Shovel excavator system engineer kurkova

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to machines for excavation and movement of soil, in particular to shovel type shovel, career mainly used in surface mining and industrial construction, and improves the performance and reliability of the excavator, as well as reduce operating costs. The inventive excavator equipped with a mechanism for bailing consisting of lifting and forcing mechanisms that drive which has a gear made in the form of toothed segments included in mesh with the drive gears. When switching on the drive of the lifting mechanism on the "Up" and drive pressure mechanism on the "Head" is the movement of the cutting edge of the bucket along the trajectory of the stock. The degree of penetration of the cutting edge of the bucket into the soil is regulated by the pressure mechanism. From about the middle of the operation decreased pressure mechanism changes the direction of movement with the "Head" and "Return", after which there is joint deriving lifting and forcing mechanisms. 4 C. p. F.-ly, 9 Il.

The invention relates to machines for excavation and movement of soil, chastened works and industrial construction.

Famous shovel excavators type shovel, comprising driving the truck and the turntable is installed on it power and auxiliary equipment, rotating machinery, control cabin and working equipment consisting of a boom with suspension arm with bucket, two-legged stand, lifting and pressure mechanism with actuator (1). The rise of the bucket when the drawing is carried out by means of ropes, zapasovany through the head blocks on the boom and wound on the drum of the hoisting winch installed on the rotary platform. The pressure force of the bucket is passed through the handle by means of rack-and-pinion from the discharge mechanism mounted directly on the boom, or by ropes, zapasovany through the blocks placed on the boom and stick and spooled on the drum pressure winch installed on the rotary platform.

Disadvantages rope shovel type excavators shovel are: low efficiency of operating equipment, affecting the performance of the excavator. It is known that the performance of the excavator is inversely proportional to the cycle time of the excavation, i.e. with decreasing prodii is the sum of the duration of the operation: the drawing, turns platform and unloading of the bucket. At a constant duration of rotations of the platform and unloading of the bucket cycle time ultimately depends on the duration of transactions decreased. Between duration of use and efficiency of work equipment there is a known dependency.

tkop= s , where S is the capacity of the bucket, m3< / BR>
TOeTOpTOFthe coefficients characterizing the category of species and quality of training of the face;

Np- power drive of the lifting mechanism, kW;

p.o.The efficiency of the operating equipment.

The efficiency of operating equipment for rope shovel of Mahopac - value is almost the same, regardless of the capacity of the bucket and execution of the pressure mechanism (cable car or rack-and-pinion), with an average of 0.45. This means that only 45% of the energy consumed by the lifting mechanism is spent on drawing, and the remaining 55% is to overcome the static loads from moving parts of the work equipment. The value of efficiency of work equipment determines the shape of the curve changes to static loads when deriving inherent for excavators of this type, characterized by the presence in the working Oborotov, small effort bailing on the cutting edge of the bucket for the drawing at the bottom of the face, affecting the performance of the excavator; the presence in the working equipment of the excavator wear parts affecting the increase in operating costs and reduced reliability of the excavator. These details include: lifting and pressure ropes, removable sliding bearings, axles and suspension bushings bucket and others ; career shovel rope excavators of malapati cannot be converted for operation as a reverse of Mahamati; career shovel rope excavators of malapati not possess the property of partial sempozyumu undercarriage. When the excavator on weak soils is often the case of subsidence of the undercarriage. Elimination of excavators from subsidence mining shovels having large mass, is associated with a significant material cost (wood, ropes, raising additional auxiliary equipment and others ), and work, and ultimately lost the excavator. Mining shovels have a large installed capacity drives, but the cable suspension boom cannot be used for partial self and excavator.

Also known shovel hydraulic excavator of malapati, including driving the truck and the turntable is installed on it power and auxiliary equipment, rotating machinery, control cabin and working equipment consisting of a boom, stick with bucket, hydraulic cylinders, driving the boom and dipper from the bucket and hydraulic equipment placed on the rotary platform.

The disadvantages of career shovel hydraulic Mahopac are:

- low efficiency of their use in heavy and rock faces. On domestic and foreign experience career of hydraulic malapati advisable to use on light and medium breeds;

low reliability and short life of the hydraulic operating equipment.

Closest to the proposed invention as to the technical essence and the greatest number of matching essential features of the above-described analogs is the type of career shovel rope excavators Mahopac (3). To coincide essential features include: boom, arm, bucket, two-legged stand, the type of stroke and the discharge mechanism is retene - the function of accommodation of the pressure mechanism. Career shovel rope excavators of malapati perform the major share of the total volume of surface mining, are among the most advanced technical solutions and occupy a pivotal position among the other counterparts as the quantity of vehicles in operation, and the level of technical development.

The aim of the invention is to improve the performance and reliability of the excavator and the reduction of operating costs, and avoidance of critical loads in the bucket in partial setuptheme undercarriage, enhanced operational capabilities of the excavator and reducing the height of the valve of the pressure mechanism.

This objective is achieved in that the excavator is equipped with a mechanism for bailing mounted on the rotary platform and consisting of kinematically connected with each other lifting and forcing mechanisms, and the discharge mechanism is provided with a support element made of two three-beam stops are rigidly interconnected and arrow, pivotally mounted on the rotary platform together with an arrow, and the gear drives the lifting and is set out on the geometrical axis of the hinge connections of the swivel platform with an arrow, moreover, the toothed segments of the drive of the lifting mechanism are rigidly connected with the handle and set with center swivel arm with an arrow, and gear segments actuator pressure mechanism mounted on the supporting element with center swivel his arrow and turntable, the drive pressure mechanism is installed on a bipedal stance.

In addition, this objective is achieved in that:

toothed segments lifting and pressure mechanisms provided with lugs;

the excavator is equipped with a special stand, made in the form of a support Shoe mounted on the handle instead of the bucket;

the bucket is equipped with a device for translating bucket in the reverse position spades;

turning the platform is designed with openings for the passage of pressure segments.

Improved performance is achieved by reducing the cycle time of excavation by reducing the time to perform operations decreased achieved in turn increase the efficiency of the mechanism of decreased and increased power required for drawing.

In the proposed dredge as well as in other earthmoving machines, the operation bailing osushestvlyaetsya new technical solutions the design of the excavator provides increased functionality of the pressure mechanism: at the end of operation decreased by return movement of the pressure mechanism also makes the drawing together with the lifting mechanism.

The invention consists in the creation of a new mechanism bailing involving the discharge mechanism in operation is decreased, thereby significantly increasing the effort bailing on the cutting edge of the bucket and the bottom of the shaft and the increase of power use.

A comparison of the proposed technical solutions to the prototype allowed us to establish compliance with a criterion of "Novelty". When studying other known technical solutions in this field of technology features that distinguish the alleged invention of the prototype were not identified and therefore they provide the claimed technical solution according to the criterion of "Significant differences".

In Fig. 1 shows the proposed single-bucket excavator, General view; Fig. 2 is a view in plan; Fig. 3 is a view along arrow a in Fig. 1 (diagram shows the relative position of the boom and the drive of the lifting device), and Fig. 4 is a view along arrow B in Fig. 1 (representing the schema of the valve of the pressure mechanism on bipedal stance), and Fig. 5 is a view of the excavator in axonometric projection; Fig. 6 is a General view of the proposed dredge converted for use as a reverse shovel; Fig. 7 - the same, in UB>cmaj- the maximum height of the stock;

Rcmajthe largest radius bailing,

hcmaj- maximum depth is decreased below the level of the state;

S - the promotion of the face during one movement of the undercarriage;

in Fig. 9 is a General view of the excavator in position loading excavatum material in the vehicle of Fig. 10 - the curves of changes of static loads in lifting and forcing mechanisms in the drawing.

Excavator contains a running truck 1 installed on her turntable 2 on which is mounted the mechanism of stock, consisting of lifting and pressure mechanisms.

The lifting mechanism consists of a boom 3, is fixed by means of the hinge device 4 on the rotary platform 2, the articulated arrow 3 by means of the hinge 5, the handle 6 with the bucket 7 and the actuator. The hinge device 4 consists of two swing bearings, mounted on the sides of the front of the turntable 2. The drive of the lifting mechanism consists of an electric motor 8, gear 9 and gear drive, made of two interconnected rigid link 10 of the toothed segments 11 included in engagement with the drive gear 12. Installation of the drive spools Oh hinge device 4. This is achieved by combining the geometric axes of the hinge device 4 and the driven gear 12 (geometric axis o-O of Fig. 2).

Toothed segments 11 of the drive of the lifting mechanism with rigid links 13 are attached to the arm 6 engaged with the excavator with bucket 7 reciprocating rotary motion about the axis OF1-ON1swivel arm 6 arrow 3. To limit the movement of the toothed segment 11 is provided by the stops 14.

In the proposed dredge declared a two-row version of the toothed segments 11 of the drive of the lifting mechanism, although it is possible that single performance driven by one drive gear 12, located at the center of the longitudinal axis of the excavator. However, in this case, when the drawing will occur torques acting on the handle 6, further burdening her. Therefore, option two-row execution toothed segments 11 of the lifting mechanism, eliminating the above drawback, is preferred.

The discharge mechanism of the excavator consists of the support element 15 made of two three-beam stops, rigid link 16 and installed with the arrow 3 Actu arrows 3.

The drive of the pressure mechanism includes installed on bipedal rack 18 of the motor 19, the gear 20 and the gear drive. The housing 20 is fixed on a two-legged rack 18 by means of pins 21 and lid 22. A gear drive is performed as in the lifting mechanism of the two rigidly interconnected by toothed segments included in engagement with the driven gear 24 of the pressure mechanism. In order to reduce the mounting height of the pressure actuator for two-legged rack 18 in the rotary platform 2 has openings 25 for the passage of the toothed segments 23 of the pressure mechanism. Stops 26 serve to limit the movement of the toothed segments 23 engaged with the excavator reciprocating rotary motion. The conversion mechanism bailing to use excavator as a reverse shovel is carried out by moving the bucket 7 to rotate it relative to the longitudinal axis of the handle 6 180aboutwhile the angle of inclination of the cutting edge of the bucket is governed by the length of the insert 27. Partial setuptheme undercarriage on the bucket can affect the critical load, to address the disconnect bucket excavator, and instead establish a special stand 28, the implementation of the provision: the bucket 7 is in the lower extreme position. When switching on the drive of the lifting mechanism on the rise, and drive pressure mechanism on the head there is a movement of a cutting edge of the bucket 7 on the trajectory of the stock, as shown in Fig. 8. The degree of penetration of the cutting edge of the bucket into the soil is regulated by the pressure mechanism. About the middle of the operation decreased pressure mechanism changes the direction of movement of the head in return, then there is joint deriving lifting and forcing mechanisms. The degree of penetration of the cutting edge of the bucket into the soil when it is governed by the settling speed of one of the mechanisms in relation to the speed of movement of the other.

In Fig. 10A depicts an ideal chart the movement of the lifting mechanism with a nominal velocity VPhnomwhen drawing on the full parameters of the Hcmajfrom point a to point b on the trajectory depicted in Fig. 8, where th- duration of use.

In Fig. 10 b shows a diagram of the movement of the pressure mechanism with speed, providing the movement of the cutting edge of the bucket on the desired trajectory in accordance with the nominal speed of the lifting mechanism. Approximately in the middle of the total length of bailing at the point B indicated in Traiana is pressure to move Forward thus the cutting edge of the bucket is pressed to the ground, and lifting mechanism to ensure the implementation of the bucket into the soil and partial filling. After point B the pressure mechanism performs a return movement Ago, when this happens the joint deriving lifting and forcing mechanisms. The speed of movement of the cutting edge of the bucket in this case is defined as the geometric sum of the speeds of both mechanisms. In Fig. 8 for one of the intermediate points X on the trajectory bailing on plot B shows the geometric addition of two velocities, where vp- the speed of the lifting mechanism, the vector which is perpendicular to the line Lpconnecting the cutting edge of the bucket with center swivel handle arrow;

vn- the speed of the pressure mechanism, the vector which is perpendicular to the line RNCconnecting the cutting edge of the bucket with center swivel boom on the rotary platform;

vTr- the resultant speed of the cutting edge directed along the tangent to the trajectory at point X.

For penetration of the cutting edge of the bucket in the face it is necessary to reduce the speed of the pressure mechanism vnin this case webtool chips to reduce the speed of the hoisting mechanism of the vpand to output the cutting edge from the bottom with a filled bucket to stop the lifting mechanism and to continue the movement of the pressure mechanism in the same reverse direction, in this case, when vp= O the resultant speed of the cutting edge of the bucket vTras for direction, and the value will match the speed of the pressure mechanism vn. If necessary, removal of the bucket from the breast slaughter at a more significant distance should also continue return movement of the pressure mechanism, and a lifting lower the bucket to the desired position.

Thus, the power required for drawing on the trajectory a-B, is determined by the capacity of the lifting mechanism, and at site B In power lifting and pressure mechanisms.

In Fig. 10 b and 10 d depicts the curves of changes in the static load QPSToperating in elevating mechanisms as proposed dredge and known when drawing on full settings.

To static loads in lifting mechanisms include moving parts;

- we offer excavator - hilt with an empty bucket, a toothed segment with a rigid connection;
FPhnom- nominal force, developed a lifting mechanism when deriving a nominal speed;

fp- force use;

fPMO- the greatest force at the beginning of use.

All efforts: QPSTFPhnomfpare given:

in the proposed dredge - diameter sprockets;

in the known excavator to the diameter of winding of the winding rope.

Power and energy required to overcome the static load, proportional to the magnitude of these loads, therefore, from the comparison of curves (Fig. 10 b and 10 d), it follows that we offer excavator expenditure of energy to overcome the static loads acting in the lifting mechanism is much less than that of the prototype that eventually significantly increases the efficiency of the mechanism of use.

In Fig. 10 g shows the curve of changes in the static load in the pressure mechanism. The shape of the curve and the magnitude of the static load QPCTsimilar to the lifting mechanism.

From the analysis of the curves of static loads, is shown in Fig. 10 b and 10 d:

curves static loads in lifting and forcing mechanisms for deriving from under the it should be noted, the force of the pressure in the pressure regime cannot be implemented, because it far exceeds required when drawing. The pressure force in the pressure movement is realized by partial setuptheme undercarriage;

- as you increase the height of the stock curves static loads sharply upward, and when the height Hcmajstatic load with a loaded bucket over the nominal driving force FPhnomand Fnom. This effort decreased fpand fnin the upper part of the face is significantly reduced, which is one of the reasons for low efficiency of use on full settings Hcmajcharacterized by prolongation of the duration of the operation decreased. The same can be noted for the famous excavator.

However, when drawing to a height in the range of 0.6 Hcmajstatic load with a loaded bucket are within the nominal driving efforts, which allows the filling of a bucket for a shorter time. In Fig. 10 this mode of operation is indicated by the vertical dashed line. In the known excavator this height bailing is within the height of the pressure shaft. The mode of operation of the proposed dredge with a drawing in great use have the greatest value.

In the design of individual units of the mechanism of stock options other options, some nodes. To bring in a reciprocating rotary motion of the lifting and pressure segments can be applied one way:

through the friction clutch smooth surfaces of the segments with a smooth pulleys mounted on the low speed shaft. Thus one surface of the reinforced friction material. Transfer of district efforts from the pulleys to the segments is due to the friction between the pulleys and segments;

by electromagnetic coupling with the use of the known principle of operation of motors with arc stator.

There may be other ways of drive segments, but the most appropriate way of transfer of the district's efforts is the gearing.

To protect the mechanism of the stock upon the occurrence of dynamic loads in the actuators is provided by the slipping clutch is known constructive solutions. In addition, to prevent shock segmental lugs 14 and 26 of the drive gear 12 and 24 in the control circuits of the drive mechanism bailing provided by limit switches. (56) Jerk R. Y. Hornykevych works. - M. : Nedra, 1983. p. 310.

Jerk R. Y. Mining machines and systems for public works. - M. : Nedra, 1985, S. 133, Fig. 9.4.

1. Shovel excavator, including the turntable, which is equipped with an articulated boom with a lifting mechanism with a drive and articulated arrow handle to the pump mechanism with the drive and bucket, characterized in that the lifting and pressure mechanisms are kinematically linked, with the pressure mechanism is provided with a supporting device made of two three-beam stops are rigidly interconnected and arrow and pivotally mounted on the rotary platform together with an arrow, and drives the lifting and pressure mechanisms made in the form of toothed segments included in mesh with the driven gears, installed on the geometrical axis of the hinge connections of the swivel platform with an arrow, and the gear segments of the drive of the lifting mechanism are rigidly connected with the handle and set with center swivel arm with an arrow, and gear segments actuator pressure mechanism mounted on the support fixture with center swivel his arrow and turntable, while p is the present, what gear segments drives the lifting and pressure mechanisms provided by stops.

3. Excavator under item 1, characterized in that it is equipped with a special stand, made in the form of a support Shoe that is installed with the possibility of attachment to the handle instead of the bucket.

4. Excavator under item 1, characterized in that the ladle is equipped with a device for translating excavator in the reverse position shovels, made in the form of insertion of adjustable length.

5. Excavator under item 1, characterized in that the platform is designed with openings for the passage timing of the pressure segments.

 

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