fines, coal slime sizes up to 6 mm, the humidity is not less than 10% volatile not less than 12% in stamp block by passing through the load pulse current of high frequency heating of the entire mass of coal particles or the surface to 500 - 800oC (1).The disadvantages of this method are the high energy costs, high density briquettes, which prevents the burning of coal in the Central part of the briquette.A method of obtaining briquetted waste coal, including thickening of the suspension of fine fractions from waste coal fractions of up to 0.1 mm 70 90 wt. and ash content of 60 to 80% mixing it with dry waste coal particles less than 10 mm, forming and dewatering waste mixture at 20 to 40 MPa for 10 to 20 to a moisture content of 5,6 12,7% (2). In this way we obtain briquettes with the strength of 9.1 24.6 kg/briquettes with a density of 2.2 - 2.4 kg/cm3.The disadvantages of this method are the high capital cost of construction of the installation, the volatility of technological modes with simultaneous dehydration and the formation of mass, the low strength of the briquettes and the high density briquettes, which causes incomplete burning of coal.The closest is janiem water 5 8 weight.h. with the addition of 3 to 10 weight.h. the lignosulphonate (dry or liquid) by molding the mixture at 100 to 200 MPa in the briquettes and the subsequent heat treatment of the briquettes at 200 600oC and up to 700oC when using coking coal, for from 10 min to 120 min; for molding use coal with an ash content of 2.5 to 10% containing volatile 4 20% with granulometric composition: +3 mm 20% +0,5 mm 30 55% and +0.2 mm 50-75% (3). The result is a smoke-free, durable and water-resistant fuel.The disadvantage of this method is that the use of binders increase the cost, and the density of the produced briquettes prevents burnout of the coal from the middle of the briquettes.The proposed method provides lower initial capital costs, reducing power consumption in energy production, increase of productivity, improvement of consumer properties of fuel briquettes by increasing its strength, water resistance and complete burnout of the coal briquette.The inventive method of obtaining coal briquettes includes dewatering of the coal slurry to 10 35% humidity, mixing the coal particles and the mineral component of the original slurry, subsequent molding dehydrated specified weight with granulometries is as aluminum 17 50% at a pressure of 0.001 to 20 MPa and subsequent heat treatment at 200 700oC for 1 to 60 min in a non-oxidizing environment; advanced coal slurry contains at least 25% of conglomerating coals.You get a coal briquette solid, porous, water-resistant, low moisture content, organic and volatile matters, which has rational molding surface. High mechanical strength, resistance of the briquettes from coal slurry ensure good protection during transport and during adverse atmospheric influences. In addition, the briquette has a calorific value higher than the original sludge, because of lower content of moisture, and volatile organic substances by heat treatment. The porosity of the pellets provides a complete burnout of the coal burning briquettes. When burning briquettes provides a reduced content of emitted harmful substances. Briquettes can be used for energy purposes in the municipal sector, and ash in construction and other industries.Implementation of the proposed method allows to obtain in comparison with the known method is the prototype of the smaller initial capital and operating costs that is isomer 1. As a source of raw materials used dehydrated coal slurry brand TMSS to sieve composition in the range of 0 to 1 mm 99% humidity 10,0% heat starunia (lower) 1860 kcal/kg, ash content 53,9% when the content of silicon oxide 57,88% and aluminum oxide 26,62% impurity - rest.The slurry is stirred for averaging in screw continuous mixer. After mixing, the slurry is loaded into the hopper of a hydraulic press, where at a pressure of 20 MPa, the slurry is molded in the form of cylinders with a diameter of 15 to 25 mm and the guides pushed to the surface continuous hinge chain specially equipped conveyor, which passes through the heat chamber, which is firing the briquettes at a temperature of 200oC for 40 min in an environment of exhaust gases.Next, the resulting briquettes on cooling trays are moved to a loading hopper or the hopper of the packaging machine, which compresses the fuel in the bags (plastic or paper).The resulting briquettes test results have a compressive strength of 20 to 30 kg/cm2the strength of the dropping of the residue on the sieve +25 mm 90 93% good thermal stability, as when burned to complete combustion retain their shape, keytm brand TMSS to sieve composition in the range of 0 to 1 mm, 99% humidity, 24.6% of the heat of combustion (lower) 1975 kcal/kg, ash content of 58.8% when the content of silicon oxide 50% and aluminum oxide 50% impurity - rest.The slurry is stirred for averaging in screw continuous mixer. After mixing, the slurry is loaded into the hopper of a hydraulic press, where at a pressure of 10 MPa, the slurry is molded in the form of cylinders with a diameter of 15 to 25 mm and the guides pushed to the surface continuous hinge chain specially equipped conveyor, which passes through the heat chamber, which is firing the briquettes at a temperature of 700oC for 1 min in an environment of exhaust gases.Next, the resulting briquettes on cooling trays are moved into the loading hopper or the hopper of the packaging machine, which compresses the fuel in the bags (plastic or paper).The resulting briquettes test results have a compressive strength of 60 to 70 kg/cm2the strength of the dropping of the residue on the sieve +25 mm 96-98% good thermal stability, as when burned to complete combustion retain their shape, good resistance to moisture, do not disintegrate when immersed them in water.Example 3. As a source of raw materials used dehydrated coal slurry brand CSSGJ with serjania of silicon oxide 35 wt. and alumina and 30 wt. conglomerating grade coal GZH 25 wt.The slurry is stirred for averaging in screw continuous mixer. After mixing, the mixture is loaded into the hopper of the extruder continuous action with a modified nozzle that squirts at a pressure of 0.001 MPa fuel mixture, diameter 15 to 25 mm, and the guides pushed to the surface continuous hinge chain specially equipped conveyor, which passes through the heat chamber, which is burning briquettes at 450oC for 20 min in an environment of exhaust gases.Next, the resulting briquettes on cooling trays are moved into the loading hopper or the hopper of the packaging machine that packages omeskanie fuel bags (plastic or paper).The resulting briquettes test results have a compressive strength of 65 to 70 kg/cm2the strength of the dropping of the residue on the sieve +25 mm 96 98% good thermal stability, as when burned to complete combustion retain their shape, good resistance to moisture, do not disintegrate when immersed them in water.In addition to these examples were carried out manufacturing of pilot batches of pellets from raw materials, the nature of the om, implementation of the proposed method of manufacture of coal briquettes from coal sludge provides in comparison with the known method the reduction of initial capital and operating costs. Reduced energy costs, emissions, increased performance, expanded scope.Received on the proposed method, the coal cake in comparison with the known porous, which ensures complete burning of coal during the combustion of the briquettes, durable, water-resistant, low moisture content, organic and volatile substances, which improves the calorific value and environmental performance in use. Coal briquette has a rational molding surface.Sources of information
1. USSR author's certificate N 138221, C 10 L 5/04, 1961.1. USSR author's certificate N 1481253, C 10 L 5/48, 1989.1. UK Application N 1321729, C 10 L 5/02, 1973. 1. The method of obtaining coal briquettes, including dewatering of the coal slurry, forming the dehydrated coal slime briquetting and subsequent heat treatment of the briquettes at 200 700o, Characterized in that the dehydrated coal slurry to a moisture content of 10 to 35% serves on formula ashes of silicon oxide 25 to 60% and/or aluminum oxide 17 50% and molding is carried out at 0.001 to 20 MPa.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the heat treatment at 200 - 700oWith lead for 1 to 40 minutes in a non-oxidizing environment.3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the coal slurry contains at least 25% of conglomerating coals.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and system for briquetting powder materials, for instance, moisture-containing, bituminous and semi-bituminous coals, without using binding agent. Method (versions) includes stages, at which powder material, probably, is partly dried, and supplied into briquetting device in conditions, when condensed gas is introduced into briquetting device at the time of supply or in conditions, when water vapour is released from powder material during supply. Briquettes are formed in briquetting section of briquetting device, where briquettes are formed from powder material in conditions that lead to condensation of gas component, reducing in that way, pressure growth during briquette formation. Invention also includes system (versions) for briquetting powder materials according to two methods stated above.
EFFECT: reduction of gas inrush during formation of coal dust into briquette.
52 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of production of hard fuel of organic origin, namely, to formation of agglomerated fuel from wastes of carbon-containing materials. The method includes mechanical action on raw material with gradual increase in loading and its volume compression. During mechanical action raw material is grinded until viscous-plastic state is obtained. The device includes loading bin, cylinder-cone frame, auger shaft with transporting and pressing blades and has longitudinal protrusions located along the frame on its inner surface and a row of dies, each of being fixed in the frame at a distance from each other, with an auger shaft passed through the central holes of the latter.
EFFECT: increase in degree of fuel plasticity and strength whatever the original raw material without any hardening agents and additives and higher productivity of device.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes; metallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for recycling of chemical-recovery production wastes. Coal sludges are loaded in molds 1 of transporter 2 and supplied to furnace 3, where they are thermally treated. Briquetting is done without binding agent, and thermal treatment is carried out at the temperature of 330-390 °C for 120-40 minutes.
EFFECT: reduction of prime cost and increase of briquettes mechanical strength.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of recycling solid domestic wastes (SDW) into fuel for furnaces of high-temperature synthesis of a cement clinker, including sorting of initial SDW so that at first such incombustible fractions such as batteries, stones, fragments of glass and faience, then secondary materials are extracted, including ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The remaining mass is previously ground to the fraction of 50-100 mm, dried to humidity of 5-10%, and then ground to the fraction of 8-10 mm. The ground raw materials are heated to 160-200°C and exposed to thermoplastic extrusion to produce fuel pellets.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase physical and mechanical strength of RDF fuel, to eliminate water absorption due to capsulation of granules in process of their manufacturing, to prevent possibility of rotting and self-ignition, to reduce costs during storage and transportation, to reduce energy intensity of its production, to improve environment, also to reduce volume of SDW removed to SDW landfills, to eliminate capital costs for construction of plants for wastes management in connection with usage of equipment of existing cement production facilities.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for obtaining briquetted solid fuel, which can reduce the cost of briquetting at maintaining the strength of briquetted product. Mixed oil that contains heavy oil and oil-solvent, and porous coal having moisture content of 30 to 70 wt %, is mixed so that a suspension is obtained. Suspension is dehydrated by heating so that dehydrated suspension is obtained. Oil-solvent is extracted from dehydrated suspension so that the residue is obtained. The residue is heated, and oil-solvent is extracted in addition from the residue so that modified coal is obtained. Moisture is introduced to modified coal so that wet modified coal with moisture content of 3-10 wt % is obtained. At the stage of moisture introduction, crushed porous coal with moisture content of 30 to 70 wt % is mixed with modified coal. Then, wet modified coal is briquetted under pressure.
EFFECT: reduction of briquetting cost at maintaining the briquette strength.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.
EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.
FIELD: wood working industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves without chemical cementing components, characterized by that they are sieved for removal of large-size elements, loaded into a dryer for decrease of humidity down to 10%, crushed until obtaining of a mix of particles with the size less than 15 mm and the volume no more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, formed, pressed at the pressure 120-140 kg/cm2 and the temperature 250-350°C without air access. The invention describes also the briquette obtained by the named method.
EFFECT: obtaining robust briquettes from wood sawdust and leaves, without using the chemical cementing components.
5 cl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method implementations for forming gas hydrate granules in apparatus for forming gas hydrate, which includes generator, whereto initial gaseous material and water are fed, and enabled to ensure reaction of starting gaseous material with water at high pressure in order to produce gas hydrate suspension, and to remove water from gas hydrate suspension, which is performed in order to form gas hydrate suspension into gas hydrate granules of required size. At that said method includes following steps on which in one version, gas hydrate suspension is fed cylindrical compression chamber equipped with compression plunger able to move to and fro in cylindrical compression chamber in axial direction of compression chamber, and compression plunger is moved for applying compression for extrusion of water from gas hydrate suspension and forming gas hydrate granules; speed of compression plunger is minimised while water is forced out from gas hydrate suspension so that connection between gas hydrate particles strengthens and formed gas hydrate granules have high shear resistance.
EFFECT: produced gas hydrate granules have high shear resistance, which is convenient for handling during transportation and storage.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: manufacture method of the briquetted solid fuel includes the following steps: spraying of the low quality coal to produce the pulverized low quality coal; mixing with the oil solvent to form the dewatered suspension; heating and thereby dewatering of the suspension to form the dewatered suspension; separation of the oil solvent from the dewatered suspension by liquid-solid body separation to obtain the cake; heating and thereby drying the cake, so to separate additionally the oil solvent from the cake and to obtain the refined coal in the powder form; mixing of the refined coal with the coal to control the properties in the powder form, in order to control the properties of the refined coal and thereby to obtain the feedstock for briquetting, containing the coal to adjust the properties in the amount from 5 to 70% wt %, based on the total weight of the briquetted feedstock, the mentioned carbon to control the properties, having the free bulk density 0.6 kg/l or more and the natural repose angle of 40° or less, and the feedstock briquetting for the briquetting under the pressure to produce the briquetted solid fuel in the form of briquettes.
EFFECT: production of briquetted solid fuel from low-quality coal with high strength.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 9 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing moulded solid fuel, comprising: a pulverization stage for pulverizing low-grade coal; a stirring stage for mixing the pulverized low-grade coal and the oil solvent to form a slurry; a dewatering stage for heating and dewatering the slurry to form an anhydrous slurry; a stage for separating solid and liquid phases to separate the oil solvent from the dehydrated slurry to form a precipitate; a drying stage for heating the precipitate to further separate the oil solvent from the precipitate to produce powdered coal of enhanced quality; and a moulding stage for compression moulding the powdered coal of improved quality by means of a moulding device without adding and/or mixing with a bonding material, in which at the stage of forming the moulding device on the surface, a cooling substance is pulverized to cool the surface and thus the surface temperature of the moulding device is maintained at 100°C or below.
EFFECT: producing moulded solid fuel from low-grade coal, having high strength.
6 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of solid carbonaceous fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of solid fuel briquettes and may be used at enterprises producing a household fuel. The method provides for mixing of slack coal (sludge cake) with the diameter of fragments of 0.05-0 mm with a mass share a moisture of 16-17 % and with 5 % (23-34 %) of water solution of a cationic polyelectrolyte, compaction of a charge mixture by a hydraulic press at the pressure of 340 kg/cm2 and the thermal treatment at the temperature of t=150°C within 30 minutes. The invention allows to reduce pollutants emissions into the aerosphere at incineration of the solid fuel briquettes that reduces the negative effect on the natural environment and also to exclude the usage of an expensive undersized coke.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the contaminants emissions into the aerosphere at incineration of the solid fuel briquettes and reduction of the negative effect on the natural environment and also to exclude the usage of the expensive undersized coke.
FIELD: solid fuel technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for application in production of solid fuel in metallurgy and for domestic necessities. Method of restoring sieve composition of coke comprises mixing off-grad coke with binder, such as various cement brands and Portland cement, moistening, briquetting of mix followed by heat treatment, and cooling. Off-grad coke utilized is coke fines fraction 0-10 mm and/or coke nut fraction 10-25 mm belonging to a certain types, which are mixed with binder at ratio (60-95):(5-40), respectively. Moistening is provided by adding water to 35% based on the weight of mix. Heat treatment is effected with steam. Cooling proceeds at ambient temperature to residual moisture content 5%. Mix is completed with filler in the form of organic or inorganic naturally occurring or man-made substances. Briquetting is effected on either vibration or press equipment. Coke briquette contains 60 to 95% of above-defined off-grade coke and 5 to 40 % of binder. Size of thus manufactured briquettes corresponds to required sieve composition of coke.
EFFECT: enabled full restoration of all fractions of needless process coke residues to useful sieve composition appropriate for fabrication of environmentally safe briquettes with improved consumer's properties without considerable investments.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex