The method of regulating the distribution of aerodynamic loads on the wing of the aircraft and the wing of the aircraft (options)
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to aeronautical engineering. The purpose of the invention is the improvement of performance of LA by increasing the relative mass of the payload by reducing loads on the modes that define the characteristics of strength and fatigue durability. Rotary movable end of the wing at all stages of flight mode fluoroware under an initial load corresponding to the coefficient overload , the value of which as it approaches the cruising mode is reduced to values equal to 1. The method can be carried out by execution of the wing, in which each rotatable end part 2 is connected with the console 1 using elastic elements adjustable stiffness, located in mutually perpendicular planes. In addition, there are two options for performing the wing. 2 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 11 ill. The invention relates to aircraft (LA) heavier than air, and in particular to methods of adjusting the position or size of the wing when changing aerodynamic loads acting on the wing of the AIRCRAFT, and wing designs.The number of known ways to regulate the aerodynamic distribution h is soA known method of regulating the distribution of aerodynamic loads on the wing of an aircraft in which the deviation limit turning parts angle of attack, and at takeoff rotary part set mode fluoroware and exit at cruising flight mode and fix as running out of fuel change the angle of attack of the swivel end parts toHTkrwhereHT- the angle of attack of the swivel end wing;
kr- the angle of attack of a fixed part of the wing .Famous wing AIRCRAFT, comprising a fixed console and rotatable end part, which is fixed on the consoles with the possibility of deviation angle of attack, and the axis of rotation of each rotary end parts is ahead of the aerodynamic center, with swivel end portion can deflect about an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis LA .A disadvantage of the known methods and the wing is that they have low resource characteristics in terms of fatigue resistance due to large amplitude cyclic loads from atmospheric turbulence on the specified flight conditions.The aim of the invention is to increase the flight-technical the new parts in the mode fluoroware and their deviation, swivel end of the wing installed on all phases of flight mode fluoroware under an initial load corresponding to the coefficient overload InI>1, the value of which as it approaches the cruising mode is reduced to values equal to 1.The goal is possible with the help of the wing, comprising a fixed console and rotatable end part, which is fixed on the consoles with the possibility of deviation angle of attack, and the axis of rotation of the rotary end portion is located ahead of the aerodynamic center and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis LA, each rotatable end part is additionally connected with a fixed console using elastic element adjustable stiffness, such as a spring with adjustable tension.Aim can also be achieved with the help of the wing, comprising a fixed console and rotatable end part, which is fixed on the consoles can be rotated about an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis LA, with each rotary end portion of the wing is additionally connected to the console via the elastic element adjustable stiffness. In addition, the goal can be achieved by using a wing containing nepodvijnaya axes, one parallel and the other perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, each rotatable end part connected with the console using elastic elements arranged in mutually perpendicular planes.In all variants of the movable rotary end portion of the wing is connected to the fixed via the elastic element adjustable stiffness.In Fig.1 presents LA in plan with swivel end parts, a General view of Fig.2 - node I in Fig.1; Fig.3 - section a-a in Fig.2; Fig.4 - node II in Fig.3; Fig.5 - section b-B in Fig.4; Fig.6 is an illustration of the distribution of the lift coefficient along the span of the wing depending on the steps of the method of Fig.7 - plot of bending moments along the span of the wing depending on the steps of the method of Fig.8 - LA in plan with swivel end parts, the axis of rotation which is parallel to the longitudinal axis LA of Fig. 9 site III in Fig.8; Fig.10 - LA in plan with swivel end parts, one of the axes of rotation of each of which is parallel and the other perpendicular to the longitudinal axis LA of Fig.11 site IV in Fig.10.The method can be carried out using one of the possible structures of the wing containing terminal n is tive rotatable relative to the axis 3, perpendicular to the plane of symmetry of the aircraft and located ahead of the aerodynamic center (Fig.3).Turn the end parts 2 is carried out using one of the actuators 4 and 5, and the initial loading of creating a simultaneous inclusion of these actuators 4 and 5. To ensure fluoroware under an initial load between power actuators 4 and 5 and the brackets on the axis 3 of rotation of the set of elastic elements adjustable stiffness, such as springs 6 and 7. With 3 axes associated dampers oscillations 8. To power the actuators 4 and 5 locks 9, the damper 8 vibrations - lock 10, the switching-off of the work, respectively, the actuators 4 and 5 and the damper 8.The method is as follows.On takeoff and climb (climb to cruising flight mode) using the actuator 4, the movable end part 2 is adjusted by rotation about the axis 3 angle of attackHT<n of 1.5. Further, the inclusion of castles 9 installed on the power the actuators 4 and 5, switch off the last of the work. The control system drives 4 and 5 are arranged so that their inclusion in the work cannot happen without turning off locks 9 and Vice versa. When turning the end of part 2 of the wing under DAA some angle of attack position.Create integral parts 2 negative (or reduced compared to their normal position), the lifting force causes the unloading of the Central part of the wing I (see Fig.6, 7), and the bending moment on the wing, which determines the strength characteristics of the wing will be lower, which allows to increase the takeoff weight of the aircraft without exceeding the permissible level of Flexural stresses in the elements of the wing, i.e., to increase the payload mass. In addition, the effective wing span in this case is determined by the full wingspan taking into account the end parts 2 and aerodynamic loading (positive lifting force) have only fixed console 1, i.e., implemented with a high level of aerodynamic quality. The initial tension of the springs 6 and 7 provides fluoroware the end parts 2 under initial load.This is done as follows.When exposed to the wing LA vertical impulse, for example upward, the magnitude of the lifting force acting on each of the swivel end parts 2, increases that will lead to their rotation about the axis 3 in the direction of decreasing the angle of attack, because the axis of rotation 3 is ahead of the aerodynamic center. In the result of Tamagotchi, transmitted from each of the swivel end parts 2 on a stationary Central part 1, will remain virtually unchanged despite the impact impulse. Turn the end parts 2, caused by the impulse leads to the redistribution of loads in springs 6 and 7, and the rotation occurs before a new equilibrium between aerodynamic loads and moments efforts in springs 6 and 7 relative to the axis 3. After termination of the fit of the equilibrium is broken and the spring 6 and 7 return end part of the wing 2 in the initial state. The presence of dampers 8, connected with a swivel end parts 2, provides the required damping rate of the oscillations, which is a preliminary setting of the dampers 8. When exposed to the wing 1 of an impulse of opposite sign pattern was repeated deviation of the end parts 3 in the opposite direction.As a result of such deviations of the end parts 2 from the effects of gusts on the fixed portion of the wing 1 on the rotary end parts of the 2 is almost constant load. In the end, the amplitude of the stress (and hence stresses) in the wing is reduced, which increases fatigue life design is, end of the wing 2 are mounted on angle of attackHT=krand at the same time reduce with the help of actuators 4 and 5, the initial tension of the springs 6 and 7 to values corresponding to the overload of 1.05 n of 1.1. Turn the end parts 2 on the angle of attack HT=krleads to the fact that the bearing surface of the wing and effective lengthening of increase, which leads to an increase in the duration of the flight. The value of the Flexural stresses in the wing will also be within the permissible level. Reducing the initial tension of the springs 6 and 7 causes the rotatable end part 2 "respond" to vertical gusts of lesser intensity, i.e. it gives a "parry" integral parts of the wing 2 of the atmospheric turbulence, which causes fluctuations in loads of small amplitude. As running out of fuel by incorporating actuators 5 end of part 2 turn on the angle of attackHT>krthat allows greater use of load-bearing properties of the wing, as does the maximum glide. On the descent and landing upon reaching heights N<15 km to the end of the wing 2 by means of a power actuator 4 and 5 turn on the angle of attack toHT< what about the aircraft, comprising a fixed console and rotatable end part, which is fixed on the consoles with the possibility of deviation angle of attack, and the axis of rotation of each rotary end parts is ahead of the aerodynamic center, wherein each rotatable end part is additionally connected with a fixed console using elastic element adjustable stiffness, such as a spring with adjustable tension.3. Wing aircraft, comprising a fixed console and rotatable end part, which is fixed on the consoles can be rotated about an axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, characterized in that each rotary end portion is additionally connected to the console via the elastic element adjustable stiffness.4. Wing aircraft, comprising a fixed console and swivel end parts, each of which is associated with consoles that can be rotated relative to the axes, one parallel and the other perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, characterized in that each rotary end part connected with the console using elastic elements reg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; enhancing efficiency of any aircraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in manufacture of sectional wing consisting of smaller and larger members of close profile. Single profile is formed in retracted position of both members; at extended position, smaller member is kept at equidistant separation from larger member for increase of thickness of sectional wing. Novelty of invention consists in equidistant separation of smaller member from larger one. Ratio of larger and smaller profiles of sectional wing is equal to 1:0.3. At landing of flying vehicle, smaller member of sectional wing may be placed in extended position; both members form single profile of sectional wing at flight configuration of aircraft.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; extended field of control of aerodynamic characteristics of wing; simplification of control systems.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heavier-than-air flying vehicles; dropping glide rockets from aircraft.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device includes wing turn mechanism 2 and slide block 11 with articulated rods 13 mounted symmetrically on longitudinal axles. Wings in form of first-order lever are kinematically linked with articulated rod of slide block which is secured through cross-piece supports on rod of pneumatic cylinder brought into communication with high-pressure source. Slide block is mounted for longitudinal motion on pneumatic cylinder and is connected with transversal base by means of bursting screws. Said transversal base carries wing turn axles. Pneumatic cylinder body has radial slot for forcing the wings of locking rod mounted in slide block and loaded with plate spring 19.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed trunk-route aircraft has sectionalized fuselage, swept wing 10, vertical tail 6 and horizontal tail 7, rudders 8 and elevators 9, control members, aircraft members and equipment. Wing is formed by center-wing section 11 and adapter compartments 12 forming total wing area as direct function of payload; ratio of sizes of adapter compartment and detachable part of wing is dictated by condition of retaining ratio of coordinates of pressure center and mean aerodynamic chord approximately constant.
EFFECT: minimization of wing area; reduction of aircraft mass; improved technical and economical characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: method of controlling the wing placed in the fluid medium at its interaction with the said medium consists in that the wing is arranged at an angle of attack, sufficient for the said interaction. The wing part is isolated by the stabiliser, given its not hinged mounting relative to an axis of rotation of the wing with the angle of attack outrunning the angle of attack in motion, and the wing is turned till stalling on the said wing part. The device intended for using this method has a fixed support connected to the beam via a movable linkage, a carriage hinged on to the latter, at least one wing and a drive. The device is provided with a plate pivoted on to the carriage and provided with a kinematics linkage with the wing, also pivoted on to the carriage. The drive is made so that to be supplied from an appropriate source. At least one wing part is isolated by the stabiliser, given its not hinged mounting relative to an axis of rotation of the wing with the angle of attack outrunning the angle of attack in motion, and the wing is turned till stalling on the said wing part. The wing and its part are provided with a dynamic force pickup connected in the drive electric circuitry via an amplifier. The drive can be controlled by programmed signals of the programming device connected in the drive electric circuit. Apart the wing part isolated by the stabiliser, one more wing part is isolated by the stabiliser and is turned relative to the axis of rotation the other side.
EFFECT: increase in wing speed and in aerohydrodynamic lift on it.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: aerodynamic surface is made with the possibility of installation outside airplane fuselage. Connection part (140) is suspended to aerodynamic surface and have fastening part (641), which is arranged with the possibility of fastening to airplane inside airplane fuselage. Between connection part and fuselage there is roller system located that consists of arc-shaped road (670) and roller support (651), which bears rollers (680) with the possibility of rotation.
EFFECT: description of device for technical maintenance and repair of device roller system for rotation of movable components.
23 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with this invention, a part of wing, separated by separating spacer, is mounted on the active-passive element. The latter is identical to aforesaid wing part, given its hinging with respect to the wing lengthwise axis and separation by separating spacer. Aforesaid wing part is turned, along with aforesaid active-passive element, till stall from the wing part. Required airflow conditions at the active-passive element are selected at whatever magnitude and direction of relative velocity of ran airflow. Proposed aircraft comprises fuselage and wings, each mounted to turn about fuselage and its own axis driven by its independent drive.
EFFECT: expanded range of speeds and heights, super maneuverability and controllability at all speeds and height, simplified control algorithm, dynamic and safe recovery of stall-less airflow after every maneuver.
2 cl, 14 dwg
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, namely to variable wing area flight vehicle heavier than air. Proposed aircraft comprises fuselage, wings, pilot cab, engines, tail unit, landing gear and ailerons. Two rough-type wings are arranged above the fuselage, fitted one into another. In taking off and landing, upper wing is extended upward with the help of hydraulic actuating cylinders.
EFFECT: reduced taking-off and landing run, increased loadlifting and lift.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wing consists of main wing with appropriate control organs at least one auxiliary wing attached by structural element to main wing front or rear rotational axis at whatever vertical distance therefrom. Main wing can revolve free about axis fixed with respect to aircraft and passing ahead of or behind the point aerodynamic lift is applied at said wing. Moments of aerodynamic forces of both wings are directed, with respect to aforesaid axis, in opposition, while gradient of variation in said aerodynamic moments is selected larger for the wing that ensures higher aerodynamic stability. Auxiliary wing angle of attack is varies by control members irrespective of the main wing angle of attack. Obtained angle between chords of the main and auxiliary wings is maintained invariable at whatever turns of main wing about aforesaid axis.
EFFECT: improved controllability, higher stability and safety.
FIELD: aircraft engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft comprises airframe, fixed side wings, movable wings arranged above said fixed side wings and furnished with common carriage to move in parallel guides arranged atop the airframe to reciprocate thereon. The aircraft comprises also tail unit and undercarriage. Aforesaid fixed wing is divided by heat resistant baffle into two nacelles, i.e. engine and undercarriage nacelles.
EFFECT: higher safety.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to model airplane flying, particularly to aircraft with moving wings. Proposed aircraft comprises fuselage with crew cab, passenger and/or freight compartment, landing gear, moving wings mounted on both sides of fuselage and engines. Wing wider parts end face incorporates flat/convex disk rigidly fixed therewith and arranged to turn completely/incompletely.
EFFECT: higher maneuverability of aircraft.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: aeronautical engineering; various flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tip has end plate and is provided with additional swept aerodynamic surface of low aspect ratio with sharp leading edge mounted on the outside of end plate. Trailing edge of additional aerodynamic surface is combined with trailing edge of end plate. Nose is located on leading edge of end plate below level of trailing edge; sweep ranges from 60° to 85°.
EFFECT: enhanced aerodynamic efficiency at high subsonic speeds.
FIELD: power plants for auxiliary-purpose flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes panel of lifting surface of flying vehicle with device for localization of overflow of airflow; this device includes flow-through nacelle, power loop and air-jet engine with exit nozzle. Axis of nacelle lies in way of motion of lifting surface of flying vehicle; inlet part is made in form of side inlet window located on lower part of lifting surface panel. Power loop includes at least one wind wheel with at least one electric power generator which are arranged inside flow-through nacelle in parallel with inlet window. Engine is mounted in outlet part of flow-through nacelle.
EFFECT: extended field of application; enhanced safety of flight.
SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, engines, landing gear and control cabin. Aircraft is provided with trough-shaped wing, vertical fins with rudders, stabilizer and elevons. Wing is mounted on fuselage which has no tail section. Vertical fins with rudders are mounted underneath the wing. Stabilizer and elevons are mounted on trailing edge of wing.
EFFECT: reduced mass; reduced drag; improved aerodynamic properties.
FIELD: aircraft control and stability devices.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is made in form of stall fences mounted on lower surface of wing or on tail section of aircraft symmetrically relative to longitudinal plane of symmetry of aircraft. Stall fences begin at distance not exceeding 2 B and end at distance of 0.3-1.0 B from respective leading edge; their maximum height reaches 0.3 B, where B is aerodynamic chord of wing at area of mounting the stall hence.
EFFECT: facilitated going out of spin.
3 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Device for adaptive control over aerodynamic characteristics of wing element 1 whereto small wing is attached to turn thereabout. Small wing 2 or its sections can turn about element 1 so that angle between rotational axis 7 and main direction of wing element panel 6 is other than 90°. Method and device is characterised by the use of above described device. Said device is proposed to be incorporated with aircraft.
EFFECT: reduced fuel consumption.
21 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Angle between end plate and aerofoil makes 175-180 degrees. Wing tip is arranged at 2 to 3 degrees to wing tip chord.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, reduced fuel consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Aerodynamic surface trailing edge is aligned with end plate rear edge. Tip is located at end plate front edge, below rear edge while sweep make 60-85 degrees. There is lower vertical aerodynamic surface of small elongation coupled with end plate so that its leading edge coincides with leading edge of end plate aerodynamic surface. Angle between end plate aerodynamic surface and lower vertical aerodynamic surface makes 125-30 degrees.
EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, decreased fuel consumption.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to end airfoils including surfaces with recesses and to method of rag reduction. Aircraft system comprises wing and end airfoil (winglet, end plates, Whitcomb endplate) connected with wing end outer section. End airfoil has first surface facing fuselage side and second surface directed outward. First surface comprises area with recess. Note here that the wing includes airfoil sections located from wing inner area to outer area. End airfoil is used with the wing that features no changes on common shapes of airfoil sections located nearby wing outer area.
EFFECT: decreased influence of interferences caused by flows at wing-end airfoil transition, reduced drag.
13 cl, 13 dwg