Nuclear physics and nuclear engineering (G21)

G   Physics(387028)
G21            Nuclear physics; nuclear engineering(6260)
anipulative control device // 2607721
FIELD: nuclear power.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manipulative control devices (MCD) of nuclear reactor. MCD comprises gantry for repeated connection to reactor housing (1) with telescopic post (2). Portal (1) has central part (1.1) and at least three bearing brackets (1.2), attached to it, arranged regularly along outline of central part (1.1) and designed for repeated connection to reactor housing. Central part (1.1) of portal (1) is equipped with rotary device (1.1.1) with hole in middle and drive for turning telescopic post (2), wherein said rotary device (1.1.1) is equipped with flange for repeated connection with telescopic post (2), while telescopic post (2) contains guide post (2.1), outer post (2.2) and telescopic inner pole (2.3), located in it, designed for mutual displacement inside each other. Guide posts (2.1) are equipped with connecting element for repeated connection with flange of portal (1), while inner post (2.3) at lower end is equipped with transverse way (3) with at least one carriage, intended for arrangement of probes, and distributing box for cabling to probes.EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of inspection of open reactor housing.10 cl, 11 dwg
ethod of simulator preparation for spent nuclear fuel acid dissolving products clarification processes development // 2607647
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radiochemical technology and can be used for testing of equipment in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing technology. Method of simulator preparation for spent nuclear fuel acid dissolving products clarification processes development involves obtaining finely dispersed model suspension, containing solid-phase composition chemically inert in nitric acid media. Composition contains more than one component, representing fine dispersed hydrated oxide and metallide forms, which are introduced in form of separately prepared powders by dispersion in fluid to produce solid phase particles concentration of 10–35,000 mg/l, with solid phase particles density of 4.4–6.5 g/cm3, with solid phase particle size of 50–2,500 nm, with suspensions density of 1.3–2.4 g/cm3.EFFECT: invention enables to simulate SNF acid dissolving product with account of its production method, type of SNF, burnup fraction, duration of conditioning before processing, operations preceding dissolution.15 cl, 5 dwb, 1 tbl, 1 ex
ethod for decomposition of ammonium nitrate in radiochemical production process solutions // 2607646
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radiochemical technology and can be used in processing of ammonia-containing process solutions and liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) formed during operation radiochemical production. Method for decomposition of ammonium nitrate in radiochemical production process solutions involves heating and correction of solution in nitric acid. Process of decomposition of ammonium nitrate is carried out in a system of nitric and oxalic acids in presence of solid-phase platinum-containing catalyst in dynamic mode in a temperature-controlled column-type apparatus of continuous action.EFFECT: invention enables quantitative decomposition of ammonium nitrate in process solutions in a wide range of concentrations.16 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex
ethod of platinum group metals extracting from voloxidized snf acid dissolving product // 2607644
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) processing. Method of platinum group metals extracting from product of voloxidized SNF acid dissolving involves, that obtained after voloxidiation SNF is dissolved in nitric acid in the range of temperatures of 83–86 °C for 4–5 hours to obtain residual nitric acid content in product in range of 1.42–2.3 mol/l,uranium in range of 480–600 g/l, obtained product is thermostated in range of temperatures of 69–80°C for 2–48 hours, adding flocculant and dispersing reaction mixture, performing sediment accumulation in device bottom part by sedimentation deposition in range of temperatures of 35–57 °C for 6–24 hours. Product clarified part is separated by decantation, averaging sedimented deposit in remaining clarified solution amount in device.EFFECT: invention enables to extract into deposit of more 78,7 % of platinoids and separate 98,1 % of suspensions formed during SNF dissolving.15 cl, 2 ex
Submerged energy production module // 2607474
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater nuclear power plant. Module (12) in form of an elongated cylindrical box comprises an electricity production unit, including a nuclear boiler (30), associated with electricity production means (37), connected by electrical cables (6) to external electricity distribution station (7). Nuclear boiler (30) is placed in dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18), associated with chamber forming a safety water storage reservoir (20) of reactor. In chamber at least one radial wall (53) is in a heat exchange relationship with marine environment. Dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18) is connected with compartment (21) for placement of electricity production means, which comprises means (100) for supply of water to flood dry chamber (19). Means (100) are installed in its lower part and comprise water intake (101) for sea water, made in radial wall of module (12), pipeline between said water intake and dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment and valve (102) to flood said chamber.EFFECT: higher safety of power unit during accidents.24 cl, 5 dwg
Electricity production module // 2607473
FIELD: electricity; nuclear technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater power modules. Module comprises an elongated cylindrical box, in which is integrated power generating unit (12) with boiling nuclear reactor (30). Power generation unit is connected means of electric cables (6) to an external electricity distribution station (7). Nuclear boiler (30) is placed in dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18) associated with chamber forming a safety water storage reservoir (20) of reactor. In chamber (20) radial wall (53) is in a heat exchange relationship with marine environment. Nuclear boiler (30) comprises reactor tank (32) installed in well (90) of tank, lower part of which is connected with lower part of chamber (20) through means (91), forming an inlet line placed along radial wall (53) of module (12), and upper part of which is connected to corresponding part of chamber (20), forming a reservoir, through means (92), forming outlet line.EFFECT: high level of reactor safety in unfavourable natural phenomena.25 cl, 5 dwg
Target of neutron source // 2607463
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to neutron sources. Neutron source target comprises membrane (1), generating neutrons during irradiation with accelerated charged particles, and target body (2). Thickness of membrane (1) is selected from a relationship taking into account thermal conductivity of membrane, allowable temperature drop in membrane and heat release in unit volume. Inclination angle of membrane (1) with respect to beam of accelerated charged particles is selected taking into account relationship taking into account thickness of membrane (1) and length of deceleration of accelerated charged particles therein. In special cases, target, first, membrane (1) is made in form of one or more plates, cones, pyramids or prisms, secondly, cavity of target and ion guide (5) are separated by partition (3), and membrane (1) and target body (2) are perforated.EFFECT: enabling operation of target at relatively high energy of accelerated charged particles.3 cl, 6 dwg
ethod for supercritical fluid extraction of uranium complexes // 2606973
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of supercritical fluid extraction of uranium complexes. Method involves creation of supercritical solvent in a reactor and dissolving uranium complexes with ligands in presence of water, extracting dissolved uranium complexes with ligands from reactor. In medium of supercritical solvent when stored in supercritical state temperature gradient is created in range of 0.10–0.23 °C/cm along its vertical column at a higher temperature of lower level of column as compared to its upper level, extraction of metal complexes with ligands from reactor is carried out from a layer, on height of 1/3 to 2/5 of column of supercritical solvent from its lower level.EFFECT: invention enables to change isotopic composition of metal during extraction thereof from reactor.3 cl, 1 ex
Filtration device for filtering containing aerosol and/or gaseous iodine of gas stream // 2606751
FIELD: electrical engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a filtration device for filtering containing radioactive aerosol and gaseous radioactive iodine of the gas flow. Filtration device for filtration of the gas flow comprises a closed tightly for a fluid medium body with at least one inlet for contaminated gas, one outlet for cleaned gas and one containing a filtering medium filter element, which is located in the body so that to be filtered gas flow supplied from one inlet for unpurified gas into the outlet for cleaned gas only through the filter element. In the device there is at least one tubular element, which passes through the body, so from the first flow cross section to the second flow cross section, which, when viewed in the vertical direction, is located above the first flow cross section, that all inner space of the tubular element is in contact only with the fluid medium surrounding the filtration device. EFFECT: invention improves heat removal. 69 cl, 5 dwg
Radioisotope producing target // 2606642
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear technology and intended for production of radioactive isotopes used in medicine. Target (7) to produce radioisotope consists of cover (9), equipped with inlet (2) and outlet (3) branch pipes for inlet and outlet of washing liquid, and placed in shell cavity of irradiated with neutrons material (8) with open porosity, insoluble in flushing fluid. Washing liquid is capable of obtained radioisotope dissolution. Individual cases of target implementation. Irradiated material (8) is located in target shell (9) between filtering material (10) layers. Irradiated material (8) used is molybdenum-98, molybdenum-98 oxide or molybdenum-98 nitride, tungsten-187, tungsten-187 oxide or tungsten-187 nitride, yttrium-89 oxide, sulphate, containing sulfur-32, sulphate, containing sulfur-33. Washing liquid used is water and aqueous solutions of mineral acids or salts thereof, alcohols, for example, methyl, ethyl or isopropyl; esters, for example, dimethyl or diethyl, ketones, for example, acetone or methyl ethyl ketone.EFFECT: simplified target maintenance and target radioisotope extracting process.8 cl, 4 dwg
Nuclear reactors and related methods and devices // 2606507
FIELD: nuclear power.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a nuclear reactor. Device includes a combination of a fissile material, a salts melt and a moderator material, which includes one or more hydrides, one or more deuterides or a combination of two or more of them. Fissile material includes natural, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium or uranium from spent nuclear fuel, diluted weapon-grade plutonium, thorium and a fissile material, a trans-uranium material or a combination thereof.EFFECT: technical result is the possibility of efficient controlling spectral characteristics and criticality of the reactor.17 cl, 11 dwg, 3 tbl
ethod and device for controlling dynamic confinement of enclosure // 2606402
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to nuclear engineering, to enclosures containing a control device for controlling confinement. Method for monitoring confinement of an enclosure, comprising walls separating an interior volume from exterior surroundings outside said enclosure. Differential pressure (ΔP) is continuously maintained between interior volume of enclosure and said exterior surroundings. Enclosure comprises an orifice in one of its walls. Orifice has passing through it a flow of gas at a speed (V) at least equal to a reference speed Vref, under effect of said differential pressure (ΔP). Speed of said gas flow is measured at predetermined time intervals or continuously and said speed measurement is compared with reference speed Vreference. When speed measurement is lower than reference speed, an alarm signal is emitted. There is also a device for monitoring confinement of enclosure and a confinement enclosure.EFFECT: group of inventions enables continuous control of quality of dynamic confinement of an enclosure.15 cl, 3 dwg
Nuclear reactor heavy accident differential localisation system with breaking reactor floor and large surface area trap // 2606381
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactor severe accident localisation means. Nuclear reactor foundation bed (6) structure strength, mounted on nuclear reactor foundation bearing grate (7), does not exceed strength of nuclear reactor upper and lateral structures. With accident pressure nuclear reactor foundation bed (6) is broken into small parts by instantaneous breakthrough of small window openings with side of up to 20 cm over entire reactor foundation inner area. Reactor foundation bed (6) is simultaneously pushed out through bearing grate (8) along reactor foundation (7) entire internal perimeter. Through reactor foundation bearing grid accident melt is dropped into trap (2) receiving device. Melt intakes (4) are uniformly distribute accident melt along horizontal shafts (3). Horizontal shafts (3) are sector-wise arranged in vertical direction around trap (2) receiving device, along entire perimeter in range NPP unit main building (5), tiered, on required depth, in sufficient amount, providing accident melt guaranteed natural cooling and long-term storage, retardation of its heating, minimization of hydrogen formation, preventing formation of repeated criticality.EFFECT: technical result is reduction of probability of destruction of outer nuclear reactor sealed loop (1) in case of accident pressure exceeding, nuclear explosion inside reactor.1 cl, 2 dwg
System of measuring concentration of boric acid in power nuclear reactor heat carrier circuit // 2606369
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, in particular to systems for continuous and real-time measuring the concentration of boric acid in the first circuit of a nuclear reactor heat carrier. System of measuring the concentration of boric acid in the power nuclear reactor heat carrier circuit includes the first and the second laser generators, the measuring and the reference cuvettes, the first and the second photodetector units electrically connected to the processing and control unit, as well as optical elements providing optical connection between the laser generators, the cuvettes and the photodetector units. Measurement is performed as per the absorption spectral method by illumination with a probing laser radiation of the measuring cuvette connected to the first circuit of heat carrier of a nuclear VVER-reactor.EFFECT: technical result of the invention is higher accuracy of measurements, as well as the possibility of measuring low concentrations of boric acid in the heat carrier and providing real-time remote measurements.7 cl, 9 dwg, 2 tbl
Sandwich type structure multilayer material for radiation protection // 2606233
FIELD: manufacturing technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sandwich type structure multilayer material for radiation protection. Protective material contains layer of scintillation material, during ionizing radiation absorption ensuring conversion of ionizing radiation into plurality of scintillation photons or low energy photons on 1 MeV of ionizing radiation supplied energy and low energy photons uniform radiation in all directions. Material also contains layer for reception and partial attenuation of ionizing radiation, arranged on one side of said scintillation material layer and also intended for low energy photons absorption from scintillation material layer, and layer of material intended for partial attenuation of initial radiation flux and low energy photons absorption from scintillation material layer and located on side of said scintillation material layer, opposite to side, on which ionizing radiation receiving material layer is arranged. At that thickness of ionizing radiation receiving material layer less than thickness of scintillation material layer and is less than or equal to thickness of photons absorbing material layer.EFFECT: disclosed is material for radiation protection.19 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl
Submerged or underwater electricity production module // 2606209
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater NPP of modular design. Module comprises elongated cylindrical box (12) in which means are integrated forming an electricity production unit including means forming nuclear boiler (30), associated with electricity production means (37), connected to external electricity distribution station (7) by electrical cables (6). Nuclear boiler-forming means (30) are placed in dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18) associated with chamber forming a safety water storage reservoir (20) of reactor, wherein at least radial wall (53) is in a heat exchange relationship with marine environment. Nuclear boiler-forming means (30) include pressurizer (33), connected by depressurising means (80) to safety water storage reservoir chamber (20) of reactor.EFFECT: higher safety of power unit.24 cl, 5 dwg
Submerged electricity production module // 2606207
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: module comprises elongated cylindrical box (12) in which means are integrated forming an electricity production unit including means formin nuclear boiler (30), associated with electricity production means (37), connected to external electricity distribution station (7) by electrical cables (6). Nuclear boiler-forming means (30) include secondary circuit (36) associated with electricity production means (37), and secondary backup circuit (60) in parallel on that secondary circuit and including at least one secondary passive heat exchanger (61) placed outside underwater module (12) in marine environment.EFFECT: disclosed is an underwater electricity production module.25 cl, 5 dwg

Combined accumulating element of photo- and beta-voltaic on microchannel silicon // 2605784
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to converters of optical and beta-radiation sources energy into electric energy. Invention provides creation of a two-way design of a combined photo- and beta-voltaic accumulating element consisting of superimposed on one silicon plate with one side a photocell and connected in parallel to it a planar flat capacitor, on the other side - a beta-voltaic element, beta-source nickel-63 of which is placed into microchannels for increasing the efficiency and the generation current.EFFECT: such converter can be used in difficult to access places, mines, for power supply of biosensors integrated inside the body, et cetera.2 cl, 3 dwg

Planar high-voltage photo- and beta-voltaic converter and method of making thereof // 2605783
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to converters of optical and beta-radiation sources energy into electric energy. Creation of an original planar design of a high-voltage converter is implemented as per a standard microelectronic technology. Peculiar feature of such a design is arrangement of several elements of p-i-n-structures isolated from each other with microchannels and interconnected in series, herewith each structure collects radiation of p-n-junctions on both sides of a silicon plate both from a light source and a beta-source. Such converter can be used in difficult to access places, mines, for power supply of biosensors integrated inside the body, etc., as well as for charging microaccumulators based on chemical current sources with a solid-state electrolyte.EFFECT: planar photo- and beta-voltaic converter according to the invention provides high value of output EMF voltage.2 cl, 3 dwg

Underwater electricity production module // 2605762
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to underwater nuclear power plant. Electricity production module comprises elongated cylindrical box (12) in which means are integrated forming an electricity production unit including means forming nuclear boiler (30), associated with electricity production means (37) by electrical cables (6). Cables (6) are connected to external electric power distribution station. Nuclear boiler-forming means (30) are placed in dry chamber (19) of reactor compartment (18) associated with chamber (20) forming safety water storage reservoir of reactor. Radial wall (53) of reservoir is in a heat exchange relationship with marine environment. Dry compartment (19) of reactor container (18) is connected to safety water storage reservoir chamber (20) of reactor by depressurising valves (70). Valves are placed in upper portion of dry chamber (19) and connected to bubble chamber placed in lower portion of storage reservoir chamber (20).EFFECT: higher safety of operation of module.25 cl, 5 dwg

Electric power supply source // 2605758
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used for conversion of radioactive energy into electric one. High-voltage electric power supply source with long service life contains an insulating housing accommodating a primary semiconductor converter with placed above its surface 63Ni isotope connected with two output terminals arranged on the housing. Herewith the primary converter is made in the form of a structured polycrystalline film from semiconductor compounds of AIIBVI applied on an insulating substrate.EFFECT: technical result is higher level of specific output voltage of the radioisotope electric power supply source while providing satisfactory mechanical properties.9 cl, 3 dwg

Polymer-based material for combined radio- and radiation protection // 2605696
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection from ionising and microwave radiation. Radio- and radiation protective polymer-based material contains ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene with nanoparticles of tungsten, boron carbide and technical carbon in following ratio of components (wt%): ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene - 40-60, tungsten - 18-20, boron carbide - 15-20, technical carbon UM-76 - 5-20.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to combine properties, which enable to obtain neutron absorbing material, x-ray and microwave radiation.1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

Oxide material of nuclear reactor core melt trap // 2605693
FIELD: nuclear physics.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to compositions of materials for nuclear power engineering, namely to sacrificial materials. Oxide material of nuclear reactor core melt trap, which includes Al2O3, Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4, first target additive in form of Gd2O3 or Eu2O3, or Sm2O3 and second target additive in form of BaCeO3 in following proportions, wt%: Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4 (46-80), Al2O3 (16-50), first target additive (0.1-2.5), BaCeO3 (3.0-12.5). Oxide material of nuclear reactor core melt trap, which includes Al2O3, Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4, target additive in form of BaCe1-xLnxO3-δ, where Ln is one of following elements: Gd, Eu, Sm, where 0.1≤x≤0.3, and δ=x/2 in following proportions, wt%: Fe2O3 and/or Fe3O4 (46-80), Al2O3 (16-50), BaCe1-xLnxO3-δ (3-15).EFFECT: group of inventions allows improving reliability of emergency core melt localisation of nuclear reactor.2 cl, 2 tbl

Radiation-protective coating of radioelectronic equipment // 2605608
FIELD: instrument making.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument making. Radiation-protective coating contains a transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements, a post-transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements and/or a lanthanoid and an absorbent material containing a chemical element with an atomic number less than the said chemical elements. Radiation-protective coating consists of multiple alternating layers from particles of at least one transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements, a post-transition metal of the sixth period of the Periodic system of chemical elements and/or a lanthanide and from the said absorbent material.EFFECT: invention allows to ensure optimal protection of hardware components from natural ionizing radiations from the space environment.6 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of processing radioactive bottom sediments // 2605607
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, it is aimed at preservation of natural resources and protection of human environment, invention can be used for localization of radioactive wastes, particularly of bottom sediments, contaminated with radionuclides. Method of processing radioactive bottom sediments includes their mixing with substance, providing their conclusion in ceramic matrix, and holding until final setting. Wherein mixing of components is performed simultaneously at direct filling container with matrix materials and bottom deposits in form of suspensions. As substance providing conclusion of bottom deposits in form of ceramic matrix, such binders are used as water, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium oxide, phosphorus containing modifier, in following ratio, wt%: bottom deposits 2.5; KH2PO4 3; H2O 2; MgO 1; phosphorus containing modifier 0.0425. Water preliminarily cooled to 8-10 °C can be used in method.EFFECT: technical result is increased environmental safety of storage of radioactive bottom sediments due to increase efficiency of waste mixing process, optimization of their curing time and reducing rate of leaching of radionuclides from matrix.1 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

Initiator of nuclear fission // 2605605
FIELD: nuclear physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to initiators of nuclear fission for nuclear reactors and methods for using thereof. Method of initiation of nuclear fission includes initiation of at least one deflagration wave of nuclear fission in least one reactor core with deflagration wave of nuclear fission containing the first material of nuclear fuel with the help of at least one insertable and removable initiator of nuclear fission containing the second material of nuclear fuel.EFFECT: efficient development and distribution of deflagration wave of nuclear fission.11 cl, 39 dwg

ethod for automatic decontamination of rod fuel elements and device therefor // 2605540
FIELD: nuclear power.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel elements in nuclear reactors with uranium and MOX-fuel. Decontamination is performed by drawing a fuel element through a cartridge containing cleaning material, leaving no traces on surface of fuel element. After one drawing of fuel element used cartridge is removed from process. Decontamination can be both dry and wet. Decontaminating solution can be applied both at wiping material and applied to surface of fuel element. Device for implementation of present method comprises magazine for storage of new cartridges, system for feeding cartridges into decontamination zone, system for removing spent cartridges from decontamination zone, storage container, system for recycling spent cartridges, biological protection in case of operation with plutonium-containing fuel.EFFECT: technical result is automatic decontamination of fuel element completely meeting requirements for operation with MOX-fuel.4 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of inspecting uranium oxides u3o8 and uo2 for impurities // 2605456
FIELD: nuclear power.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of nuclear oxide uranium fuel, can be used for determining quality of single-component uranium oxides U3O8 and UO2 in factory conditions. Method of inspecting uranium oxides UO2 and U3O8 for impurities comprises exposing one or more weighed portions of a uranium oxide sample to microwave radiation for 8-12 minutes with radiation frequency of 2.45 GHz and power of 550-650 W in an oxidative medium and one or more weighed portions in reducing medium. Treated weighed portions are cooled. Data on their weight is obtained and, by comparing obtained results with limit theoretical values of weight change, presence or absence of impurities of uranium oxides is determined, and total content of other inert impurities is estimated.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create a simple method for rapid inspection of uranium oxides.6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

Filter for nuclear reactor protective shell ventilation system // 2605436
FIELD: ventilation.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear reactor primary protective shell ventilation systems. Wet filter uses inclined manifold, having plurality of outputs, which are connected through first set of filters with metal fibers, submerged into water basin, located inside housing under pressure. Above water basin mist separator for removal of any fog is suspended, carried along in filtered flow prior to passage through second stage of high-density dry filters with metal fibers, connected to second manifold, which is connected to output on housing under pressure. Vessel under pressure is connected to exhaust passage into atmosphere.EFFECT: technical result is reducing risk of radioactive emission to atmosphere.13 cl, 2 dwg

ounting assembly and method of reducing foil wrinkles in circular arrangement // 2605434
FIELD: electronics.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to electronic engineering. Mounting assembly consists of support plate (22) and exit window foil (20) for use in an electron beam device, said support plate (22) being designed to reduce wrinkles in said foil (20), which wrinkles may arise due to surplus foil arising in assembly process. Foil (20) is bonded to support plate (22) along closed bonding line (26) bounding substantially circular area in which support plate (22) is provided with apertures and foil support portions and in which area foil is adapted to serve as a portion of a wall of a vacuum tight housing of electron beam device. Invention also relates to a method of reducing wrinkles.EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of resolution of passage of electrons and longer service life of foil.10 cl, 7 dwg

Apparatus and methods for controlling reactivity in nuclear fission reactor, nuclear fission reactors, and methods of fabricating reactivity control apparatus // 2605431
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices, methods for production thereof and methods for controlling reactivity in nuclear fission reactor. Device for passive control of reactivity includes temperature-dependent leading material and material which changes neutron absorption parameter, differing from leading material. Part of material which changes neutron absorption parameter, is in physical contact with part of leading material. Material which changes neutron absorption parameter can be moved by means of leading material into selected part of core.EFFECT: high efficiency of controlling reactor reactivity.43 cl, 18 dwg
Composition for cementing liquid radioactive wastes // 2604876
FIELD: processing and recycling wastes; nuclear power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to localisation of liquid radioactive wastes and is intended for use in nuclear power engineering and at radiochemical productions for solidification of radioactive costs and pulps. Disclosed a composition for cementing of liquid radioactive wastes, consisting of portland cement and natural aluminum silicate materials (betonite, vermiculite, kaolin). As the plasticizer is used a superplasticizer C-3. In the composition are added used mercury lamps, preliminarily milled in industrial plants.EFFECT: utilization of highly toxic products and increasing of radiation protection.1 cl

Highly safe control mechanism for device for sealed connection of two closed spaces // 2604454
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: control mechanism of a device for tight connection of a chamber and a container, ensuring very high safety and comprising locks for opening of doors with provision of full safety and protective lock (92) to prevent movement for opening, if there was an attempt at removing container.EFFECT: high safety level.14 cl, 13 dwg

ethod to increase npp cyclic load capability and safety // 2604208
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of NPP cyclic load capability and safety increasing. In operating mode during night-time electrical load dropout, gas turbine plant (GTP) 12 is switched off, auxiliary steam turbine unit 17 operates at reduced mode due to insignificant reduction of live steam consumption to main turbine plant 1. During electrical load peak hours GTP 12 is included into operation, outgoing gases are directed to waste heat boiler (WHB) 13. After feed pump 7 part of feed water is directed to WHB 13, is heated there and supplied by booster pump 14 to feed water circuit and, being mixed with main flow is supplied to steam generator. As a result of flow reduction through HPS 9 steam extractions from main steam turbine plant 1 for feed water heating are reduced. Excess steam produced due to reduction of flow for extractions, through steam distribution device 16 is directed to auxiliary steam turbine plant 17.EFFECT: generation of additional energy at NPP in operating conditions by means of gas turbine and steam-turbine plants, capable of providing NPP house loads power supply during accident.1 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of detecting surface defects of cylindrical objects // 2604109
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control and measurement equipment and can be used in production of nuclear fuel, in particular, for detection of defects (inspection) of appearance of fuel pellets. In disclosed method of detecting surface defects of cylindrical objects, inspected cylindrical object is moved through an inspection position, where side surface of object is illuminated with N light beams, which form on inspected surface of N light bands, forming a light band closed along perimeter of object. Light bands are located in one plane perpendicular to longitudinal axis of object and lying at an angle α to direction of illumination. Image of bands are detected by N photodetector arrays, optical axes of which lie in plane of light bands. In analytical device based on deviations of position of images bands from normal position, presence of surface defects is determined and a decision on suitability of object is made based on criteria: depth, length and area of defects.EFFECT: higher efficiency of inspecting surface of cylindrical objects.4 cl, 7 dwg

ethod of thermal power plant controlling and device for its implementation // 2604095
FIELD: electric power engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method of thermal power plant controlling relates to power engineering and can be used at nuclear power plants (NPP). Set engineering problem is solved by fact, that in thermal power plant, using, for example nuclear or hydrocarbon fuel, containing, at least one working medium circuit and turbine with electric generator on shaft, connected to power system, setting electric generator installed active power, forming task for active power, according to which taking portion of power specified generator power and using taken portion of power for circuit working medium additional heating, simultaneously reducing fuel consumption in proportion to taken part of power, and difference between electric generator preset power and taken part of power is supplied into power system.EFFECT: technical result is high plant cyclic load capability at its simplification in general and, consequently, reduced duration of thermal power plant payback.5 cl, 2 dwg

Case for storage of vver-1000 reactors spent fuel assemblies // 2603853
FIELD: nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear engineering, to means of VVER-1000 reactor defective spent fuel assemblies (SFA) storage. Case comprises base, central pipe, spacer grids with openings for installation of pipes where defective SFA are located. Covers equipped with heads are installed on pipes by means of bayonet connection, which external outline corresponds to SFA heads external outline and in upper part of which metal-ceramic filters are mounted. Pipes are made with possibility of their extraction from case together with defective SFA installed in them by covers heads and installation into storage case. Bottom upper surface is inclined to central axis and is equipped with bore, in which screen is flush-mounted, under which openings are made in bottom. Bottom lower surface is made with possibility of firm adherence to case base. Screen is fixed in bore with radial plates, which described diameter exceeds SFA shank external diameter.EFFECT: invention enables defective SFA loading into dry storage case.1 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of nitride spent nuclear fuel recycling in salt melts // 2603844
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nitride spent nuclear fuel (SNF) recycling methods. Method of nitride spent nuclear fuel recycling in salt melts includes uranium ions cathodic reduction, preparation of electrolyte in nitride spent nuclear fuel recycling device. Preparation of electrolyte is performed in inert gas atmosphere by nitride spent nuclear fuel continuous anode dissolution with their subsequent electrochemical reduction on liquid metal cathode in molten chloride electrolyte at temperature of not exceeding 500 °C.EFFECT: invention enables to increase electrolysis current, reduce beginning of SNF components separation time on liquid metal cathode.1 cl, 5 dwg, 4 ex

ethod of producing uranium oxide // 2603359
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to radiochemical technology and can be used for producing uranium dioxide powder, supplied for production of ceramic tablets of uranium oxide nuclear fuel. Method of producing uranium oxides under effect of microwave radiation is carried out by heating of uranyl nitrate. Solid uranyl nitrate which is pre-treated with hydrazine hydrate is used. Process is carried out at temperature 600-1,000 °C for 10-30 minutes.EFFECT: invention simplifies method of producing uranium oxides due to use of solid uranyl nitrate during microwave thermal denitration when reacting with hydrazine hydrate with prevention formation of aqueous waste solutions, reducing duration of process.3 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 4 ex

ethod of making nuclear reactor microfuel rods // 2603358
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of microfuel rods of nuclear reactor. Method of making microfuel rods involves successive deposition on fuel microspheres of gas mixture by pyrolysis in a fluidized bed of protective coating layers. Low-density pyrocarbon layer is deposited by pyrolysis of mixture of acetylene and argon, intermediate and outer layers of high-density isotropic pyrocarbon is deposited by pyrolysis of gas mixtures, consisting of 26.0 vol. % of acetylene, 22.0 vol. % of propylene and 52.0 vol. % of argon, power silicon carbide layer is deposited on intermediate layer of high-density isotropic pyrocarbon. Wherein layer of silicon carbide is deposited on fuel microspheres, which is oxygen getter, by pyrolysis of 96 vol. % of argon and 4 vol. % methylsilane, low-density pyrocarbon layer is deposited by pyrolysis of acetylene with concentration of 55-65 vol. % in mixture with argon, and power silicon carbide layer is deposited from mixture of gases: 8.5-9.5 vol. % of methyltrichlorosilane, 0.5 vol. % of propylene, rest is 90-91 vol. % of hydrogen.EFFECT: technical result is reduction of process duration and consumption of gases for pyrolysis, increased service life of fuel microspheres.3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

Sealing method of nuclear reactor fuel elements with high-chromium steel shell // 2603355
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to atomic power engineering and can be used in making fuel elements for nuclear reactors. Fuel elements sealing method includes argon-arc welding of shell with plug from high-chromium steel, fuel element equipment with fuel, welding of second plug to shell other end, thermal treatment of weld joints. In welded joint zone weld metal is formed, consisting of ferrite phase, resistant to cracks formation and does not requiring further thermal treatment of weld joints. At that, for formation of ferrite phase ratio is selected: volume of ferrite class material to volume of ferritic-martensitic class material ≥ 0.18. Selected are welding modes, which enable to obtain required phase composition during weld metal formation.EFFECT: required quality of welded joints, simplification of fuel elements making process.3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

ethod for continuous maintenance of stability of measurements of spectrometer channel for controlling uniformity of distribution of fuel in fuel element by gamma-absorption method // 2603351
FIELD: nuclear industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear industry and can be used for controlling uniformity of distribution of fuel in fuel elements by gamma-absorption method using a scintillation spectrometer. Method for continuous maintenance of stability of measurements of a spectrometer channel comprises detecting flux density of gamma-radiation from an external source, passed through limited areas of holders on a standard sample of fuel element and on controlled fuel element during movement thereof along longitudinal axis of standard sample/fuel element. Measured flux density of gamma-radiation is converted by means of spectrometer into sequence of electric pulses and value of pulse counting rate on holders and on fuel column of fuel element in each point of PTS spectrum. Method includes determining correction factor, calculating and recording value of reduced count rate PTSpriv for fuel column of fuel element in each point of spectrum.EFFECT: technical result is providing automatic adjustment of readings of spectrometer channel by taking into account background gamma-radiation.1 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

ethod of removing radioactive cesium, hydrophilic resin composition for removing radioactive cesium, method of removing radioactive iodine and radioactive cesium and hydrophilic composition for removing radioactive iodine and radioactive cesium // 2603201
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to methods of removing radioactive cesium. Method of removing radioactive cesium, is carried out using hydrophilic resin composition. Hydrophilic resin composition contains one hydrophilic resin, selected from group consisting of hydrophilic polyurethane resin, hydrophilic polyurea resin and hydrophilic polyurethane-polyurea resin, each of which has hydrophilic segment. Where hydrophilic resin composition contains clay mineral, dispersed in ratio from 1 to 180 weight parts relative to 100 weight parts of hydrophilic resin. There are also variants of method of removing radioactive cesium and iodine, hydrophilic resin composition.EFFECT: group of inventions allows to capture and keep removed radioactive substance in solid body.23 cl, 9 dwg, 19 tbl, 8 ex

Device for actuation and insert absorbing elements and/or attenuators division zone of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel assembly containing such device // 2603128
FIELD: safety system; nuclear technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to passive safety systems of nuclear reactor. System of actuation and input of absorber and/or attenuator (2) neutrons in active zone is installed on nuclear fuel assembly, in which coolant circulates. System comprises capsule (10), in which there is device (11) retaining absorber (2) in inserted position, surface (24) of stopper forming means for fixing means (11) retaining, and support surface (26), forming means for release of absorber. This surface is located on control head (18). Housing (19) extends longitudinally other than capsule (10) under effect of coolant temperature increase, and moves said surfaces (24, 26) so that stopper surface moves from retention device at normal operating temperature of reactor, and support surface (26) releases absorber with threshold temperature.EFFECT: simplified safety system.23 cl, 10 dwg

ethod of making nuclear reactor pebbles // 2603020
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power, particularly to production of pebbles. Method comprises successively depositing on a fuel microsphere by pyrolysis of a gas mixture in a boiling layer a low density, high density, silicon carbide layer and outer high density coating layer. Low-density silicon carbide layer is deposited from a mixture of methyl silane and argon at concentration of methyl silane of 5-15 vol%, high-density silicon carbide layer is deposited from a mixture of argon and methyl silane with methyl silane concentration of not more than 10 vol%, silicon carbide layer is deposited from a mixture of argon and methyl silane with methyl silane concentration of not more than 5 vol%, external high-density silicon carbide layer is deposited from a mixture of methyltrichlorosilane and hydrogen at concentration of methyltrichlorosilane 1.2-1.5 vol%.EFFECT: technical result is simplification of method for production of nuclear reactor pebbles, longer service life of fuel microspheres, as well as wider range of application for fast neutron reactors.5 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg

ethod of processing irradiated nuclear fuel // 2603019
FIELD: processing and recycling wastes; nuclear physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Method of processing irradiated nuclear fuel includes voloxidation of fuel, removal of fuel of molybdenum, technetium and ruthenium, dilution of fuel. Removal of molybdenum, technetium and ruthenium is performed with hydrogen peroxide alkaline percolation. Percolation comprises preliminary operations of processing voloxidated fuel wit aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution, separation of liquid (L) and solid (S) phases, washing solid phase with water, separation of liquid and solid phases, processing of solid phase with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, separation of liquid and solid phases, washing solid phase with water and separating liquid and solid phases.EFFECT: invention increases extraction of molybdenum, technetium and ruthenium from irradiated nuclear fuel until its dissolution.4 cl, 3 tbl

Nuclear reactor pebble // 2603018
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power, in particular, to nuclear reactor pebbles. Nuclear reactor pebble comprises a fuel microsphere based on oxide fuel and protective coating, including, from first from fuel microsphere, a low-density layer with thickness of 84-110 mcm, second dense layer with thickness of 30-36 mcm, third layer of silicon carbide and fourth high density layer with thickness of 36-42 mcm. All layers are made from silicon carbide, wherein first layer has density 0.9-1.2 g/cm3, second layer has density 2.5-2.9 g/cm3, third layer has density 1.5-2.2 g/cm3 and thickness of 7-13 mcm, and fourth layer has density 3.2-3.3 g/cm3.EFFECT: technical result is production of a nuclear reactor pebble with longer life (higher fuel burnup depth) due to reduced pressure of gaseous fission products on protective layers.1 cl, 5 dwg

Apparatus for controlling characteristics of fuel column annular fuel element // 2603017
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering and can be used in making annular fuel elements of nuclear reactors. Apparatus for controlling characteristics of fuel column of annular fuel elements comprises a row of blocks 1-4 for detection of gamma-radiation of fuel column and blocks 5, 6 for detection of gamma-radiation passing through fuel column. Source 13 of gamma-radiation is fixed on end of bar 12, intended for introduction into cavity of fuel element 9. Mechanism for moving fuel element is configured for translational movement of fuel element 9 along its axis and includes mechanism 8 for gripping and turning fuel element 9 about its axis by 90 degrees. Two blocks 5, 6 for detection of gamma-radiation are located on opposite sides of fuel element displacement axis 9. Control unit is connected to detection blocks and to displacement mechanism of fuel element 9.EFFECT: technical result is possibility, in one pass of annular fuel element, of obtaining all necessary quality characteristics of its production.1 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of cleaning irradiated graphite bushings of uranium-graphite reactor and device for implementation thereof // 2603015
FIELD: nuclear physics.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to nuclear physics, to technology for processing solid radioactive wastes. Method of cleaning irradiated graphite bushings of uranium-graphite reactor comprises gas treatment, transferring impurities in a gas phase, cooling of carbon material. Radiated graphite bushing is heated by low-temperature plasma flow in a first temperature zone of a flow chamber in atmosphere of inert gas to temperature of above 3973K. Produced gas mixture is moved to a second temperature zone of the flow chamber for carbon deposition, where temperature is maintained within the range of 3143K to 3973K. Non-deposited gas mixture is moved to a third temperature zone of the flow chamber, where it is cooled to temperature lower than 940K and process materials are deposited. Residual inert gas is returned to the first temperature zone of the flow chamber, process is continued until complete evaporation of graphite bushing. There is also a device for cleaning irradiated graphite bushings of uranium-graphite reactor.EFFECT: group of inventions allows reducing the time of cleaning graphite of irradiated graphite bushings of uranium-graphite reactor.2 cl, 4 dwg

Vacuum neutron tube // 2603013
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a vacuum neutron tube and can be used in designing neutron generators for activation analysis of alloys and compounds. Proposed vacuum neutron tube comprises tightly sealed insulating housing (1) with a controlled three-electrode ion source, anode (4) and cathode (2) of which are saturated with hydrogen isotope, target (6, 7, 8), gas absorber (5), is equipped with an additional identical controlled three-electrode ion source and a gas absorber. Herewith target electrode (6) comprises two symmetrical targets (7, 8) saturated with same or different hydrogen isotopes and is located in the middle of the housing, on the ends of which opposite to false targets there are the controlled three-electrode ion sources.EFFECT: longer life, expanded functional and operational capabilities of a vacuum neutron tube.1 cl, 1 dwg
 
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