Anchor electric dc machine

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely electrical DC machines and can be used in the design of traction motors, ship crests electric motors, excavators, etc. the Invention solves the problem of creating the design of anchors, allowing to obtain the minimum weight and dimensions DC machine with a low level Zubovich harmonic vibrations. For this purpose, the active length of the anchor, each winding layer are composed of alternating between a covered winding insulation of the conductors of the coil and ferromagnetic elements, in particular laminated trapezoidal cross-section. On each winding layer superimposed bandage in the form of a continuous coating of electrically insulating material, in particular glass-fiber tape. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering, namely electrical DC machines and can be used in the development of machines of medium and high power, e.g., traction motors for locomotives, trams, trains), ship propeller motors, electric motors, excavators, pretannage current are reduced weight and performance and reduced vibration.

One of the main obstacles in this direction is the application of the most current designs of electric machines gear anchors. The conductors of the winding are placed in the slots between the teeth and are separated from the surrounding groove iron electrical insulation, the thickness of which, depending on its type, operating conditions of the machine, and also taking into account experience of mechanical engineering, machines for medium and high power with a nominal voltage of about 0.5-3 kV up to 1-1,5 mm on a side (see Alekseev, A. E. Traction electric machines and transformers. L. Energy, 1977, S. 304).

During the rotation of the armature occurs a periodic change in the number of teeth under the pole of the machine, which causes pulsation of the magnetic flux with a frequency proportional to the number of teeth, and, as a consequence, there are corresponding components in the spectrum of the vibrations of the machine ("subtopia harmonic").

A possible way to reduce the amount of insulation in the winding layer and eliminate Zubovich harmonic vibration is shifting to the use bezzubova design anchor ("smooth anchor"). The turns of the winding in the anchors of this type are placed on the insulated surface of buzz is ten several designs of DC machines with a smooth anchor (see auth.St. N 394895, H 02 TO 3/46, 1973.).

The common disadvantage of these machines, due to the absence of conductive elements in the wrapping layer is the large size of the nonmagnetic gap. Especially it appears in the machines of large capacity, respectively, and having a greater thickness of the wrapping layer. The increase of the consumption power in the excitation winding leads to poor efficiency and growth massoumi performance of the machine, causing the machine constant current with a smooth anchor currently find application mainly in low-power systems automation (see Electric motors with smooth anchor for automation systems. Ed. by Y. K. Vasiliev. M Energy, 1979).

In the inventions according to ed.mon. N 917262, H 02 TO 1/06, 1982. winding is assumed made of bimetallic material consisting of conductive and conductive parts. Through the ferromagnetic material (steel) is part of the total electric current of the winding, resulting in increased current load winding layer anchors. However, in machines of direct current application of the windings of the bimetal is impractical for the following reasons.

The presence of ferromagnetic elements in labovitch threads mutual induction with the other sections. As a consequence, increases the amount of reactive EMF and will worsen the process of switching (see Waldeck A. I. Electrical machines. M.-L. Energy, 1966). By increasing the magnetic conductivity of the end parts of the winding of the rotor will increase the flow of scattering the main and extension poles.

Parallel connection of copper conductors to steel cores will lead to the reduction of the electrical resistance on the path of the induced eddy currents in the steel, and therefore, increase the corresponding power loss, especially at high frequency alternating magnetization (20oC 50 Hz).

In addition, as proposed in the above inventions, the design of the armature winding, is intended for use on stationary (stator) part of polyphase AC machines and practically can not be realized on the rotating rotor of the DC machine.

Any technical solutions aimed at reducing machine vibration subcatego nature (arising from the introduction in the current layer of ferromagnetic elements), considered the proposals do not contain.

On set of core characteristics (type of current machine, the design and method of attachment ostavlennoj in ed.St. 394895, H 02 TO 3/46, 1973. which was adopted for the prototype.

In the known construction the winding is placed on an isolated surface bezzubova anchors, fixed brace and attached to the armature core in the form of a monolithic layer.

Such design provides easy mounting of the wrapping layer on the anchor, the absence of electromagnetic vibrations subcatego origin, but has a total lack of cars with a smooth anchor increased non-magnetic gap, leading to a deterioration massoumi performance of the machine (or lower efficiency).

The task of the claimed invention is to provide a construction anchor DC machine, which allows to obtain the minimum Massabielle performance machine with a low level Zubovich harmonic vibration.

This is achieved in that the active length of the anchor DC machine containing bezzubova the magnetic core and fixed by a band of insulating material and zamonolichennyj with him winding, each winding layer is selected from alternating between the covered winding insulation of the conductors of the coil and ferromagnetic elements, for example, laminated, for example, tropeziennes material, for example, fiberglass tape. The thickness of the ferromagnetic elements is not greater than the value of the total non-magnetic gap of the machine.

The presence of the wrapping layer of ferromagnetic elements provides sufficient magnetic conductivity for the main magnetic flux, and the small volume occupied by the insulation layer (only a thin winding) the possibility of obtaining high levels of fill layer conductors. As a consequence, reduces the required MDS field windings, and the total mass and volume of the machine with the anchor of the proposed design is less than the anchor adopted for the prototype or jagged.

Unlike the prototype during the rotation of the armature of the proposed design, you may experience vibration machine subcatego nature due to the presence on it of the ferromagnetic elements. However, the adoption of certain constructive measures the vibration level can be reduced to acceptable values.

As is well known (see Lubov I., Noise and vibration of electrical machines. L. Energoatomizdat, 1986), the value of the main pathogens vibration DC machines electromagnetic origin alternating forces acting on the pole when prohozhdenie the down reduced, with a relative decrease of the width of the tooth.

In machines with toothed anchor through the teeth on the core of the rotor is transmitted torque machine (electromagnetic forces acting on the conductors located in the groove and, therefore, the width of the tooth at the base cannot be less than allowable under the terms of its mechanical strength. In the car with a smooth anchor and zamonolichennymi winding layer of torque transmitted through the wrapping layer, and a ferromagnetic insert, through which the magnetic flux, do not perform the functions of the main elements for torque transmission. This allows you to take when designing a machine width of the ferromagnetic inserts smaller than the machines with toothed anchor, and to reduce the vibration level.

Satisfy the majority of practical cases, and significantly less than the machines with toothed anchor the vibration level from Zubovich harmonic can be achieved by reducing the thickness of the ferromagnetic elements to values smaller than the value of the non-magnetic gap of the machine (as defined by the total amount of primary air gap and radial thicknesses of the Cabinet, the interlayer and the outer insulation of the windings).

The drawing shows a schematic cross RA is performed as follows.

On the shaft 1 is mounted a core 2 made of sheets of electrical iron. On the cylindrical outer surface of the core stacked layer encasing the insulation 3. This layer is placed a rod conductors of the lower layer coil 4, is covered with winding insulation 5, and turn to them (in the tangential direction) of the stacked ferromagnetic elements of the rods 6, the length of which corresponds to the active length of the machine.

Ferromagnetic elements 6 have a cross-section in the form of a line extending in the radial direction. Such design allows the best way to fill the volume between the conductive terminals and to provide a minimum magnetic resistance in the path of the magnetic flux. To ensure small vibration level of the machine the maximum thickness of the ferromagnetic elements does not exceed the total non-magnetic gap of the machine, and at high speeds the machine (magnetization reversal) they can be made of laminated.

The lower winding layer, including ferromagnetic elements 6, covered with a layer of insulating tape 7, such as fiberglass, which simultaneously performs the functions of the power band and electrically insulating layer, OTDELA rods 8 and ferromagnetic elements 9, covered external insulation 10 (tie-wraps). All winding layers impregnated and zamonolichennyj in electrically insulating material.

Calculations (including, jointly with LPEA "Electrosila"), as well as experimental studies of models of machines of various capacities (including the manufacture and testing of anchors for the tram engine with a capacity of 45 kW) confirmed the possibility of implementing the proposed design. Thus the expected payo by weight compared to the engine with a smooth anchor of known construction will be at least twice as compared with the engine gear anchor 20-40% (depending on machine parameters, power, speed).

Proposed to reduce Zubovich components of vibration technical solution was tested by calculation and experimentally produced samples of electric machines (measuring the vibration level).

1. Anchor electric DC machine containing bezzubova the magnetic core and the winding, mounted on the insulated surface of the magnetic circuit using a band of insulating material and zamonolichennyj together with bandage, characterized in that each winding layer on the active is the shaft elements of trapezoidal cross-section, in particular laminated, and a band of insulating material superimposed on each winding layer and is made in the form of a continuous coating, in particular of the fiberglass tape.

2. Anchor under item 1, characterized in that the thickness of the ferromagnetic elements does not exceed the total non-magnetic gap of the machine.

 

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