Nuclear physics and nuclear engineering (G21)

G   Physics(391163)
G21            Nuclear physics; nuclear engineering(6400)

Section of modules of vertical steam generator // 2628106
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: claimed device consists of vertically oriented modules, the superheater portion and the economizer portion of which have a linear longitudinal axis that is not perpendicular to the earth's surface, and also consists of a single coolant reservoir having a longitudinal axis horizontally positioned at one side of the superheater portion, A pair having a longitudinal axis horizontally disposed at the level of the other side of the superheater portion and one water supply manifold with a longitudinal axis, located horizontally at the level of the outlet chambers of the coolant.EFFECT: increase of safety during operation of the steam generator, the possibility of simplifying the design and reducing the dimensions of the steam generator.1 dwg,1 ex

Cleaning and cooldown system of reactor coolant // 2628093
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: cleaning and cooldown system of the coolant represents the circulation circuit, which includes the reactor vessel with coolant bleed and return nozzle, the heat exchanger, the filter, the circulating pump. The system is additionally provided with the circulation device, configured as two pairs of pipes, each fitted with a valve. The lower end of one pipe of the first pair is connected to the coolant bleed nozzle in the reactor vessel. The lower end of one pipe of the first pair is connected to the coolant bleed nozzle in the reactor vessel. The upper end is connected with the inner volume of the double-position valve before the spool. The lower end of the second pipe is connected to the internal cavity of the reactor vessel, and the upper end - to the inner volume of the valve before the spool. The lower end of one pipe of the second pair is connected to the coolant return nozzle in the reactor vessel. The upper end - with the inner volume of the valve before the spool, the lower end of the other pipe is connected to the inner cavity of the reactor vessel, and the upper end - with the inner volume of the valve before spool.EFFECT: invention provides the continuous operation of the cleaning and cooldown system of the coolant at reduced level of coolant in the reactor vessel.2 cl, 6 dwg

Tilting plate and a device for deviation of charged particles // 2627732
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: deflecting plate (210) for deflecting charged particles is made in the form of a metal-coated printed circuit board, the deflecting plate (210) having a recess (300) formed in the metal coating.EFFECT: generation of an electric field with an improved spatial characteristic.16 cl, 6 dwg
ethod of conditioning water containing tritium // 2627690
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to reduce the hazard class of liquid radioactive waste (LRW), including high-level waste (HLW). The method for conditioning water containing tritium is to combine it with previously prepared mixture of powders of calcined magnesium oxide (MgO) and phosphate l-substituted potassium (KH2PO4), to stir until the homogeneous suspension is obtained, maintaining it until completely cured, all components are taken in the stoichiometric ratio. The size of the magnesium oxide particles does not exceed 100 mcm, and the of the phosphate size l-substituted potassium particles (KH2RO4) does not exceed 400 mcm.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain dense, homogeneous mass without visually noticeable cracks and delaminations, characterized by high content of chemically bound tritium water.2 cl

Nitride nuclear fuel and method of production thereof // 2627682
FIELD: nuclear energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nitride nuclear fuel. Nitride fuel represents a tablet from a material containing a single-phase solid solution of elements containing at least americium (Am) nitride. Said material has a density making approximately 90 % of the theoretical density. Invention also relates to a method of producing the said nuclear fuel using the steps of mixing initial powders, sintering the powders to produce a dense tablet and subsequent thermal treatment.EFFECT: technical result is creation of fuel for reactors of the IV generation to decrease the amount of wastes of the reactors; high heat conductivity of the fuel, high melting point, wide area of mutual solubility of the fuel substances.22 cl, 2 dwg

Scintillator // 2627387
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a scintillator that can be used as an X-ray detector in medicine, when inspecting things at airports, inspecting cargo in ports, in oil prospecting. The scintillator contains a CsI crystal as its base and Tl, Bi and O, wherein the concentration a Bi with respect to Cs in the crystal is 0.001 atomic million-1 ≤a≤ 5 atomic million-1; and the ratio (a/b) of the concentration a Bi with respect to Cs in the crystal to the concentration of b O with respect to I in the crystal is of 0.005⋅10-4 to 200⋅10-4.EFFECT: scintillator has a high output at high afterglow characteristics.2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex

Thermal electrical assembly of nuclear reactor // 2627307
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel assemblies (fuel assemblies) of VVER-type nuclear reactors (VVER-440, VVER-1000, etc.). The anti-debris filter of the proposed FA is made in the form of a thick plate having a conical shape on the side of the heat carrier inlet with an obtuse angle at the apex directed towards the het carrier flow, on the periphery of which an annular groove is formed, forming together with the inner surface of the shank an annular depression somewhat concentric with the longitudinal axes of the fuel assembly of rows of evenly spaced channels in the circumferential direction for passage of the heat carrier curved in the circumferential direction to provide the opacity of the filter in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the fuel assembly, and the flat shape on the outlet side of the heat carrier.EFFECT: increased efficiency in relation to the capture of debris objects both curvilinear and rectilinear.5 cl, 4 dwg

Installation for processing of radioactive carbon waste, in particular, graphite // 2627237
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: method for processing radioactive carbon waste includes the delivery of waste to one or more radioactive isotope separation sites, at least carbon 14, chlorine 36 and tritium. The delivery of waste to each of the sections is carried out in a wet state. Treatment of carbon 14 is preceded by the separation of chlorine 36 and tritium, for which waste is mixed with water in the form of a suspension, then subjected to mechanical filtration and drying. The water obtained after drying contains all or part of the chlorine 36 that was present in the waste prior to drying and after the separation of the chlorine 36 the waste is calcined by roasting and then washed to obtain after washing the water that contains all or part of the tritium that was present in the waste prior to roasting. There is also a plant for processing radioactive carbon waste.EFFECT: group of inventions allows the waste to be delivered to each of the sites in the wet state, with water being a common carrier medium for delivery to each of the separation sites.8 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl

Storage device // 2627045
FIELD: personal demand items.SUBSTANCE: storage device contains the support and mounted thereon the basket, including a plurality of cells, distributed around the longitudinal axis (X), and the central channel with the longitudinal axis (X), wherein the support is provided with the shaft having the longitudinal axis (X), adapted with possibility of placing in the channel to provide the relative movement between the basket and the support along the longitudinal axis (X). The mechanical moving devices for moving the basket relative to the support to the predetermined angle around the longitudinal axis (X) at the inner surface of the channel and the outer surface of the shaft are made, activated on each cycle, consisting of the relative moving apart or closing of the basket and the support along the longitudinal axis (X). There is also the manipulation system and the unit, containing the cell.EFFECT: group of inventions allows to create the device with step-by-step movement for objects storing, having the simple and reliable design.14 cl, 4 dwg
ethod for producing mixed uranium and plutonium oxides // 2626854
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for producing mixed uranium and plutonium oxides involves mixing uranium and plutonium solutions in an unstabilized valence state, converting the master-mixture of uranium into a tetravalent form of plutonium into a trivalent form in the produced solution by reduction of a solid phase catalyst, stabilizing the resulting valence state of uranium and plutonium with the excess reducing agent and precipitating oxalates of tetravalent uranium and trivalent plutonium in weakly acid medium by simultaneous mixing the solutions of the master-mixture and hydrazine-hydrate with a solution of oxalic acid.EFFECT: production of mixed uranium and plutonium oxides directly from the products of extraction processing of spent nuclear fuel, a high degree of homogenization of the resulting mixed oxides and the possibility of varying the sizes of the resulting grains.25 cl, 2 ex
ethod for evaporating highly active raffinate from processing of spent nuclear fuel // 2626767
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), in particular to the technology of handling highly active raffinate of the extraction cycle for reprocessing the product of the acid dissolution of SNF in the concentration stage before recycling by curing. The method for evaporating a highly active raffinate from processing spent nuclear fuel, wherein the process for evaporating the raffinate nitrate is carried out in the presence of an amino acid or an amino acid and a hydroxycarboxylic acid in the vat solution.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the multiplicity of evaporating the highly active raffinate.12 cl, 6 ex

ethod of radioactive waste residues conservation in storage tanks // 2626766
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method for radioactive waste residues conservation in storage tanks involves filling the storage tank with concrete using standard production openings and drilled wells in which vertically movable concrete guides are installed through which the conserant concrete is laid in consecutive layers and liquid radioactive waste is pumped out. Wells are drilled at the periphery of the storage tank, where the preservative concrete is first laid, forming a depression around the suction branch pipe of the depression pump and displacing into it from the periphery of the liquid radioactive waste present in the storage tank, pumped out periodically as the area of the depression decreases and the level of liquid radioactive waste in it. After pumping into the cavity through a standard technological hole located above the cavity, a cement slurry is supplied.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce the volume of liquid radioactive waste cured in the tank.3 cl, 5 dwg
ethod of dissolving voloxidated irradiated nuclear fuel // 2626764
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel (INF). The method for dissolving the paroxidized INF includes the processing of INF in a heterogeneous system with the participation of nitrogen dioxide. The powdered material (INF) is brought into contact with a solution of nitric acid with a concentration of 0.8-2.5 mol/l, at a slurry temperature of 30-60°C and normal pressure are passed through the reaction volume through a gas stream obtained by mixing a continuous flow of oxygen and a stream of acid-forming nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide generated as a result of the catalytically activated oxidation of the inductor under the action of nitric acid.EFFECT: invention allows to reduce the content of zirconium and molybdenum in the product of dissolving irradiated nuclear fuel.13 cl, 2 ex
ethod of dissolving voloxidated irradiated nuclear fuel // 2626763
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) at dissolution operations. The SNF process includes treatment with a nitrogen dioxide system. The calculated amount of a solution of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen tetroxide is brought into contact with the loading of the dissolving material at a temperature of 0.5-14.5°C, the reaction mixture is heated in a closed system to the dissolution temperature at a rate of 0.1-1.8°C/min, dissolution is carried out at a temperature of 71-98°C and an overpressure of 0.05-0.45 MPa with the supply of an oxygen-containing gas stream into the system in a continuous or batch mode at a pressure of up to 0.49 MPa. The invention makes it possible to obtain a liquid stable at a temperature of 60-75°C product with a concentration of uranium 550-1100 g/l and nitric acid 0.8-3.5 mol/l.EFFECT: improved properties and increased stability.9 cl, 3 ex

Vial top for worked rbmk-1000 reactor fuel assembly // 2626762
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: top contains an internal bore with an upper and lower ring protrusions and a bottom. The bottom is made of two parts: the upper is the cup and the lower is the disk, made of sheet steel. The conical projection on the cup is made by cold stamping. Binary marking of the vial is made in the form of holes located on the cup between its edges and a stamped conical projection. The cup and disk are made with different reflective ability of their surfaces.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the coefficient of metal use in the manufacture of the top, exclude deformation of the sidewall of the boring of the lid when performing binary marking.4 cl, 1 dwg

Emergency system of boric acid solution supply to active zone of npp reactor // 2626620
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: emergency system for boric acid solution supply to the core of the NPP reactor contains a storage tank with a solution of boric acid, pipelines, emergency feed pump, a suction pipeline that connects the pump sump with the system tank and the standard stock tanks of boric acid solution, a pressure pipeline connected to a regular pipeline supplying boric acid solution to the reactor core, recirculation pipelines, overflow and drainage and tank filling, pipelines of the system are equipped with adjusting, shut-off equipment and instrumentation. The system is provided with an autonomous source of boric acid and an autonomous supply of boric acid solution to the active zone of the reactor, one end of which is connected to a pressure pipeline immediately in front of the reactor and the other to an autonomous source of boric acid through a connection device and an autonomous feed pump.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to provide the parking concentration of boric acid in the primary circuit in case of failures with complete blackout.4 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of selecting grades of optical glasses for design of space equipment optical systems in long-term exposure conditions of space ionising radiation // 2626450
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method involves calculating, according to a known technique, the dose distribution of ionising radiation from outer space on the optical axis of each glass element of the optical system under operating conditions, taking into account the protective properties of the structure. Next, using computer algebra, the spectral density of these elements is calculated on the basis of the average dose rate of ionising radiation on the said optical axis and the characteristics of the kinetics (formation and relaxation) of the radiation colour of the glass of the element are calculated. The increase in the optical density of the optical system and the corresponding decrease in the spectral transmission coefficient of the optical system are determined. The reduction of this coefficient is compared with the permissible one and, if necessary, the optical glass grades are replaced in the elements with the maximum increase in the spectral optical density.EFFECT: optimisation of optical systems by preliminary estimation with the increased accuracy of decreasing their spectral transmittance during the period of active existence.1 cl

Installation for curing liquid radioactive waste // 2626385
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: device for curing liquid radioactive waste contains a container with a stirring stirrer, feeding units for LRW and filler. The container is connected to the LRW feed unit by a pipeline, with the filler supply unit via a screw feeder. The container is additionally connected by an installed screw feeder with a thermostated process vessel, in the lid of which there is a nozzle for introducing a filler solution, preferably a diatomite, an inlet pipe for the radiator of the connected ultrasonic station and a branch pipe for gas and liquid vapour discharge. In the cavity of the additional tank a dual-mode heater is mounted, a removable tray is installed inside it. Ferrocyanide or aerosol filters are connected in the upper gas part of the condenser, and in its lower part - a valve for drainage of liquid condensate.EFFECT: invention allows to replace cement with dispersed diatomite, which has high parameters of binder material.3 cl, 1 dwg

Device for energy fission conversion // 2626324
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: device for converting the energy of the nuclear fission energy is generated from the photoelectric converters of light emission generated by irradiation of the luminescent material with the products of the nuclear reaction. Herewith the space is filled between the photoelectric converters by the alternating volumes of the radioactive material and the phosphor. The characteristic size of the radioactive material volumes does not exceed the mean free path of the emitted particles therein or, at least, comparable thereto, and the characteristic size of the phosphor volumes is not smaller than the mean free path of the emitted particles in the phosphor.EFFECT: increasing the output device power due to uniform distributing radioactive substances in the phosphor medium and limitating the characteristic sizes of the phosphor and the radioactive substance.7 cl, 6 dwg

ethod of monitoring condition of graphite matrix of rbmk reactor // 2625457
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: in the claimed method, a survey of a select number of reactor cells is performed by measuring the amount of the deflection channel in them, comparing it with the maximum permissible value, and deciding whether to continue operating the reactor. At the stage of operation corresponding to the accelerated forming of the masonry, the cells located along the rule inside the ring (19-21) rows and also inside the ring (13-15) series from the center of the reactor are examined. According to the obtained data, the location of the regions of cells with the largest values of the deflection arrows is determined. The cells of these areas are examined after which the time is determined before the next survey or until the reactor is shut down for repair. At the same time, it is ensured that the rule that any ray drawn from the center of the reactor intersects at least one cell in each of the rings is ensured.EFFECT: increasing the timeliness and accuracy of the identification of the cell with the maximum value of the deflection arrow while reducing the number of cells to be examined.4 cl, 1 dwg

Device and method for medical isotopes generation // 2625342
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: claimed invention provides application of an annular tank for a fissionable solution surrounding the neutron generator. An annular solution tank with an inner wall forming an inner periphery and an opposing outer wall that forming an outer periphery is also provided. Both walls run along the common central axis. In addition, the first annular cooling jacket being in a thermal contact with the annular tank inner wall and the second annular cooling jacket in a thermal contact with the annular tank outer wall are envisaged. Chilled water circulates in the said first and second cooling jackets. A chamber that runs along the central axis within the inner periphery is used as well. The target material located in the said chamber and generating neutrons passing radially outward from the chamber, and an aqueous suspension of nuclear material located between the inner and outer walls of the annular solution tank. Neutrons from the target material enter this suspension.EFFECT: increased radiation safety due to optimisation of cooling, a possibility to work with materials of low concentration.18 cl, 7 dwg, 1 ex

ethod for forming safety barriers during establishment of special radioactive waste disposal facility // 2625329
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method for forming safety barriers during establishment of special radioactive waste disposal facility includes supply of barrier material through a pipe by gravity and movement in a horizontal direction by a stream of compressed air passing through the air duct. Bags filled with a clay barrier material are placed above the feed hopper of a receiving chamber provided with metal blades and, after being ripped, are fed by gravity along the guide channel to a sieve. They are sifted, grinded and moved to the mixing chamber. They are aerated with compressed air at an operating pressure of about 1.5 kp/cm2 and moved along the transport pipeline in a horizontal direction into the corrugated pipe.EFFECT: invention allows providing cavityless filling of hollows with barrier materials.2 dwg, 1 ex

ethod of dumping of technological mine for radioactive wastes at decommissioning of uranium graphite reactor // 2625169
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method of dumping of a technological mine for radioactive waste during decommissioning of a uranium-graphite reactor, whereby the level of clarified river water is reduced to the level of the upper edge of the solid radioactive waste mound. The available solid radioactive waste is extracted from the process shaft, while the operation is repeated until the mine capacity is completely drained. The bottom sediments formed during the exploitation of the mine are extracted and tempered. In the side wall, at the level of the ground surface, a hole is drilled into which a metal pipe set is installed with nozzles for supplying compressed air and a deflecting head. In the center of the technological shaft, along the entire height, another pipe is mounted, the lower part of which is sealed. By injecting loose material through the stacking pipe, security barriers are created within the process shaft. The process of shrinkage and possible cavity formation is controlled by neutron-neutron logging.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to transfer the technological shaft to a radiation-safe state.4 dwg
ethod of extraction of molybdene from radioactive solutions // 2624920
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of extraction of molybdenum from radioactive solutions involves the extraction of molybdenum by solutions of hydroxamic acids dissolved in a mixture of not more than 30% alcohol with paraffinic hydrocarbons with a ratio of volumes of organic and aqueous phases of less than 0.1. The molybdenum and iodine extract is washed with a small volume of nitric acid solution with the addition of metal nitrates from the series: Hg (II), Cu (II), Ag (I), Pb (II), after which the extract is washed with a solution of nitric acid. The extrusion of molybdenum is carried out in a solution of nitric acid with heating upon the addition of a water-soluble complexing agent to be destroyed before or after such treatment, in the latter case with repeated re-extraction into the same solution. The destruction of hydroxamic acid in the extract can be accelerated by using an oxidation inducer. The final molybdenum re-extract is washed with an extractant.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the concentration of molybdenum with its simultaneous purification from non-extractable impurities.7 cl, 8 ex
ethod of manufacturing titanium-tritium target of neutron tube // 2624913
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: in the claimed method, titanium is sputtered onto the metal substrate of the target and is saturated with tritium, the gas is supplied to the target and heat treatment of the target is performed therein, and the gaseous medium is removed from the target. In this case, the thermal treatment of the target is carried out in a heat treatment chamber at a temperature of 200-250°C for 1-2 hours, the pressure of the gaseous medium in the heat treatment chamber is determined from the condition that when the chamber is heated to the maximum it will be 80-90 kPa, as a gaseous medium dry air with a moisture content of not more than 13 mg/kg is used.EFFECT: increasing the thermal stability of the titanium-tritium target, increasing the life and reliability of the neutron tube.1 tbl
ethod for detecting leaky thermal elements of assemblies of nuclear reactor with liquid metal heat carrier // 2624909
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method for detecting leaky thermal elements of assemblies of a nuclear reactor with a liquid metal heat carrier is that above the fuel assemblies in the core, leak test devices are installed for fuel assemblies and, under pressure, a gas is supplied to the heat carrier which, together with the gaseous fission products dissolved in the heat carrier, is then withdrawn from the reactor to the sensors of radioactivity control. The pipe control device is inserted into a cylindrical tube of a material with channels for the passage of the bubble tube and the gas outlet and N devices of leak test, the number of N devices selected is at least 4, one device is placed above the center fuel assembly, and the other devices are arranged around this device in the region Rn, Rn is the distance from the central fuel assemblies to the first or second FA, radioactivity control is performed of gaseous products in the reactor at power running, and if the radioactivity level exceeds the allowable values tions, a conclusion is made about depressurization of the fuel element in a part of the core.EFFECT: invention allows to reduce a simple reactor due to the search for fuel assemblies with damaged fuel rods, to expand the range of controlled fission products.1 cl

ethod of processing liquid radioactive wastes // 2624825
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of purifying liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) includes the steps of heat treatment, LRW purification is carried out in two stages. LRW is placed in the treatment tank by the pump from the first vessel and a strain of fungus of the second container. LRW ratio and fungal strains are selected in a proportion of 1 to 15 by a motor-reducer in the treatment tank produce mixing LRW and fungi strains at a speed of 5 rev/min, followed by a gas burner, located under the bottom of the working tank produce its gradual heating of the first 30°C, maintaining the temperature for 12 hours. Evaporation of the resulting mixture is produced by further warming the working tank to a temperature of 538°C. Evaporation is carried out until the moment when the treatment tank via the level sensor is fixed to 2/3 of the initial solution level.EFFECT: invention reduces the amount of liquid radioactive waste, and to reduce their level of radioactivity.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of nuclear energy conversion into thermal and device for its implementation (variants) // 2624824
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention provides for energy generation with the disposal of spent nuclear fuel, small actinides, industrial radioactive and chemical waste. The energy generation is carried out by irradiating a deep subcritical target based on actinides with a beam of relativistic ions with the introduction of beam sweep operations of accelerated ions and mixing of the target contents carried out by the scanning and mixing units.EFFECT: increased efficiency of nuclear energy conversion into thermal energy.4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

Nuclear solvent reactor // 2624823
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: nuclear homogeneous reactor for the production of medical isotopes includes a housing with a loading volume of a fuel solution that is an active zone and associated pairs of fuel tubes: an isotope separation device from an irradiated fuel solution, for example a sorption column and auxiliary devices, for example a pump for fuel solution and a container for storing the irradiated fuel solution. The core casing, the sorption column, pump, tanks, fuel pipes and fittings, supplemented with a device for removing the water leakage solution from the fuel, are placed inside a multi-hull vessel with the connection of the cylindrical bodies with short nozzles filled with water at a pressure higher than that maintained in the fuel solution.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the radiation safety of a homogeneous solution reactor while maintaining nuclear safety.5 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of accommodating nuclear power plant for producing electricity in unprofitable mine to be liquidated // 2624743
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: pit-bottom is separated by concrete bridges from all other workings of the mine to be liquidated to prevent the access of methane and mine waters to the pit-bottom, and as a potential sarcophagus intended for accommodating the nuclear power plant. To supply electric power to the mine surface substation, power shaft mine cables are used, and the communication channel of the potential sarcophagus with the environment is carried out through the shaft of the mine to be liquidated, made with the possibility of carrying out the operational concreting of the shaft in the event of an accident at the nuclear power plant. The coal-reception hoppers of the collar house of the mine to be liquidated are used as storage tanks for crushed stone, sand, cement and water to start the operational concreting of the mine shaft - blocking the communication channel with the environment of the nuclear power plant sarcophagus in case of an accident that threatens with the environment pollution, and the collar house of the mine to be liquidated is used as the facility for accommodating the complex for accepting crushed stone, sand, cement brought and unloaded by vehicles of the accident liquidation service, preparing concrete and dumping it into the mine shaft to complete the making of the nuclear power plant sarcophagus.EFFECT: possibility of economical and long-term liquidation of the possibility of an ecological catastrophe in the event of an accident at a nuclear power plant; the significant reduction in capital expenditures for the construction of a nuclear power plant; increasing the employment of inhabitants of a miners' settlement formed near the liquidated settlement-forming mine.1 cl
ethod of obtaining a radionuclide of lutetium-177 // 2624636
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: in the claimed process, in the process of contact reduction, by dropwise feeding into a cell with a chloride-acetate solution of sodium amalgam and an acid solution (hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, etc.), while stirring the working solution with a magnetic stirrer, adjustment of the pH of the working solution and an increase in the duration of the contact reduction process for deeper purification of Lu from Yb. In order to reduce the loss of lutetium and the possibility of contamination of the purified solution with ytterbium, an easy-boiling organic solvent that does not miscible with the aqueous solution is poured onto the surface of the working solution prior to the introduction of the amalgam.EFFECT: increase in the depth of purification of lutetium without a carrier from the macroquantity of ytterbium and a reduction in labour costs in the separation of ytterbium and 177Lu by the contact reduction of ytterbium on sodium amalgam from an acetate-chloride solution containing irradiated in a reactor with thermal neutrons 176Yb.8 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

Beam shaper with polariser option for installation of small-scattering of the neutron beam // 2624633
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: in the declared installation the compact design of the polariser is provided due to the fact that the plates from the weakly absorbing neutrons of the material are made in the form of broken asymmetrical channels forming a stack of "N" channels.EFFECT: ensuring the compactness of the installation, simplifying its operation both for the study of non-magnetic and magnetic samples, with high beam polarisation and a high neutron transmission coefficient of the main spin component, covers the wavelength range.15 dwg
ethod of processing radioactive ion-exchange resins // 2624631
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of handling radioactive waste, in particular with low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) to produce a product suitable for long-term storage. A method for processing radioactive ion exchange resins involves thermochemical treatment of resins with a sulfur-containing reagent, which uses elemental sulfur introduced in excess with respect to the initial weight of the ion exchange resins, and the thermochemical treatment is carried out at a temperature of 480-500°C. In this case, elemental sulfur can be introduced at a sulfur: ion exchange resin ratio of 2÷30:1.EFFECT: invention provides, along with a significant reduction in the volume of the product to be stored, the simplicity and reliability of the process.2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

ultidirectional phase-contrast x-ray visualization // 2624513
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: system includes an X-ray source, a detection circuit and a grating circuit. The detection circuit comprises, at least, eight linearly parallel units located in the first direction extending linearly in the perpendicular direction. The X-ray source, the detection circuit and the grating circuit are adapted to effect the object movement to the scanning direction, wherein the scanning direction is parallel to the first direction. The grating circuit comprises a phase grating structure mounted between the source and the detector, and an analyzer grating structure mounted between the phase grating structure and the detection circuit. The phase grating structure and the analyzer grating structure have a set of the corresponding linear gratings. The first parts of the phase gratings and the analyzer gratings have slits in the first direction, the second parts of the phase gratings and the analyzer gratings have slits in the second direction, different from the first one. At least, four adjacent lines of the linear detector units are connected to the first phase gratings and the analyzer gratings, and, at least, four adjacent lines of the linear detector blocks are connected to the second phase gratings and the analyzer gratings, and remain fixed relative to each other and to the detection circuit for moving the gratings. The method is carried out through the system. The computer-readable medium stores instructions for controlling the system by the method.EFFECT: using the invention allows to expand the technical means range for X-ray phase-contrast object visualization.12 cl, 13 dwg

Device for pumping isotopes of hydrogen from vacuum volume of thermonuclear installation // 2624312
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device for pumping out hydrogen isotopes from the vacuum volume of a thermonuclear installation contains identical modules arranged parallel to each other along the exhaust path of the thermonuclear plant. Each of the modules includes a composite membrane based on the metals of the 5th group of the Periodic Table of Elements-niobium, vanadium, tantalum or their alloys with each other, an atomizer, a cooling system, and an output volume. The cooling systems of the modules are connected to each other, the output volumes of the modules are combined into a single output volume, and the waste path of the thermonuclear plant in places where there are no modules is blocked by a diaphragm to prevent the passage of the pumped gas mixture, bypassing the modules.EFFECT: invention provides efficient pumping of hydrogen isotopes from the vacuum volume of thermonuclear installations, reduction of the dimensions of the pumping unit and free placement of the installation in the evacuation tract.2 cl, 4 dwg
Processing of reactor graphite waste material // 2624270
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: irradiated graphite is subjected to the attack by reagents destroying its surface layer containing radioactive nuclides before heat treatment, and the resulting product is removed from the graphite surface. The irradiated graphite treated is heat treated in such a manner in an air atmosphere at a temperature of 700-800°C within 1-2 hours.EFFECT: increased level of environmental safety of nuclear facilities and reduction at source that requires long-term controlled storage.6 cl, 1 tbl
ethod of conditioning water or water solution containing tritium // 2623999
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of conditioning water or an aqueous solution containing tritium, comprising mixing water or an aqueous solution containing tritium and a hardener in a container while rotating it. The water or aqueous solution containing tritium are preliminarily localized in a glass hermetic ampoule which is placed in a container with a hardener and elements for breaking the ampoule, the container is sealed and rotated until the ampoule is destroyed and the resulting mixture is stirred, followed by aging until completely cured.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure safety when curing liquid radioactive waste containing tritium, to reduce labor intensity and the cost of work.4 cl, 2 ex

ethod of purifying water from radon and radon substitute decomposition products, device for its implementation // 2623777
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for purifying water from radon and radon decay substitute products involves filtering the purifying water through sorbing material and backwashing the sorbing material. Filter 3 with sorbing material is protected by a screen. The backwashing is carried out with water heated to a temperature of from 50 to 85°C, which is then collected in a collecting container 9 and maintained until the radon decay and radon substitute products. A device for purifying water from radon and radon decay products includes a filter 3 with sorbing material, a line for supplying purified water 1, a line for the removal of purified water 5, a backwash filter system, a source of hot water 8 with a temperature of 50 to 85°C, a storage tank 9 for rinsing water for the time of radon decay and radon decay substitute products, a screen.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the radiation safety of water purification from radon and radon decay substitute products, and to increase the life of the sorbent material and to effectively perform water purification and safe maintenance.13 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex, 1 tbl
Nuclear reactor fuel assembly // 2623580
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel assemblies (FA) of VVER-type nuclear reactors (VVER-440, VVER-1000, etc.). In the claimed invention, the FA is equipped with anti-debris filters (ADF) installed in the fuel assembly shanks. The carrier grid of the fuel assembly with the filtering properties (CGF) of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly has curvilinear channels for the passage of the coolant, the inlet of the coolant into and out of the channel shifted by some angle around the axis of the holes for the fuel elements and guide channels to achieve opacity of the CGF is achieved. The upper part of the channel is parallel to the FA axis.EFFECT: creating a grating structure of a fuel assembly with filter properties of a labyrinth type with increased efficiency in relation to the capture of debris objects of rectilinear shape, which has a coefficient of hydraulic resistance not more than the total coefficient of hydraulic resistance of the carrier grid and the anti-debris filter.4 cl, 4 dwg

Passive autocatalic hydrogen and oxygen recombinator by organization of environmental air additional flow to catalytic elements assembly in direction of transverse to main // 2623459
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: passive autocatalytic hydrogen and oxygen recombinator comprises a vertically disposed hollow body of rectangular or circular cross-section with freely opening lower and upper ends open to the surrounding air, and at least one assembly of catalytic elements arranged along the transverse section of the housing in accordance with its form in parallel or concentric horizontal rows. The recombiner further comprises means for arranging an additional flow of ambient air through at least a portion of at least lower catalytic assembly in a transverse direction with respect to the axis of the housing. Each successive from the periphery to the center of the series of catalytic elements of the assembly is located below the previous one.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the rate of hydrogen and oxygen recombination in the ambient air, to eliminate the risk of local overheating of the catalytic elements.5 cl, 6 dwg

ethod for overloading the heater assembly and the device for its implementation // 2623102
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of loading and unloading a fuel assembly (FA) by a loading/unloading machine (LUM). The method for reloading the fuel assembly includes unloading the fuel assembly from the reactor installation to the box by means of a LUM and moving it to the pool of cassette holding to a place of storage free of charge, or moving the fuel assembly from the place of unimpeded storage of the pool of cassette holding in the container and further loading it into the reactor unit; the pencil is vertically immersed in the water of the pool for holding the cassettes to a depth at least equal to the height of the fuel assembly, fix it fixedly in the soak pool to asset, and the movement of the fuel assembly from the pencil into the pool or from the pool into the pencil is carried out through a longitudinal section in the pencil case under the water of the pool of cassette holding.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the rate of loading of the fuel assembly from the reactor to the BVK and back.7 cl, 1 dwg
Container for discharge of spent fuel assemblies // 2622901
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for spent nuclear fuel treatment and more particularly to containers in which house spent fuel assemblies (SFA) are located. The container for discharge of spent fuel assemblies comprises a damper and a gripper. The damper and the gripper have its independent electromechanical and manual drive. The damper is designed as a truncated cone with a rubber coating which axis is perpendicular to the axis of the container. The gripper is equipped with electromagnets. The electromagnets are connected via a cable through an unit with an electromechanical drive.EFFECT: invention allows to place SFA of different types in the container, as well as pencil cases with fragments of SFA, to disengage the gripper at scuffing of SFA with modified geometric parameters in storage and to transport SFA with flowing down LRW.6 cl, 8 dwg
Penal for storage of carrying pipes and/or stands of heat exchanges of worked nuclear fuel // 2622772
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: storage box for carrying pipes and/or fuel rod rods of spent nuclear fuel, comprising a housing with a bottom in which an assembly of tandem-connected frames is mounted, at the ends of which there are fastening elements, according to the claimed solution, each frame includes a central rib with a conical shell, having a stepped bottom, and at least one guide shell. The central rib is divided into two parts and has a longitudinal hole in the zone of the guide shell.EFFECT: increased reliability due to the prevention of bending of the central assembly element.9 cl, 7 dwg
ethod of processing processed ion exchange resins // 2622647
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for processing spent ion exchange resins involves grinding the resin grains to a particle size of not more than 500 mcm, preparing 18-22% of a suspension of ground resin in an alkali solution at a concentration of 5-50 g/l, oxidizing the slurry in the reactor by supplying air to the oxidation zone in conditions of the supercritical state of water at a temperature of 480-580°C and a pressure of 235-245 atm, the withdrawal of gaseous oxidation products in the form of water vapour, CO2 and N2, the removal of solid reaction products in the form of an aqueous suspension, the oxidation of solid reaction products in an additional reactor when air is supplied to the oxidation zone under supercritical water conditions at a temperature of 480-580°C and a pressure of 235-245 atm, condensation of water vapour, separation of gaseous, solid and liquid phases.EFFECT: invention allows to reduce energy costs for grinding, to shorten the grinding time.1 tbl
ethod for processing envelope containing calcined calcium hydride // 2622500
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the shell processing method suitable for the nuclear waste treatment for carrying out nuclear reactions containing calcined material consisting wholly or partly of calcined calcium hydride. The proposed method comprises a calcined contact material phase with the reagent mixture, in molar fractions consisting of 0.5-5% of steam, 5-25% of carbon dioxide and 74.5-94.5% of chemically inert gas, while the contact is provided at the temperature of 40-55°C for a time, which will allow the calcined calcium hydride to be transformed into calcium carbonate powder.EFFECT: new efficient method is proposed to produce a chemically inert waste, which minimizes the waste amount in the nuclear waste treatment streams.11 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex

Emergency system of quick neutron reactor active zone power generation discharge // 2622408
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: system contains an air heat exchanger circuit with internal bottom heat exchanger located directly in the reactor active zone, and external heat exchanger in the air exhaust duct outside the sealed envelope. At that, heat exchangers and connecting pipelines are filled with liquid sodium, and a magnetohydrodynamic pump connected to an additional thermocouple installed in the reactor active zone is included into the rupture of one of the external heat exchanger pipelines. The external receiver of excess heat energy where the external heat exchanger is installed, can be made from a ventilated duct connected to the station exhaust pipe or as an additional heat exchanger connected to the external heat exchanger pipeline.EFFECT: increased reliability due to provision of a continuous mode of operation for energy releases removal from the reactor active zone, regardless of the state and operation of the existing active system for excess heat energy removal from the reactor, as well as for complete disconnections of the main and backup power sources of the nuclear power plant.2 cl, 1 dwg

Nuclear reactor fuel assembly // 2622112
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel assemblies (fuel assemblies) of "ВВЭР" -type nuclear reactors ("ВВЭР-440", "ВВЭР-1000", etc.). The claimed fuel assembly provides for the implementation of anti-debris filters (ADF) in the form of a thick-walled cylindrical shell having rows of evenly spaced channels for passing the coolant curved in the circumferential direction until the filter is opaque along the axis of the fuel assembly, the neighboring rows of channels being displaced Relative to each other in the axial direction.EFFECT: creation of a labyrinth-type NRF design, which has increased efficiency with respect to the capture of debris objects, both curvilinear and rectilinear.7 cl, 6 dwg

ethod of inspection of the fuel collision of the shells of fuels of the worked heat-fuel assembly of transport nuclear energy installations // 2622107
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for monitoring the fuel rod cladding of spent fuel assemblies (SFA) of transport nuclear power plants. In the claimed method, the SFA is placed in a sealed pencil filled with a gas coolant, heated with a sump with SFA, and the gas coolant is pumped out with radioactive gases leaving the SFA and a pair of residual moisture along a closed circulation circuit in series through an aerosol filter, an iodine-selective filter, a bubbler filled with an alkali solution, and a measuring chamber. They separate the radionuclides 137Cs on the aerosol filter, 129I - on the selective filter, 14C and residues 129I - in the alkaline solution of the bubbler. Further, beta-radiometric measurements 85Kr in the gas coolant, the measured radionuclide activity values 85Kr with the established criteria for rejecting the defective fuel rods of spent fuel assemblies and determine the tightness of the fuel rod claddings of SFA.EFFECT: increased accuracy of determining the volume beta activity 85Kr in the gas coolant of heated SFA.3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
Improved neutron system // 2621968
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: system comprises a modeling interface to define the standardized data of modeling an abstract nuclear reactor model, to convert these data into the nuclear reactor modeling data, determining the nuclear reactor model, a simulator comprising a plurality of the simulator modules including a neutron simulator module, a fuel burnup simulator module, a thermohydraulic simulator module, and a material characteristic simulator module, wherein the simulator is connected to the modeling interface and configured to generate the simulation data for the modeling interface, wherein the modeling interface is configured to send selectively and iteratively the nuclear reactor simulation data into the selected simulator modules for generating the nuclear reactor simulation data, for receiving the nuclear reactor simulation data, analyzing and updating the modeling data and the simulation data for their conservation, standardizing the updated nuclear reactor modeling data, a database associated with the simulation interface and configured to receive the standardized data.EFFECT: automation of modeling and simulating the nuclear reactor.29 cl, 40 dwg, 3 tbl

ethod for assembling absorber element of nuclear reactors // 2621908
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method for assembling the absorber element (AEL) of a nuclear reactor includes preparing the shell in the form of a tube, sealing it by argon-arc welding at one end by the lower ferrule having a conical shape, loading the shell by the absorber materials in the form of pellets or powder, fixing the absorber material from the axial displacement with the gasket installation in the powdery state of the absorber material, sealing the shell at the other end by the contact-butt welding by using the upper ferrule containing a weighting part. Fixing the absorber material from the axial displacement is performed by a spring retainer mounted in the compensation amount of the AEL.EFFECT: invention allows to increase reliability of the method for assembling the absorber element and to increase performance while maintaining efficiency of the absorber element.3 cl, 2 dwg
 
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