Nuclear physics and nuclear engineering (G21)

G   Physics(388263)
G21            Nuclear physics; nuclear engineering(6260)

Sodium loop of nuclear power plant with fast neutron reactor // 2614136
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sodium loops of nuclear power plants with fast neutron reactors. Separate modules of steam generator (1) are connected separately to the side of sodium intake with inlet connecting pipelines (7), which are equipped with built-in protective element (9) simultaneously connected to discharge pipeline (8) and to inlet manifold (5), and are additionally connected with sodium inlet branch pipe (6). On the sodium outlet side separate modules of steam generator (1) are separately connected through outlet chamber (18) with outlet connection pipe (10), which is fitted in buffer tank (2), which is further connected with sodium outlet branch pipe (16). Then, simultaneously discharge tubes (8) are connected to first reservoir (3) of the emergency protection system. This reservoir (3) is connected both to buffer tank (2) by light-weight branch (12) with at least one first membrane (11), and to second reservoir (4) of the emergency protection system with at least one second membrane (13). At second reservoir (4) of the emergency protection system there is outlet (15).EFFECT: higher safety of the nuclear power plant.4 cl, 2 dwg

Track for inclined elevator of nuclear reactor // 2614056
FIELD: transportation.SUBSTANCE: claimed track for an inclined elevator of a nuclear reactor is made with alternating straight and curved areas, wherein the initial and the final areas are made rectilinear and arranged at the same angle of inclination α to the horizon plane.EFFECT: possibility of reducing the presence time of the SFA truck in gaseous atmosphere due to reducing the track length, and increasing the safety of transporting spent fuel assemblies by the inclined lift of a nuclear reactor.2 cl, 1 dwg

Nuclear power plant with heat carrier cleaning system // 2614048
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear engineering. Nuclear power plant (NPP) comprises an integral reactor with a housing and a cover, at least three heat carrier circulation circuits, intermediate (9) and process (14) heat exchangers, pipelines to feed and discharge the heat carrier from the intermediate and the process heat exchangers, shutoff valves and cleaning system (11) of alkali metal (4). Heat carrier cleaning system (11) consists of at least one membrane (4) and hydrogen and tritium receiver with the possibility of evacuation of its cavity (8) and discharge of received hydrogen and tritium from it. When selecting membrane (3) design taken into account are, first, interrelation of structural characteristics of the membrane with structural characteristics of the NPP, mass exchange characteristics of the membrane and the NPP, maximum allowable mass concentration of tritium in the product discharged from the third circuit (6); second, interrelation of mass exchange characteristics of the NPP and the maximum allowable mass concentration of tritium in the product discharged from the third circuit (6).EFFECT: technical result is following radiation safety requirements for the product (tritium) discharged from the third circuit (6) of the NPP.1 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of producing nickel-63 radionuclide // 2614021
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes heating the metallic nickel-containing radionuclide 63Ni up to its evaporation temperature in a vacuum chamber, a target three-selective photoionization of Ni isotope atoms by means of simultaneous pulsed irradiation of the atoms by spatially combined laser beams with a wavelength of 3222.566±0.001Å, 5464.006±0.001Å and 5442.195±0.001Å with the subsequent isolation of the photoions 63Ni by electric field. The method is carried out at a pulsed laser beam frequency of 5-20 kHz with a pulse duration of 20-100 nsec, and the average laser radiation pulse power density of the first stage is selected in the range 40÷100 mW/cm2, of the second stage - 5÷40 mW/cm2, of the third stage - 3÷5W/cm2 at a pulsed laser beam frequency of 10 kHz with the pulse duration of 20 nsec.EFFECT: possibility of implementing the method allowing to carry out the simultaneous selection of highly-enriched radionuclides and applying it to substrates at a commercial scale.4 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of processing uranium-zirconium wastes // 2613352
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrometallurgy of uranium and can be used in regeneration as a result of chemical treatment, defective or unclaimed fuel elements. Oxidised fragments are treated with (3-6)N nitric acid in ratio of reacting phases S:L = 1:(3÷6) for 4–6 hours at temperature 70–90 °C. Method then includes filtration and extraction of uranium from solution. Invention allows to significantly reduce rate of corrosion of equipment due to selective dissolution of uranium, provides more than 98 % extraction of uranium without using hydrofluoric acid and also significantly optimises processing.EFFECT: method of processing uranium-zirconium wastes in form of fuel elements consists in that initial fuel elements are subjected to fragmentation and oxidised in air at 1,000–1,250 °C to constant weight.4 cl, 1 tbl
ethod for vitrifying radioactive slag // 2613161
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for vitrifying radioactive slag includes its mixing with a fluxing additive, calcination, heating the mixture to the melting point, maintaining at that temperature for the homogenization, and subsequent crystallization by means of cooling the melt to obtain chemically and radiation resistant glass ceramic; the fluxing agent for the calcined slag is represented by sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7) at the following ratio of the components, wt %: slag 55-85; Na2B4O7 - 15-45.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain glass ceramic in which the silicophosphate phase is formed, firmly fixing actinide elements and having high chemical and radiation resistance and thermodynamic stability.4 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex

ethod of purifying contaminated raw material for separating production // 2613157
FIELD: treatment plants.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of purifying raw material contaminated with harmful isotopes for further usage in production of reduced uranium for nuclear fuel. Method of purifying contaminated raw material for separating production from harmful isotopes consists in reducing concentration of isotopes 232U, 234U, 236U by processing uranium hexafluoride of contaminated raw material in double cascade of gas centrifuges. Uranium hexafluoride of contaminated raw material is processed in double cascade of gas centrifuges intended for producing low-enriched hexafluoride 235U from pure uranium hexafluoride supplied for the main feed of the first cascade, contaminated raw material is supplied for additional feed of the first cascade. Purified raw material is taken from the first or second cascade.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain high-quality raw material with allowable content of limiting harmful isotopes.6 cl, 5 dwg, 8 tbl, 4 ex
echanism with simplified handling to control device intended for two closed spaces leak-tight connection // 2613075
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: mechanism to control casing and container leak-tight connection device, wherein casing contains door (10) and container contains door (14), casing door (10) includes control mechanism, which comprises male element interacting with container door (14) recess, and this male element rotates around longitudinal axis (X) and progressively displaces around said axis and can be arranged in door (14) recess, thus providing combined locking of two doors (10, 14) and container door (14) unlocking. Said mechanism is used during implementation of first and second closed spaces leak-tight connection method.EFFECT: inventions enable easy leak-tight connection of two closed spaces.19 cl, 18 dwg

Device and method for physical testing fast neutron reactor core // 2612661
FIELD: testing equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a testing device and a method for physical testing a fast neutron reactor core. Testing method involves providing the possibility of selecting a type of physical testing the core, controlling characteristics of disturbance in accordance with the selected type of physical testing, calculating the number of disturbed fuel rods among the rod fuel elements making up the reactor core, setting positions of the disturbed fuel rods among the rod fuel elements of the reactor core, performing a physical test of the core relative to the core, in which only some fuel rods were disturbed in accordance with the calculated number and the set positions, and measuring neutron characteristics of the reactor core in accordance with the result of the physical test of the reactor core.EFFECT: technical result is effective testing a fast nuclear reactor core.11 cl, 9 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of producing porous nuclear fuel // 2612659
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing porous fuel containing uranium, optionally plutonium and optionally at least one minor actinide, which includes following sequence of steps: a) a step of compacting a mixture including a first type of agglomerate including uranium oxide in form of uranium dioxide UO2, optionally plutonium oxide, and optionally at least one minor-actinide oxide, and a second type of agglomerate including uranium oxide in form of triuranium octaoxide U3O8, optionally plutonium oxide and optionally at least one minor actinide oxide; b) a step of reducing compacted mixture in a reducing medium so as to reduce all or part of triuranium octaoxide U3O8 into uranium dioxide UO2, second type of agglomerate being prepared prior to compacting step by a series of specific operations.EFFECT: technical result is prevention of degradation of pore-forming material at step of mixing fuel precursors, possibility of controlling porosity both in qualitative and quantitative ratio.12 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex

Optimized in form of flower pipes and optimized improved configurations of grids // 2612382
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactor fuel assembly (FA). Support grid (26) for FA (20) has, substantially, cylindrical fuel rod (28). Support grid (26) includes frame assembly (40), having plurality of external strips (44) and plurality of tubular elements (50) and (or) screw frame elements (70). Screw elements (50)/screw frame elements (70) have contact area (54, 55), designed with possibility to contact with adjacent screw frame element (70) and, at least, one screw contact section (52) of fuel rod with small diameter. Small diameter is, substantially, equal to fuel rod (28) diameter, so, that fuel rod, which is in screw frame element (70), usually touches internal screw frame element (70) on fuel rod screw contact section (52). Screw contact area (52) can have variable inclination.EFFECT: technical result is minimized wear from friction between grates and fuel rods.9 cl, 22 dwg

Sealing cracks in nuclear power plant pool // 2611613
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sealing cracks in the wall of a nuclear power plant pool, namely to a method of sealing a seam and to a mobile robot equipped with an adhesive tape juggie, which comprises a head pressing the adhesive tape to the wall. To seal a seam controlled are multiple suction systems of the robot containing suction cups, herewith the said multiple suction systems comprises the first suction system and at least the second suction system. Herewith the juggie is mechanically integrated with the first suction system made able to move relative to the second suction system in order to regulate positions of the juggie head and the adhesive tape, which is applied on the seam. Controlled is the movement of the first suction system relative to the second suction system. Herewith the adhesive tape of the juggie is applied on the seam during movement of the first suction system relative to the second suction system.EFFECT: invention allows sticking the tape in hard-to-reach places, at sharp edges and at herewith on extended sections.14 cl, 8 dwg

ethod of installation of equipment in a glove box, contaminated with toxic substances // 2611576
FIELD: safety.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to handling toxic substances, including radioactive substances. Method of installation of equipment in a glove box, contaminated with toxic substances, comprises preliminary deactivation of a part of the box inner wall. Insulating metal cap with a glued elastic gasket is installed on the side of the open end. It is pressed with force, sufficient for tight contact of the elastic gasket with the inner surface of the box. Outside the box in the selected area, openings are made for installation of the equipment. After installation of the equipment, the cap is removed. Prior to loading the insulating cap in the glove box, a protective film is glued on the outer surface of the elastic gasket, directly prior to installation of the insulating cap, said film is removed.EFFECT: invention provides safe reworking of the glove box with formation of additional openings and time depressurization of inner space of the box, contaminated with toxic substances.3 cl, 1 dwg

Device to protect circuit with working medium from excess pressure // 2611572
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear engineering. Device to protect a circuit with the working medium from excess pressure includes an inlet branch pipe connected with the working medium circuit with a membrane in its end part and a discharge branch pipe of the medium release. Device is additionally equipped with a housing surrounding the inlet branch pipe, a cover limiting the end part of the housing, a unit for generating radiation directed at the membrane, receiving the reflected radiation and converting the latter into an electric signal and converting the electric signal into the distance between the membrane and the unit, and a data processing system. Unit is partially inserted into the volume between the cover and the membrane and is installed with the possibility of scanning the distance between it and the surface of the membrane.EFFECT: invention allows to exclude non-standard mode of the circuit operation.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
Fast pulse reactor with reactivity modulation // 2611570
FIELD: physics, nuclear physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to conversion of nuclear energy. Fast pulse reactor comprises a core, reactor housing (5), a reactivity modulator, protective shield (4). Core is placed into reactor housing (5). Reactivity modulator enveloping the core throughout the height is installed behind reactor housing (5) coaxially with it and consists of two parts, movable and fixed (8) ones. Fixed part of the reactivity modulator is made of one neutron reflector. Movable part of the reactivity modulator is made of metal cylindrical shell (6) with a pad of neutron absorber (7) and has insert (1) of a fissile material with the height of the whole height of the core and of the whole thickness of metal cylindrical shell (6) of the movable part of the reactivity modulator in the azimuthal direction. Insert alternates with the pad of neutron absorber (7). Movable part of the reactivity modulator is located between reactor housing (5) and reactivity modulator fixed part (8) with a gap relative to them.EFFECT: obtaining more powerful and short pulses in the reactor.4 cl, 2 dwg

Container for storage and transportation of spent fuel assemblies and case for their arrangement // 2611057
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to containers and cases, for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel. Container comprises a metal body, cylindrical shells concentrically mounted on the coaming. Between inserts and outer shell there are cylindrical inserts. Container cavity is tightly covered with two covers. On the inner cover and in the support under the bottom there is a neutron shield. On the top cover and support there are dampers. Inner cover is sealed in the form of two metal rings. In the upper coaming there are channels for checking leak integrity of the container cavities. In the lower coaming there is a channel, in which there is a valve for cooling-drying of the inner cavity. Channels and valve have the possibility of tight attachment of operational equipment. On the outer shell there are grouped lengthwise ribs.EFFECT: invention allows to transfer, store for a long time, transport for recycling 31 pcs of SFA reactors of the PWR-1000 type.22 cl, 9 dwg

Absorbing grid for nuclear fuel assembly of nuclear reactor // 2610915
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to atomic power engineering, namely, to nuclear fuel assemblies (NFA) structural elements of VVER type nuclear reactors. Absorbing grid (AG) intended for local suppression of a neutrons burst is made in the form of a thick perforated plate produced by means of drilling and a small share of milling in six corners and along the outline, with the thickness equal to that of the known AG and equal in square in the plan.EFFECT: technical result is simplification of the design, reduced volume of welding to the minimum one (only welding with angles remains), reduced hydraulic resistance due to reduced wetted perimeter of the AG and reduced labour intensity while maintaining its absorption capacity.3 cl, 2 dwg

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly // 2610913
FIELD: atomic power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to atomic power engineering, namely, to fuel assemblies (FA) of VVER type nuclear reactors (VVER-440, VVER-1000, etc.). FA is equipped with an anti debris-filter (ADF) installed in the FA shanks. FA ADF consists of two plate-type filter elements arranged in a shank above each other, containing two groups of intercrossed straight plates forming along the fuel assembly axis a row of curvilinear channels of rectangular cross section for the heat carrier passage. Herewith the channels of the lower filter element are arranged at an angle to the FA longitudinal axis, while the channels of the upper filter element located between the lower filter element and the bearing grate are parallel to the FA axis.EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of trapping debris-objects in the form of straight rods and flat objects of any length and low thickness.4 cl, 6 dwg
Composition for cementing liquid radioactive wastes // 2610901
FIELD: waste processing and recycling.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to localisation of liquid radioactive wastes and is intended for use in nuclear power engineering and at radiochemical plants for solidification of radioactive flows and pulps. Composition for cementing liquid radioactive wastes consists of portland cement and natural aluminum silicate materials (bentonite, vermiculite, kaolin, klinontilolit). Active mineral additive used is graphite, which is a production waste in nuclear industry. Plasticiser used is superplasticiser C-3. Certain ratios of components are maintained in composition.EFFECT: invention reduces cost of composition and enables to recycle wastes formed in nuclear industry.1 cl

ethod of impact compression of bodies with low density, apparatus and reactor for realising said method // 2610865
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of high dynamic pressures and temperatures generation and may be used for chemical reactions, changes in the crystal structure of solids under high pressure and temperature, in particular for producing artificial diamonds (diamond powder), to compress the DT-ice to obtain a neutron source for inertial confinement fusion. The appartus for impact compression process of low density bodies contains the appartus shell 2 and a compressible body 1, installed at the front part of the apparatus shell. The hollow cylinder 5 can be mounted at the apparatus shell, the tail of which may joins a thin-walled hollow cylinder 7 with bar 9. The reactor for the execution of low density bodies impact compression consists of the reactor chamber and two accelerating devices for the apparatuses (cannons), looking toward each other. Inside the reactor chamber a porous layer of a porous metal is installed . The foam metal , tightly packed layer of thin-walled metal tubes, thin-walled boxes layers or cells can be used instead of a porous metal. The summary of the impact compression process of low-density bodies consists of axial compression of each compressed body by solid rear portion of the apparatus shell at frontal collision of two identical apparatuses in the reactor chamber. Thus, there is also impact compression by impact wave and the interference can be used, as well as focusing of reflected from the compressed bodies separation borders and apparatus shells of the impact waves. Also it can be carried out the radial compression of compressible bodies, converging towards the axis of apparatuses by circular liquid or plasma flow, obtained as a result of collision of two hollow cylinders. The interference of two impact waves can be used, resulting from the impact of bars at rear parts of the apparatus shells.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the final compression , pressure and temperature ratio, while the dynamic compression of low density bodies.13 cl, 17 dwg

Device for extracting radionuclides from aqueous solutions // 2610830
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device for extracting radionuclides from aqueous solutions comprises a chamber-column filled with a selective sorbent fixed with disc screens on both sides. The chamber-column is additionally provided with a lid to fix the device for extracting radionuclides from aqueous solutions in vessels with aqueous solution, the lid has one or more holes and is adjacent to one of the disc screens, while the disc screen serves as an outer baffle of the chamber-column.EFFECT: high efficiency of radionuclides' extraction from aqueous solutions, high measurement convenience and efficiency of the resulting radionuclide concentrate activity.3 cl, 2 dwg, 5 ex

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly // 2610717
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to atomic power engineering, namely, to nuclear fuel assemblies (NFA) of VVER type nuclear reactors. For local suppression of a neutrons burst it is proposed to use an additional absorbing grid (AG) installed on angles inside a casing in the bundle. NFA with the AG is made in the form of a thick perforated plate with conical holes oriented with the holes wide side opposite to the heat carrier flow, the AG is made with the help of hydroabrasive cutting.EFFECT: technical result is simplification of design of NFA with the AG, reduced volume of welding to the minimum one (only welding with angles remains), reduced hydraulic resistance and reduced labour intensity while maintaining its absorption capacity.3 cl, 3 dwg
Filter for nuclear reactor fuel assembly // 2610716
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to atomic power engineering, namely, to nuclear fuel assemblies (NFA) structural elements of VVER type nuclear reactors, namely, to debris-objects filters (DOF). DOF is made of several plate-like structured filtration elements with slots for coolant passage in form of stretched rectangles, inclined to NFA axis in one of two mutually perpendicular planes at certain angle, providing absence of filtering element gap in direction parallel to fuel assembly axis. At that, to increase filtration efficiency DOF can have several (2…3) plate-like structured filtration elements, located relative to adjacent ones mirrorlike relative to their contact plane.EFFECT: increasing of any shape debris-objects retention efficiency compared to existing DOF.6 cl, 5 dwg
ethod of producing oxyhalogenide and/or oxide of actinide(s) and/or of lanthanide(s) from medium comprising at least one molten salt // 2610067
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing oxychloride and/or oxide of actinide(s), and/or lanthanide(s) from chloride of actinide(s), and/or lanthanide(s), present in a medium containing at least one molten salt of chloride type. Method involves a step for reacting chloride of actinide(s) and/or lanthanide(s) with wet inert gas.EFFECT: invention provides efficient production of oxyhalogenide and/or oxide of actinide(s), and/or lanthanide(s), as well as formation with elements of actinides or lanthanides, products, different from oxyhalogenides or oxides, and excluding cation-contamination of medium containing molten salt, simplifying recirculation of molten salts.11 cl, 3 ex
Beta-voltage power generator and method for increasing its efficiency // 2610037
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: beta-voltage semiconductor power generator, comprising a plate with a developed surface made of a plurality of micropores having a different shape. Nickel-63 covers the walls of the micropores and the rest of the surface of the plate with the highest level of radioactivity. Semiconductor wafer with a textured surface having deaf micropores and "wells", filled with a layer of zinc metal is fixed on a steel plate, having magnetic properties; then it is placed in an aqueous nickel chloride solution-63 for 8-10 hours at a temperature of 10-20°C and pH 4,5. The level of radioactivity on the plate surface when applying the present method may reach 10 mCu/cm2.EFFECT: ability to create a beta-voltage electricity generator with high power consumption, with service life of 50-70 years, with a minimum of labour input spent on the production of the product.2 cl; 3 dwg
Nuclear reactor // 2609900
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactors, more specifically to their structural elements used to fix the tube bundle secured on the surface of a nuclear reactor subject to vibration and thermal loads during operation. Nuclear reactor comprises housing 1, on the bottom of which in a concentric tube bundle fixed are tubes 2 of the nuclear reactor CPS. For stiffening the tube bundle the nuclear reactor is equipped with a spatial frame, which consists of transverse plates 3 with holes, ring elements 4 and rods 5. Tube bundle is arranged inside ring elements 4. Rings 4 are equipped with spring-loaded retainers thrusting against peripheral tubes 2. On the side surface of plates 3 there are profiled grooves, into which the tubes peripheral row is mounted.EFFECT: technical result is providing thermal expansion of peripherally arranged tubes while maintaining their stiffness in vibration and thermal loads.1 cl, 3 dwg
ethod for noise control of nuclear safety parameters for spent nuclear fuel storage // 2609897
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of nuclear fuel storage at nuclear power facilities and can be used for the experimental determination of nuclear safety parameters - reactivity and the effective multiplication factor - storage pools (SP) of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities (SNFS) of nuclear power plants (NPP). The method for controlling NPP SNFS SP nuclear safety parameters involves measurement of the neutron flux in the stationary undisturbed state as the detector noise time series, the time series is modeled by a autoregression equation of the first order, the coefficients of which are related to reactivity according to the kinetics equation and are assessed based on the detector readings.EFFECT: invention improves NPP SNFS SP nuclear safety and adequacy of security settings definition by reduction of the number of a priori calculated values and ensuring of ongoing continuous monitoring of NPP SNFS SP safety parameters.10 cl
Channel type reactor-converter with molten fuel // 2609895
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering, particularly, to developing a reactor-converter with molten uranium-plutonium fuel operating with an average reproduction factor high enough for fuel self-sufficiency. Reactor-converter is fed with a grade mixture of crude and fissile isotopes of uranium and plutonium with the content of fissile isotopes not more than that in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of light-water reactors, as well as with waste uranium, so the reactor does not require productions of the external fuel cycle. Use of polysilazane as the heat carrier improves neutron-physical characteristics of the fuel cycle, increases the reproduction rate. Channel type reactor-converter with the molten fuel consists of a low pressure housing with a core inside consisting of vertical columns of the side reflector and internals with installed in central holes of the internals columns process channels (PC) for the heat carrier passage and accommodating fuel assemblies (FA) with fuel elements (FE), the low-pressure housing is filled with the heat carrier, in which the core is submerged, the inner volume of the FA FE arranged in the process channels is filled with a liquid metal uranium-plutonium fuel, the FE upper ends are combined in the FA fission products accumulator, the FE ends are made connected with the FA cavity, the latter is made connected with an open cavity above the fuel being with it under common pressure, herewith the low-pressure housing is made from a high-strength titanium alloy, for example, of mark VT3-1, VT6, VT6S, VT14 or VT22, protected from inside with a nanoporous boron nitride-based composite, and the heat carrier is based on polysilazane of the following stoichiometric composition: Si315N3C12D22. FA fission products accumulator comprises a nanoporous sorption material for removal of gaseous fission products and fission products with high steam elasticity, for example, based on SiAlON at the micro pores dispersion within the range of 5–15 Å, and the material absorbing fission products with low steam elasticity.EFFECT: fuel self-sufficiency of the reactor.8 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for active removal of residual heat emission of reactors under conditions of nps blackout // 2609894
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of removing residual heat emission of the reactor under the conditions of NPS blackout. Additional steam turbine plant 2 continues generating electric power for own needs using steam obtained in the steam generator due to the rector residual heat emission energy. Excess steam generated in the steam generator is directed to steam bypass 8, where it heats the cold water from cold water tank 6. Produced hot water is stored in hot water tank 9. Accumulated in hot water tank 9 hot water is directed to the steam generator. Waste in additional steam turbine plant 2 steam is directed to condenser 4, from where the condensate is drained into cold water tank 6. In the operating mode during the night-time electrical load dropout part of steam from the steam generator is directed to steam bypass 8, where it heats the cold water supplied from cold water tank 6. Produced hot water is stored in hot water tank 9. Drainage of the heating steam after steam bypass 8 is fed into the feed water circuit after high-pressure feed heater 12.EFFECT: technical result is operation for electric power generation to the network in the normal mode of the plants safety increasing, absence of their idle time.1 cl, 1 dwg

System for abatement of noxious emissions in atmosphere from industrial or nuclear power plant // 2609670
FIELD: nuclear technology; ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a system for abatement of noxious emissions from industrial or nuclear power plant (1) in event of accident. System comprises following components: structure (10) for impermeabilization of ground, which extends at least in an annular area that surrounds plant (1); plurality of water-sprinkling towers (20–22), which are arranged around plant (1) and/or on adjacent territory and sprinkle water in atmosphere, preferably added with chemical and/or biological and/or mineral substances; and peripheral collection structure (50), configured for receiving water withheld by impermeabilization structure (10).EFFECT: technical result is possibility of localisation of contaminants in case of accidents on nuclear or industrial plants.14 cl, 22 dwg

Inner-zone measuring assembly in channel // 2609154
FIELD: nuclear power.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inner nuclear reactor parameters control means. Autonomous built-in inner-zone measuring assembly in the channel to control the levels of temperature and radiation around the nuclear fuel assembly transmits output signals wirelessly to a remote station. Inner-zone measuring assembly in the channel is activated with a short-time radiation inside the reactor core and remains active after removal of the fuel assembly from the reactor core.EFFECT: technical result is continuous possibility of remote control without an external power source of the fuel assembly, when it is transferred to a remote station or stored therein.12 cl, 12 dwg
ethod for humidity control of leaks of pipelines and equipment cooling circuit of nuclear or thermal power plant // 2609140
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to leak control based on air humidity. Measured values of relative humidity and temperature are transmitted to a computing unit, where they are transformed in values of absolute humidity. Then values of absolute moisture content are corrected using the values of absolute moisture of the reference sensor by formula: ρ(tn)=aρ(tn-τ)+b, where p(tn), kg/m3 – absolute humidity from the reference sensor at the moment of time, tn; ρ(tn-τ), kg/m3 – absolute humidity from the reference sensor at the moment of time, (tn-τ); τ, min is the delay time; a is scaling factor, calculated using a criterion of minimum square deviations; b, kg/m3 – correcting correction, calculated using a criterion of minimum square deviations. Corrected absolute moisture content is compared with threshold value of moisture content and the presence of leaks is detected if the threshold value is exceeded.EFFECT: invention allows to reduce the probability of false alarm on presence of leak and reduce the possibility of failure to detect the leak.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of processing liquid radioactive wastes // 2608968
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing liquid radioactive wastes. Method of processing liquid radioactive wastes involves the use of an agent for cobalt decomplexation, introduction in liquid radioactive wastes of a sulfide-containing substance and separation of radioactive sediment from the solution. As an agent for cobalt decomplexation used is a soluble nickel(II) salt, which is added to liquid radioactive wastes having the pH from 3 to 12 together with a selective to cesium sorbent based on a transition metal ferrocyanide. Solution is stirred for at least 1 hour. Sulfide-containing substance is introduced in it, the suspension is mixed for at least 0.5 hour.EFFECT: invention provides higher efficiency of the method due to its simplification, providing a high degree of LRW purification from radionuclides with complex chemical and radiochemical compositions at a wide pH range of initial solutions.5 cl, 6 ex

Underwater electricity production module // 2608843
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: use: in electric power engineering. Underwater electricity production module has a device to accommodate electric power units including nuclear reactors connected with electric power generation means, electrical cables, support means. Electric power units are arranged on an underwater carrier permeable platform made with the possibility of its stationary installation on the bottom on vertical supports and including seats for electric power units with guides and means of protection and convectors electrically detachably connected with an electrical compartment in the form of a strong hull with electrical equipment, which is installed due to its negative buoyancy onto the central longitudinal axis of the platform and is equipped with means of ballasting, a hatch-gateway, a coaming platform, an input and at least one output high-current connectors. Herewith the electric power units are made in the form of underwater nuclear thermoelectric plants and are joined with the underwater platform in the seats on both sides along the electrical compartment by detachable mechanical and electrical connections.EFFECT: technical result is simplified design, increased service life, higher reliability and independence of operation.16 cl, 3 dwg

Device for passive protection of nuclear reactor // 2608826
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems for protection of nuclear reactors and can be used in designing nuclear reactors, in particular fast neutron reactors. Device for passive input of negative reactivity is made in the form of two reservoirs located in a common casing one under the other, between the reservoirs and the casing an annular cavity is formed for passage of the heat carrier. Fuel elements are arranged in the annular cavity, as well as means for generation of the heat carrier flows for cooling the fuel elements and for heating the upper reservoir. Upper reservoir is located above the reactor core and is divided by an internal partition into a central cylindrical and an annular cavity. Partition is made with low thermal conductivity in the transverse direction. In the central cavity of the upper reservoir there is cadmium, and in its annular cavity – mercury. Lower reservoir is arranged, mainly, in the reactor core and filled with an inert gas. Reservoirs are interconnected by a pipe with a partition in the form of a buckling safety membrane.EFFECT: technical result is improvement of reliability of passive input of negative reactivity in various emergency modes.10 cl, 3 dwg

ethod and mobile device for reducing thermal resistance between two solids // 2608765
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to elements of containers for transportation and storage of nuclear fuel. Prismatic heat transfer element of a nuclear fuel storage rack (30, 32, 34, 36) comprises three main surfaces (303, 303', 305, 325, 345, 365), includes a base and two side flat surfaces, as well as two end surfaces (301, 301'), made from heat-transfer material. End faces are provided with means for pulling element in a direction parallel to base.EFFECT: technical result is efficient heat removal from container.25 cl, 30 dwg

Fast neutron nuclear reactor with liquid metal coolant // 2608596
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear engineering, in particular, to treatment of the liquid metal coolant. Technical task is to create a hot trap, placed in the nuclear core and using its heat release for heating of the coolant to be cleaned. In the nuclear core formed by fuel assemblies 1, there are hot traps 2. Hot trap housing is made identical to the housing of the fuel assembly, and inside the housing there is a cartridge 9 with material intended for absorption of impurities, placed in the liquid metal coolant.EFFECT: technical result is simplification of the reactor design and its operation, increase in reliability of the reactor housing.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of measuring concentration of 137cs in aqueous medium // 2608581
FIELD: measurement technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of measuring concentration of 137Cs in an aqueous medium and is intended for monitoring radioactive contamination of water bodies. In disclosed method, content of 137Cs is determined by direct beta-radiometry after its concentration on disc mini adsorbers using mass of sorbent which is 100 times less than for gamma-spectrometric measurement of content of 137Cs.EFFECT: increasing efficiency of detecting said radionuclide by 10÷50 times in comparison with gamma-spectrometric method and reducing volume of treated water from 1,000 to 50 litres or less.1 cl, 2 dwg

Dual-fluid reactor // 2608082
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactors with a liquid nuclear fuel circulation circuit, in which the fuel circulation circuit is not used for simultaneous heat removal. Cooling is performed by means of an additional heat carrier circuit, which is in direct thermal contact with a channel for the liquid fuel. This allows complete use-up of the advantages of liquid fuel at simultaneous optimization of the heat carrier circuit. Besides, using excess neutrons it is possible to deactivate radioactive components in spent fuel elements or to produce medical radioisotopes.EFFECT: technical result is improved neutron economy of the reactor enabling deactivation of own long-lived decay products to make it necessary to store only radioactive wastes with a short half-life.18 cl, 3 dwg
ethod of radioactive soils remediation // 2608075
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology, in particular to ambient environment protection, and can be used in restoration of fertility and reducing radioactivity of soils. Method of radioactive soils remediation includes radio accumulating plants sowing, natural mineral raw material. Contaminated by radiation section is introduced with 4-5 t/ha of zeolite-containing alanite clay, containing 30–33 % of calcium. Radio accumulating plants are amaranth, under cover of which are seeding perennial leguminous grass, clover and alfalfa, enveloping their seeds with mixture of amaranth flour and potassium humate in ratio of 1:1, moistening them with mineral water, which includes calcium and potassium.EFFECT: over short period of time method allows to reduce soils radiation by 87,8 % and preserve its fertility.1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
Beta-voltaic semiconductor electric energy generator and method of making same // 2607835
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: beta-voltaic semiconductor electric energy generator, comprising a semiconductor plate with developed surface and a layer of nickel-63 on said surface. Surface of semiconductor plate is made in form of a plurality of micro pores and "wells", having a different shape, wherein nickel layer covers walls of micro pores and total surface to 95–99 %. Semiconductor surface has micropores with dimensions: width – 20÷40 nm, length – 400÷600 nm; depth – 100÷250 nm; amount of pores to 2,500–3,000 per 1 cm2. Method of producing beta-voltaic generator includes a step of applying a radioactive substance in micropores of semiconductor plates with developed surface, wherein a layer of metallic zinc is sputtered, and plate is then placed in an aqueous solution of nickel-63 for 8–60 hours at 10–50 °C and pH 4.5.EFFECT: invention enables to design a beta-voltaic power generator with high energy output, service life of 50–70 years, with minimum labour intensity required for manufacture of article.3 cl, 3 dwg
anipulative control device // 2607721
FIELD: nuclear power.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manipulative control devices (MCD) of nuclear reactor. MCD comprises gantry for repeated connection to reactor housing (1) with telescopic post (2). Portal (1) has central part (1.1) and at least three bearing brackets (1.2), attached to it, arranged regularly along outline of central part (1.1) and designed for repeated connection to reactor housing. Central part (1.1) of portal (1) is equipped with rotary device (1.1.1) with hole in middle and drive for turning telescopic post (2), wherein said rotary device (1.1.1) is equipped with flange for repeated connection with telescopic post (2), while telescopic post (2) contains guide post (2.1), outer post (2.2) and telescopic inner pole (2.3), located in it, designed for mutual displacement inside each other. Guide posts (2.1) are equipped with connecting element for repeated connection with flange of portal (1), while inner post (2.3) at lower end is equipped with transverse way (3) with at least one carriage, intended for arrangement of probes, and distributing box for cabling to probes.EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of inspection of open reactor housing.10 cl, 11 dwg

ethod of simulator preparation for spent nuclear fuel acid dissolving products clarification processes development // 2607647
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radiochemical technology and can be used for testing of equipment in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing technology. Method of simulator preparation for spent nuclear fuel acid dissolving products clarification processes development involves obtaining finely dispersed model suspension, containing solid-phase composition chemically inert in nitric acid media. Composition contains more than one component, representing fine dispersed hydrated oxide and metallide forms, which are introduced in form of separately prepared powders by dispersion in fluid to produce solid phase particles concentration of 10–35,000 mg/l, with solid phase particles density of 4.4–6.5 g/cm3, with solid phase particle size of 50–2,500 nm, with suspensions density of 1.3–2.4 g/cm3.EFFECT: invention enables to simulate SNF acid dissolving product with account of its production method, type of SNF, burnup fraction, duration of conditioning before processing, operations preceding dissolution.15 cl, 5 dwb, 1 tbl, 1 ex

ethod for decomposition of ammonium nitrate in radiochemical production process solutions // 2607646
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radiochemical technology and can be used in processing of ammonia-containing process solutions and liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) formed during operation radiochemical production. Method for decomposition of ammonium nitrate in radiochemical production process solutions involves heating and correction of solution in nitric acid. Process of decomposition of ammonium nitrate is carried out in a system of nitric and oxalic acids in presence of solid-phase platinum-containing catalyst in dynamic mode in a temperature-controlled column-type apparatus of continuous action.EFFECT: invention enables quantitative decomposition of ammonium nitrate in process solutions in a wide range of concentrations.16 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
ethod of platinum group metals extracting from voloxidized snf acid dissolving product // 2607644
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing. Method of platinum group metals extracting from product of voloxidized SNF acid dissolving involves, that obtained after voloxidiation SNF is dissolved in nitric acid in the range of temperatures of 83–86 °C for 4–5 hours to obtain residual nitric acid content in product in range of 1.42–2.3 mol/l,uranium in range of 480–600 g/l, obtained product is thermostated in range of temperatures of 69–80°C for 2–48 hours, adding flocculant and dispersing reaction mixture, performing sediment accumulation in device bottom part by sedimentation deposition in range of temperatures of 35–57 °C for 6–24 hours. Product clarified part is separated by decantation, averaging sedimented deposit in remaining clarified solution amount in device.EFFECT: invention enables to extract into deposit of more 78,7 % of platinoids and separate 98,1 % of suspensions formed during SNF dissolving.15 cl, 2 ex

Submerged energy production module // 2607474
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater nuclear power plant. Module (12) in form of an elongated cylindrical box comprises an electricity production unit, including a nuclear boiler (30), associated with electricity production means (37), connected by electrical cables (6) to external electricity distribution station (7). Nuclear boiler (30) is placed in dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18), associated with chamber forming a safety water storage reservoir (20) of reactor. In chamber at least one radial wall (53) is in a heat exchange relationship with marine environment. Dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18) is connected with compartment (21) for placement of electricity production means, which comprises means (100) for supply of water to flood dry chamber (19). Means (100) are installed in its lower part and comprise water intake (101) for sea water, made in radial wall of module (12), pipeline between said water intake and dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment and valve (102) to flood said chamber.EFFECT: higher safety of power unit during accidents.24 cl, 5 dwg

Electricity production module // 2607473
FIELD: electricity; nuclear technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater power modules. Module comprises an elongated cylindrical box, in which is integrated power generating unit (12) with boiling nuclear reactor (30). Power generation unit is connected means of electric cables (6) to an external electricity distribution station (7). Nuclear boiler (30) is placed in dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18) associated with chamber forming a safety water storage reservoir (20) of reactor. In chamber (20) radial wall (53) is in a heat exchange relationship with marine environment. Nuclear boiler (30) comprises reactor tank (32) installed in well (90) of tank, lower part of which is connected with lower part of chamber (20) through means (91), forming an inlet line placed along radial wall (53) of module (12), and upper part of which is connected to corresponding part of chamber (20), forming a reservoir, through means (92), forming outlet line.EFFECT: high level of reactor safety in unfavourable natural phenomena.25 cl, 5 dwg
Target of neutron source // 2607463
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to neutron sources. Neutron source target comprises membrane (1), generating neutrons during irradiation with accelerated charged particles, and target body (2). Thickness of membrane (1) is selected from a relationship taking into account thermal conductivity of membrane, allowable temperature drop in membrane and heat release in unit volume. Inclination angle of membrane (1) with respect to beam of accelerated charged particles is selected taking into account relationship taking into account thickness of membrane (1) and length of deceleration of accelerated charged particles therein. In special cases, target, first, membrane (1) is made in form of one or more plates, cones, pyramids or prisms, secondly, cavity of target and ion guide (5) are separated by partition (3), and membrane (1) and target body (2) are perforated.EFFECT: enabling operation of target at relatively high energy of accelerated charged particles.3 cl, 6 dwg
ethod for supercritical fluid extraction of uranium complexes // 2606973
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of supercritical fluid extraction of uranium complexes. Method involves creation of supercritical solvent in a reactor and dissolving uranium complexes with ligands in presence of water, extracting dissolved uranium complexes with ligands from reactor. In medium of supercritical solvent when stored in supercritical state temperature gradient is created in range of 0.10–0.23 °C/cm along its vertical column at a higher temperature of lower level of column as compared to its upper level, extraction of metal complexes with ligands from reactor is carried out from a layer, on height of 1/3 to 2/5 of column of supercritical solvent from its lower level.EFFECT: invention enables to change isotopic composition of metal during extraction thereof from reactor.3 cl, 1 ex

Filtration device for filtering containing aerosol and/or gaseous iodine of gas stream // 2606751
FIELD: electrical engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a filtration device for filtering containing radioactive aerosol and gaseous radioactive iodine of the gas flow. Filtration device for filtration of the gas flow comprises a closed tightly for a fluid medium body with at least one inlet for contaminated gas, one outlet for cleaned gas and one containing a filtering medium filter element, which is located in the body so that to be filtered gas flow supplied from one inlet for unpurified gas into the outlet for cleaned gas only through the filter element. In the device there is at least one tubular element, which passes through the body, so from the first flow cross section to the second flow cross section, which, when viewed in the vertical direction, is located above the first flow cross section, that all inner space of the tubular element is in contact only with the fluid medium surrounding the filtration device. EFFECT: invention improves heat removal. 69 cl, 5 dwg
 
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