Highly maneuverable aircraft
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to aircraft construction. Highly maneuverable aircraft includes a fuselage 1 of circular cross section with an inlet 2 and cabin 3 crew in the forward part of the engine 4, located in the rear fuselage 1, the swept wing 5 variable sweep with mechanization in the form of a rotary flap 6 on the trailing edge 5 and pylon mounted on the fixed part of the wing 5, tail of the normal scheme and tricycle landing gear with nose wheel 9. New in the design of highly maneuverable aircraft is performing a fixed part of the wing 5 with the brake plate 18, the extra bearing surfaces 14, is arranged to move relative to the toe of the wing 5, above the wing 5 in its front part, the execution of the pylon in the form of additional vertical fin 11 with the rudder 12. In addition, construction of the additional bearing surface 14 provided with a bypass valve mounted on its lower surface, and a slot 17 on the rear edge. 5 Il. The invention relates to the field of aircraft construction, in particular the aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft, increasing its manurenitrogen supersonic aircraft, in particular fighters conventional configuration by appropriate choice of its weight and geometrical parameters is becoming more difficult and expensive. Most attention in the complex program for enhancing maneuverability of fighter deserves this technical nefazodone and improvement, which will allow you to directly control the lifting force, the lateral force resistance and reduce the margin of static stability of the aircraft (1).Known plane containing structurally fuselage with a cockpit in the nose, a motor located in the rear fuselage, a fixed wing sweep, vertical fins, and additional bearing surface located in front of the wing in the forward fuselage for rotation with relatively node portion (2). Additional bearing surface, made in the form of nasal horizontal tail, designed to balance the longitudinal plane under the direct control of the lifting force and automatic stabilization.The shortcoming of known aircraft is that the use of additional supporting surfaces can improve munivrana lateral force is almost impossible, because the design does not contain additional vertical surfaces, providing the change in aerodynamic forces without breaking balance. Turn all of the aircraft in the horizontal plane without changing the planar position of the aircraft is almost impossible.Known plane containing the fuselage of circular cross section with a crew cabin in the bow, the engines located in the rear fuselage, a fixed wing sweep, additional bearing surface mounted stationary in the forward fuselage in front of the wing, equipped with steering surfaces, fins with the rudder, located on the wing tips (3).The disadvantage of this aircraft is its low (weak) maneuverability. The reason for this is constructive execution wing of large aspect with low construction height of the chord of the wing along its length (low Flexural and torsional rigidity). Also front location additional horizontal tail relative to the wing does not allow the use of aerodynamic effects that improve su the wing during takeoff and landing. While turning steering surfaces on both keels constructive lateral forces, allowing you to move the plane in the plane without changing the direction of motion, angle of attack, roll and slip.Known for highly maneuverable aircraft chance Vom F7U "Cutlas" containing the fuselage with the cockpit and the bow, the motor located in the rear fuselage, a fixed wing sweep, where approximately 50% of poluraspada from the axis of the aircraft is equipped with two keel with rudders, tricycle landing gear with nose wheel (4).The disadvantage of highly maneuverable aircraft is that the constructive arrangement of the fins with rudders behind the center of mass of the aircraft does not provide the plane of its rotation in the horizontal plane without changing the planar position of the last (not eliminated the yaw of the aircraft and the movement of the rudders).The closest technical solution design and performed the tasks selected as a prototype, is maneuverable plane containing the fuselage of circular cross section with inlet and crew cabin in the bow, a motor located in the rear fuselage, swept-wing variable sweep with mechanization in the e plumage normal scheme and tricycle landing gear with nose wheel (5).Disadvantages maneuverable aircraft, selected as a prototype, are
the impossibility of providing rotation of all of the aircraft in the horizontal plane without changing the direction of movement (flight), angle of attack, roll and slip;
the increase of su the wing is only due to the mechanization of the wing that is not sufficient;
the inability to increase the efficiency of the flap due to the absence of additional external airflow surface of the wing and flap at the top (by "sticking" of the air flow to the upper surface of the wing and released mechanization), which reduces the lifting force, especially on takeoff and landing (6).The aim of the invention is to increase the landing and maneuvering characteristics in vertical and horizontal planes.This objective is achieved in that in a highly maneuverable plane containing the fuselage of circular cross section with inlet and crew cabin in the bow, a motor located in the rear fuselage, swept-wing variable sweep with mechanization in the form of a rotary flaps on the trailing edge of the wing and pylon on the fixed part of the wing, tail normal , in the fore part of the wing on its upper surface, additional bearing surface is located above the wing in its anterior part, and the pylon is made in the form of a vertical tail with rudder, with additional bearing surface is configured to move relative to the toe of the wing along the fuselage and forms with the wing channel, limited fuselage and additional vertical fin, with a profile that provides a narrowing of the channel relative to the fixed part of the wing throughout the range of movement, the bottom plane of additional bearing surface provided with a by-pass valves, additional shank bearing surface is made a slot for blowing air, and the brake plate is in the deflected position locks the narrowing channel and recorded in the locks on the additional bearing surface.The goal is indeed possible, as the design implementation of the additional bearing surfaces moving along the fuselage and additional vertical fin is technically possible. Such movement is possible, for example, on rails installed on the fuselage and on the additional vertical plumage, and the drive movement of the bearing surfaces can the La, and Electromechanical. The narrowing channel for the flow of the upper surface of the fixed part of the wing and the flap formed by the curvature of the wing upper surface, a flat bottom surface additional bearing surfaces and walls of the fuselage and additional vertical fin. Technologically, it is also possible maintaining the profile of the channel tapering in the entire range of movement of the additional bearing surfaces for directing, producing additional bearing surface with the holes on the bottom surface, closing the bypass valves, manufacturing slots in the shank of the additional bearing surface intended for blowing air from the inner plane of the latter, manufacturing brake, deviating up, and make it so that in the retracted position it coincides with the shape of the toe of the wing. In the released position, the brake flap overlaps the tapering entrance channel and recorded in the locks located on the additional bearing surface.Comparative analysis of the claimed technical solution with the prototype shows that the proposed highly maneuverable aircraft differs in that the surface over a wing installed additional bearing surface, and the pylon is made in the form of a vertical tail with rudder, with additional bearing surface is configured to move relative to the toe of the wing along the fuselage and forms a channel bounded by the fuselage and additional vertical fin, profile, forming a narrowing of the channel relative to the fixed part of the wing throughout the range of movement, the bottom plane of additional bearing surface provided propusknye valves, additional shank bearing surface is made a slot for blowing air, and the brake plate is in the deflected position locks the narrowing channel and recorded in the locks on the additional bearing surface.Thus, the claimed highly maneuverable aircraft meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty."Comparison of the proposed technical solution is not only the prototype, but also other technical solutions in this field of technology, failed to reveal any sign that distinguish the claimed highly maneuverable aircraft from the prototype that allows to make a conclusion on compliance with the criteria and essential differences.In Fig. 1 pre surfaces; in Fig. 3 - scheme of the mutual location of the wing and an additional bearing surface for different modes of operation; Fig. 4 scheme of joint work additional bearing surface, wing and brake; Fig.5 scheme of work additional vertical fin with maneuverability in the horizontal plane.Highly maneuverable aircraft includes a fuselage 1 of circular cross section with an inlet 2 and cabin 3 crew in the bow, the engine 4 in the rear fuselage, swept wing 5 variable sweep with mechanization in the form of a rotary flap 6 on the trailing edge 5, 7 vertical and horizontal 8 plumage normal scheme, tricycle landing gear with nose wheel 9 and main bearings 10 chassis. On the fixed part of the wing 5 in the area of the swivel unit is made pylon in the form of additional vertical fin 11 with the rudder 12. On Board of the fuselage 1 in the toe area of the wing 5 and additional vertical plumage 11 made guides 13, which provide additional bearing surface 14. The bottom plane of additional bearing surface 14 is made with holes 15 (Fig. 2) closing the bypass valve 16. The shank DOPOLNITEL plate 18 installed on the fixed part of the wing 5 and are designed to reject up with the lock in the extended position in the locks on the additional bearing surface 14.Highly maneuverable aircraft operates as follows.Takeoff is similar to the plane prototype. Thus, before takeoff produced mechanization of the wing 5 in the form of a rotary flap 6, which is installed on the take-off angle (in take-off position), additional bearing surface 14 is moved along the guide rails 13, performed on the fuselage 1 and additional vertical plumage 11, in the direction of the keel 7 at a distance of 1/3 of its chord relative to the leading edge of the wing 5. Brake flap 18 is in the retracted position, at which its surface coincides with the shape of the fixed part of the wing 5. Increasing traction motor 4, is the takeoff aircraft on three supports (POS. 9 and 10) with a margin at the desired speed of the forward rack of the chassis 10 and the plane take off with the subsequent cleaning of the racks 9 and 10. During takeoff of the aircraft air flow flowing around the wing 5, enters the channel formed by the upper surface of the wing 5 and the bottom surface of the additional bearing surface 14, side of the fuselage 1 and the wall of the additional vertical fin 11. Structurally, the resulting channel is narrowed to increase the speed of the flow of air from the channel. Istekli his limb back edges of the additional bearing surface 14 and istiqaamah with great speed from the gap 17 on the rear edge surface 14 of the jet of air. This impact on the air flow Vileads to the fact that the air flow becomes irrevocable and has a laminar nature of the flow, even at high angles of attack. The increase of the flow velocity V1near the upper surface of the flap 6 and thereby to delay flow separation to large angles of deflection of the flap. At the same time on the flap air flow Viis sduw boundary layer, which also allows for virtually steady airflow around the flap (Fig. 3,b) (7).In horizontal flight additional bearing surface 14 is automatically moved along the guides 13 and forward a distance approximately 1/3 of its chord ahead of the toe of the wing (with performance above the plane of the wing) (Fig. 3,a). In this case, we have the most advantageous aerodynamic effect of joint use of additional supporting surfaces 14 and the main wing 5. The lift force is created as the main wing, and additional bearing surface 14. To eliminate the excessive positive pressure under additional bearing surfaces 14 (which increases by increasing the flying speed V0), over the entire area of the bottom surface of the extra the excess pressure in a narrowing channel valves 16 are opened and perepuskat under pressure in the air for additional bearing surface 14 through the slit 17 at the trailing edge. This is done to ensure that a positive pressure + P is not locked channel, otherwise part of the wing included from work to create a lifting force. To dramatically decrease the amount of lifting force (for example, for the sudden braking of the aircraft in flight when performing evolutions) issued brake plate 18 (Fig. 4,b), which covers the narrowing channel and off from work to create a lifting force of the wing 5, located behind the flap 18, and an additional bearing surface 14. This effect can be applied on the landing when you touch the main racks of the chassis 10 of the runway.In the flight direction of the aircraft motion can be effected either by operation of the rudder main keel 7, or joint operation of the main vertical fin 7 and additional plumage 11, supplied with the rudders turn 12 (Fig.1,5). In the case of using only the main vertical fin 7 maneuvering in the horizontal plane occurs with change of direction, angle of attack, roll and slip (Fig. 5,a). In the case of joint work of the basic 7 and an additional 11 vertical tail fin (provided that additional vertical tail 11 is in close proximity is Itsa without changing the direction of movement of the aircraft (Fig. 5,b).When planting produced the flaps 6, which is mounted on the seat angle. At the same time additional bearing surface 14 are shifted back in the direction of the fin 7 and the front support chassis 9 and the main bearings 10 are produced. When moving an additional bearing surface 14 in a position that provides a steady airflow around the wing 5 is rejected by the mechanization of 6, due to the organized flow through the compression flow tangential to the surface of the wing, a large part of the wing is flown laminar flow. This event allows you to increase slightly lifting force of the wing on landing flight modes. On the run after touching the main landing 10 chassis runway automatic nomination in the operating position of the brake plate 18, which, blocking the channel of air, providing a steady airflow around the wing 5, contributing to a sharp decrease in the lifting force of the wing (Fig. 4,b) and simultaneously increases the drag of the aircraft, thereby reducing the landing speed and the length of the run. Additional vertical tail 11 on takeoff and landing automatically turns off from the main rudder.Application dopolnitelnye search wing, will contribute to the desired organization unseparated flow past a wing surface in all flight modes, including the mode of takeoff and landing. The variation of the relative position of the additional bearing surfaces relative to the toe of the wing will increase the lifting force of the wing by improving flow wing rejected by the mechanization of laminar air flow and due to the additional area of the bearing surface. The use of additional vertical fin mounted in close proximity to the center of mass of the aircraft and is equipped with a rudder, will allow for the evolution of the aircraft in the horizontal plane by plane move without changing the direction of movement of the aircraft, angle of attack, roll and slide. The use of all these innovations will make the aircraft more efficient and highly maneuverable. Highly maneuverable plane containing the fuselage of circular cross section with inlet and crew cabin in the bow, a motor located in the rear fuselage, swept-wing variable sweep with mechanization in the form of a rotary flap on the rear edge and with a pylon mounted on neodium, that fixed part of the wing is provided with a brake flap located in the forward part of the wing on its upper surface, an additional bearing surface is located above the wing in its anterior part, and the pylon is made in the form of a vertical tail with rudder, with additional bearing surface is configured to move relative to the toe of the wing along the fuselage and forms with the wing channel, limited fuselage and additional vertical fin, with a profile that provides a narrowing of the channel relative to the fixed part of the wing throughout the range of movement, the bottom plane of additional bearing surface provided with a by-pass valve, in the shank of the additional bearing surface is made a slot for blowing air, and the brake plate is in the deflected position locks the narrowing channel and recorded in the locks on the additional bearing surface.
FIELD: aviation; single-rotor helicopters.
SUBSTANCE: proposed helicopter has fuselage with main rotor, tail and end booms and steering rotor; tail boom narrows from rear compartment of fuselage towards end boom; external outlines of cross-sections of end boom have shape of aerodynamic profile forming moment of force counter-acting to reaction torque of main rotor under action of velocity head of air during horizontal flight. Secured on side of tail boom is profiled deflector with aerodynamic outer surface; nose of this deflector is located at level of separation of induction flow of air created by rotation of main rotor from lateral surface of tail boom; inner surface of deflector embraces lower part of lateral surface of tail boom forming air passage narrowing under tail boom with longitudinal slit for discharge of reaction jet of air in way opposite to motion of main rotor above tail boom. Deflector is secured on tail boom at distance equal to 0.65-0.85 of radius of rotation of main rotor blade.
EFFECT: enhanced controllability of single-rotor helicopter equipped with steering rotor in yawing under conditions of critical density of air and increased flying altitudes.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: aviation; vertical takeoff and landing flying vehicles; hoisting units.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes reduction of pressure in closed space above lifting surface at presence of atmospheric pressure under it; lift force is created due to difference between said pressures; closed space is formed by closing the upper open portion of chamber by flat jet of liquid. Provision may be also made for evacuation of air from closed space by means of vacuum pump. Device for creating the lift force has at least one body with lift force and at least one unit for forming the closed space at reduction of pressure above respective surface. Each body is made in form of chamber which is open at the top and bottom forming the lifting surface. Each unit for forming the closed space is made in form of slotted nozzle connected with liquid supply unit and located in upper portion of respective chamber for creating the lift force closing the upper open part of chamber for forming closed space inside it. Chambers may be located one above another so that their lifting surfaces are parallel or lie in one plane. At least one chamber may have lifting surface located at angle relative to horizontal plane. Chamber may be rectangular in section parallel to lifting surface; slotted nozzle mounted on its side surface may form rectangular or round lift force when slotted nozzle is round in shape and is located in chamber concentrically relative to its section for creating diverging circular lift force. Each chamber may have inlet hole of intake passage opposite slotted nozzle; said passage is connected with reservoir connected in its turn with liquid supply unit.
EFFECT: improved technical parameters of flying vehicle and hoisting unit.
11 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: creating of lifting force and thrust and supercharging under pressure.
SUBSTANCE: proposed latticed-and-slotted system contains several working members-wings or blades or vanes which are fastened together and are connected with article by means of coupling components. relative position of working members in space is dictated by their successive forward and upward shifts in way of motion in medium and angle of turn around longitudinal axis, angle of attack beginning with first lower component. Parameters of relative position of each working member may be similar or different from member to member; they may be rigidly fixed by coupling members or may be changed by means of drive in case of considerable change in motion modes: takeoff, landing, acceleration and deceleration; provision is made for mechanically changing the angler of attack relative to medium of motion. Profiles and geometric sizes of each working member are similar or are partially different or different. Working members may be arranged in sections in one row or in modules consisting of two and more sections.
EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency.
4 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: motion in air medium at subsonic speed; subsonic flying vehicles, high-speed ships, trains and trucks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in change of state of boundary layer of transport facility by smoothly heating of at least 70% of surface of transport facility at permissible temperature gradient of ±20°C to temperature not below 60°C connecting the engine plant of transport facility, air intake or compressor by means of mains with passages adjoining from the inside to external skin of transport facility. According to one version of method, heated mixture of air and combustion products is additionally locally blown out through permeable porous inserts on surfaces of transport facility into air flow around it at definite velocity of this flow. Device proposed for realization of this method includes body of transport facility, engine plant 1 and system for change of state of boundary layer formed by air intake or compressor connected with engine plant of transport facility by hermetic mains 5 provided with passages adjoining from the inside to external skin 9 of transport facility body. According to other versions, mains are also brought to porous inserts 11 of skin 9.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
14 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with proposed method, fluid flows forced from nozzles, holes or slits of, at least, one pipe to on one or more surfaces of body. Note here that fluid flows are injected from nozzles, holes or slits on over one or more body surfaces from the surface front edge thus creating pressure potential on the body surface just between the front and rear edges. Here, note that, at least, one pipe is revolved about its axis. The proposed system, designed to create potential on the body surface using fluid flows forced from nozzles, holes or slits of, at least, one pipe to on one or more surfaces of body to set it moving, to control it or make it manoeuvring, comprises, at least, one pipe with nozzles, holes or slits in its wall. The said pipe is located along the body edge, thus forming its front edge from which the flows passing nearby, at least, one body curved surface reduce pressure on the said surface and produce potential relative to its opposite arbitrary-shape surface. Note here that, at least, one pipe revolves about its axis. It is preferable for the said system to have the surface over which the said flows pass made convex and with one curvature. The pipes can be protected by vertical body arranged between the pipes and parallel to them. The said body can be attached to airship. In this case, the body increased pressure side is furnished with plates hinged to front edge of the said pipes. Note that the plates' motion is damped by shock absorbers.
EFFECT: reduced bow wave, ruling out dynamic losses caused by propeller in manoeuvring.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engine production and aircraft engineering. Device to control airflow boundary layer comprises inner space, boundary layer suction channel and air blow channel arranged in compressor vanes and/or aircraft wings. Aforesaid channels communicate aforesaid space with ambient medium. Boundary layer suction channel represents either a continuous slot or tubular channels that pass along normal to blade and/or wing back surface from higher-pressure zone. Channel to blow air from aforesaid space into airflow lower-pressure zone passes at 5° to 15° to profile back along airflow. Nozzle flat variable rotary shapers can be arranged at air blow channel outlet. This invention covers also the method incorporating above described device.
EFFECT: stable airflow, increased angles of attack.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly to light airplanes. Proposed wing comprises spars, stringers and skin, and has back step-cutout arranged on upper surface that features slightly curved bottom and extends along wing span. Wing upper surface support panels designed to regulate the depth of aforesaid step-cutout and pivoted to vary their position with the help of springs. The latter are rigidly coupled with the recess bottom and regulation panel lower surface.
EFFECT: higher lifting properties.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Hollow soft wing with air intake at tip comprises lower surface, upper surface and ribs. Upper surface is furnished with pockets that forms tapered duct to allow airflow to flow through upper slot on wing upper surface.
EFFECT: improved aerodynamics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft with systems of fluid flow ducts for suction out of laminar layer and/or blowing in fluid medium in vulnerable zones of outer skin. Proposed system is connected via controlled valve to pump unit and drive by airflow ejected from aircraft cab to create necessary rarefaction for laminar air suction out. To create increased suction-out pressure, said system is connected via controlled vales to lines of compressed air forced from aircraft and/or additional compressor unit. System incorporates control unit to transmit control signals via control lines to control valves depending upon input parametres, e.g. flight parameters, cab pressure, ambient temperature and pressure and engine operating conditions.
EFFECT: reduced power consumption in sucking out laminar flow.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aerodynamic profile 12 incorporates system 10 to control boundary layer that comprises flap, flap suspension assembly, first appliance to blow air from bottom surface of aerodynamic profile 12 to change laminar airflow into turbulent airflow at positive deflection of the flap and second appliance to apply suck-off force on bottom surface 14 to preserve laminar flow at negative deflection of the flap. Method and aircraft are characterised by use of aerodynamic profile.
EFFECT: lower drag.
24 cl, 4 dwg