Concrete and lime and mortar and gypsum and bricks and ceramics and glass (G01N33/38)

G   Physics(391283)
G01   easuring; testing(233827)
G01N33/38                     Concrete; lime; mortar; gypsum; bricks; ceramics; glass(1065)

ethod of determination of wall maximum humification localization for analysis of protection against compound building wall excessive moistening // 2628530
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: one measures the wall temperature, where the wall outside surface temperature is measured in the capacity of the wall temperature, the interior wall temperature and the temperature among the material layers that form the wall. One also measures the integral outside air temperature for the period with the negative average monthly temperature and the indoor temperature. After that, one draws the polygonal line of the temperature variation across the wall thickness. Afterwards, one compares the temperature value on the boundaries in each of the wall layers with the temperature in maximum humification localization for every wall material layer by virtue of the construction of a temperature curve diagram across the material layer thickness and the temperature graph in maximum humification localization across the material layer thickness. This graph is a horizontal line of a constant temperature across the wall thickness. And if the line of the temperature in maximum humification localization intercrosses the temperature variation across the wall thickness line, then one verifies that the maximum humification localization of the wall material layer passes against the wall through the crossing point of the above-mentioned lines. If there is no maximum humification localization in two neighbouring layers and, at the same time, the maximum humification line in wall material outer layer lies higher than temperature variation line in this layer, the line of the temperature in maximum humification localization in the inner layer lies below the temperature variation line in the inner layer, then one verifies that the wall maximum humification localization centres around the joint of the two layers of this wall. And if the maximum humification localization is not determined in accordance with the two above-stated versions, then one verifies that it is placed along the outer surface of the wall outer layer.EFFECT: simplification of the analysis of protection against excessive moistening.4 dwg

ethod for determining mechanical properties of cement // 2628032
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: initial composition of the cement system, its grinding fineness Φ and speed of compression waves as a function of time Vp(t) are the only input data in said method. The method includes: the stage (A), at which the hydration degree of the cement system is determined as a function of time α(t) from Vp(t) at the pressure P1 and the temperature T1; the stage (B), at which the hydration degree α(t) is determined as a function of the desired values of the cement system grinding fineness Φn, the pressure Pn and/or the temperature Tn; the stage (C), at which the cement system composition is determined as a function of the time C(t) and as a function of the desired values of the cement system grinding fineness Φn, the pressure Pn and/or the temperature Tn from α(t) determined at the stage (B); and the stage (D) on which at least one mechanical parameter of the cement system is determined as a function of time and as a function of the desired values of the cement system grinding fineness Φn, the pressure Pn and/or the temperature Tn from C(t) determined at the stage (C).EFFECT: improved accuracy and reliability of determination.14 cl, 8 tbl, 13 dwg
ethod for determining volume concentration of cement slurry in soil-cement pulp during jet grouting // 2625770
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: when the method is carried out, a sample of the test material is drawn, before the jet grouting, chemical elements are selected for pumping them into the soil together with the cement slurry during jet grouting from the condition that the weight content of each of them does not exceed 0.1% in the soil and possibility of its quantitative determination by X-ray fluorescent method, the cement slurry is prepared by mixing the cement in water and during preparation of the cement slurry, two or more chemical elements are introduced, measurement of the weight concentration of each chemical element in the samples and the density of the sample materials are performed by the X-ray fluorescent method, the volume concentration of the cement slurry in the soil-cement pulp is determined by each chemical element, and arithmetic mean value of volume concentrations determined by each element is taken as a result. At least one chemical element or substance containing this element is in a different aggregate state than the rest.EFFECT: improved accuracy of determination.2 cl, 1 ex

Segment method for enclosure structure strength determination // 2622007
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: in the surveyed enclosure structure location, two cores are sampled at the entire masonry depth, the first core is taken in the middle of the outer brick row stretcher side, the second core is taken so that the grout layer was in the center of the core. Each obtained core is cut into cylinders, each cylinder undergoes strength testing by the shock pulse method, wherein the first core cylinder is struck only on the brick surface, and the second core cylinder is struck only on the grout surface. After testing, cylinders are laid in a place of their selection in the enclosure structure using a grout. Based on the measured strength values masonry structure compressive strength is calculated for in each layer corresponding to the cylinder arrangement.EFFECT: improved accuracy of masonry enclosure structure strength characteristics calculation due to the possibility to determine the strength of all its layers along the structure cross-section by measuring the strength of samples taken at the entire masonry depth, and without loss of structural strength.1 tbl, 1 dwg
ethod for cement grout volume concentration determination in slurry pulp during jet grouting // 2611373
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves selection of test material samples and X-ray fluorescence method of determination of chemical element quantitative content in the selected samples. Prior to jet grouting, a chemical element is selected to be injected into the ground together with the cement grout during jet grouting, cement grout is prepared by mixing in water, and during cement grout preparation, the selected chemical element is introduced into the grout, a grout sample is taken, the grout is injected into the ground under pressure for building structure formation in the ground and slurry pulp extraction, during jet grouting, a sample of jet-grouting slurry is taken, X-ray fluorescence method is used to measure the weight concentration of chemical elements in samples and density of sample materials, volume concentration of the solution in the jet-grouting cement slurry is calculated.EFFECT: opportunity for fast determination of solution volume concentration in the jet-grouting slurry with sufficient accuracy for monitoring, timely adjustment of the cementing process and improved quality of underground structures.9 cl, 3 ex
ethod for simulation of interaction of building materials with medium casuing biological damage of building products and structures // 2609863
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method consists in immersing of samples of building materials into low aggressive medium. Such medium is a mixture of organic acids: acetic, citric and oxalic acids. Then the samples are held in this medium with varying the temperature in the range ±15 degrees with reference to room temperature.EFFECT: improved accuracy of medium simulation by taking into account the temperature factor.7 cl

Device, system and method for measuring moisture of structure material // 2602910
FIELD: measurement technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device, system and method for measuring moisture in building structures. Tubular housing (100) may be embedded in a material during its casting. Hole(s) (106) provided in housing (100) let moisture inside a space separated by housing (100). Measuring element including electronics (102) and sensor (104) functionally connected to housing (100) is used to measure separated space (108). With reading device (234), results may then be read from above surface due to a provided wireless link between measuring element (102) and (104) and reading device (234).EFFECT: disclosed is a device, a system and a method for measuring moisture of structural material.16 cl, 9 dwg

ethod for determining optimal parameters of pressing pressure and moulding powder moisture for producing ceramic wall materials // 2595879
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials. Method involves preparation of moulding powder, pressing of the sample, fixation of deformation changes during compression, constructing compression curves and testing, pressing is performed in one stage and continuously, with variable pressing pressure values and moulding powder moisture, required optimal moisture and pressing pressure ratio is determined by position of the optimum point at the compression curve, located at its intersection with a segment, which is perpendicular to the chord connecting the initial and final pressure interval value on the curve, and passing through the point of intersection of tangents to the curve in the area of the given pressure interval.EFFECT: possibility to define optimum values of pressing pressure and moulding powder moisture with minimum amount of experiments.1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 4 dwg

ethod of determining time-delayed changes of physical values depending on temperature or mechanical stress for glass or glass-ceramic // 2593917
FIELD: glass. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production or manufacture of articles from glass or glass ceramics. Invention is based on providing production of articles from glass or glass-ceramic having accurately characterized thermomechanical properties. To achieve this purpose deformation of glass or glass-ceramic material is measured at least twice in the form of dependence on time, at different rates of change of temperature or mechanical stress. On the basis of the measurements relaxation time values and weight coefficients are determined by simulating. Then on the basis of the relaxation time and the weight coefficients related to distribution of relaxation processes occurring in the article, time-delayed change of a physical value depending upon temperature or voltage is calculated, such as thermal expansion or refraction index in the form of dependence on preset temperature change or variation of voltage. EFFECT: technical result is higher accuracy of determining thermomechanical properties of articles from glass or glass ceramics with further use of the information to obtain articles from glass or glass-ceramic having accurately characterized thermomechanical properties. 17 cl, 26 dwg

old for making asphalt concrete samples // 2593065
FIELD: technological processes. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgy and can be used for production of samples from road construction materials. Mold comprises housing arranged on supports, and upper and lower inserts. Housing is made in form of hollow parallelepiped. On inner surfaces of large sides of housing there are vertical grooves of rectangular section to accommodate partitions making holes for samples. Top and bottom inserts are made with possibility of their arrangement in holes for samples. EFFECT: reduced complexity and labour intensiveness in manufacturing of samples. 1 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of testing gypsum binder for suitability for production of dry plaster mixtures based thereon and test concentrate therefor // 2589901
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to construction industry and is intended for testing gypsum binder in factory, construction and scientific research laboratories for evaluation of efficiency of using said binder in formulations of plaster mixtures. Method comprises selection of normal density of gypsum dough, then adding a test concentrate into sample of gypsum dough of normal density. Determining setting time of sample with addition of test concentrate and sample surface temperature is measured during its solidification. Further, based on setting time of sample of gypsum dough and surface temperature thereof, suitability of gypsum binder for use in production of dry plaster mixture is determined. End of setting of sample of gypsum dough with test concentrate for dry plaster mixtures for machine application must not be shorter than 120 min or dry plaster mixture for manual application not shorter than 45 min, and surface temperature of sample of gypsum dough during its hardening must not exceed 40 °C. Test concentrate is a dry powder composition containing hydrated lime and tartaric acid in ratio 40:1 parts by weight.EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, accelerated tests.7 cl, 2 tbl

ethod of testing gypsum binder for suitability for production of dry floor mixtures based thereon and test concentrate therefor // 2589898
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to construction industry and is intended for testing of gypsum binder for evaluation of efficiency of using said binder in formulations of dry construction mixtures, specifically floor mixtures. Method comprises selection of normal density of gypsum dough, then reducing amount of water by 2-2.5 times and preparing a sample of gypsum dough with addition of test concentrate. Determining flow diameter of sample of gypsum dough, setting duration thereof and measuring surface temperature of sample during solidification thereof. Further, from part of sample of gypsum dough, obtaining at least six samples and determining ultimate compression strength. Then based on flow diameter of sample of gypsum dough, setting duration thereof, surface temperature and ultimate compression strength, determining suitability of gypsum binder for use in production of dry floor mixtures. Flow diameter of must be at least 20 cm, end of setting should be not later than 120 min, surface temperature must be equal to or higher than 40 °C, and ultimate compression strength of samples must be at least 15 MPa. Test concentrate is a dry powder composition containing plasticiser, and setting retarder, ratio of which is 3:1 weight parts.EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability, accelerated tests.8 cl, 2 tbl

ethod for testing strength of monolithic concrete building structures and anchor device for testing strength of monolithic concrete structures // 2582277
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to testing concrete monolithic vertical building structures by separation with shearing. Disclosed is method for testing strength of concrete monolithic building structures by tearing with shearing drive piece concrete monolithic building structures by means of anchor device and measuring applied force of tearing, wherein anchor fixture attached to tube is fitted in assembly forms of monolithic building structures in area of cords that connect shields of formwork. Also described is anchor fixture for testing strength of concrete monolithic building structures.EFFECT: lower labor input and higher accuracy of tests is achieved.2 cl, 3 dwg

Determination of characteristics of concrete specimens based on expanding cement // 2577724
FIELD: instrumentation.SUBSTANCE: claimed process comprises the production of a concrete specimen, placing it into a formwork and measurement of the concrete specimen volume expansion by means of a driven rod limiting the specimen initial sizes. The said drive rod is provided with a strain gauge and concrete expansion take-up plate on props. The force at the driven rod caused by the concrete expansion is defined by the following formula: F=λ(48·E·I)/l3; (kN); where l is the length of the metal plate between two props whereat it is secured (cm); I is the moment of inertia of the metal plate cross-section (cm4); E is the coefficient of elasticity of the plate material; λ is the plate flexure equal to the expansion of concrete (cm). Then the strain energy is defined by formula: R¯bs=FS0, where: S0 is the concrete area in the plane located across the direction of the analysed strains (cm2).EFFECT: higher reliability and accuracy of determination of the concrete specimen strain energy.1 dwg

ethod of determination of fire resistance of brick columns with ferroconcrete holder // 2564010
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: brick columns with ferroconcrete holder are tested without destruction by a complex of single parameters of quality, estimating the value of the actual degree of fire resistance by the loss of bearing capacity. For this purpose the geometrical sizes of brick columns and ferroconcrete holder, condition of heating of columns, the buckling coefficient, classes of concrete and reinforcing steel, their compression resistance, parameters of thermal diffusion of materials of concrete of the holder and the brickwork; the value of standard load during fire resistance test, degree of tension of hazardous sections of ferroconcrete holder and the brickwork. The degree of fire resistance of brick columns with ferroconcrete holder is determined by polyparametrical relations describing the process of resistance of stone structure to fire effect.EFFECT: decrease of labour input, and also improvement of safety and reliability of determination.9 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

ethod of determining fire resistance of stone pillars with steel becket // 2564009
FIELD: fire safety.SUBSTANCE: testing of stone pillars with steel becket is conducted without destroying on the complex of individual quality indicators, assessing the value of the actual fire resistance limit on load-bearing capacity loss. To do this, the geometric dimensions of the stone pillars with steel becket is determined, as well as bearing conditions and the structure heating, the value of buckling coefficient, values of density, moisture content, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusion of the material of stone pillars with steel becket, the percentage of reinforcement with connecting plates of the steel becket; the value of standard loads in testing the fire resistance and the degree of tension of dangerous cross-sections of the stone structure. The fire resistance limit of stone pillars with steel becket is determined by the polyparametric mathematical relationship.EFFECT: reduction of labour intensity, improvement of accuracy, fidelity, informativeness, and acceleration of tests.9 cl, 3 ex, 3 dwg

ethod of determination of fire resistance of brick columns with mortar holder // 2563980
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: brick columns are tested without destruction by a complex of single parameters of quality, estimating the value of the actual degree of fire resistance by the loss of bearing capacity. For this purpose the geometrical sizes of brick columns with mortar holder, conditions of heating of columns, the value of the longitudinal bend coefficient, the parameters of thermal diffusion of material of brick columns and mortar of the holder, percentage of indirect reinforcing of brickwork; the value of standard loads during fire resistance test and level of tension of hazardous cross sections of brick walls. A degree of fire resistance of brick columns with a mortar holder is determined by the evidence of losses of bearing capacity.EFFECT: improvement of accuracy, reliability and veracity, simplification and acceleration of tests.7 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

Device measuring characteristics of samples of concrete prepared based on expanded cement // 2558852
FIELD: instrumentation.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory analysis of construction material characteristics, namely to determination of stress energy and linear expansion of the concrete prepared based on the expanded cement. Said device includes measuring device with movable element on post, support for sample, cylindrical shape for concrete sample, installed on the support, metal plate with low coefficient of stiffness and post. At that as the measuring device the strain sensor located on the metal plate is used, the driven rod is used as the movable element, at one side it is connected with the strain sensor, and from the another side has piston to limit the initial dimensions of the sample.EFFECT: said device ensures possibility of determination of the linear expansion of samples with high accuracy and fixation of the stage of samples jamming.1 dwg

ethod to detect water impermeability of building materials // 2558824
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: reservoir is installed for tests, including hydraulic insulation of side surfaces of a sample and installation of a sample onto fixed supports. Then the reservoir is partially filled by water, so that during sample installation the wetted surface does not contact with water, and the sample is fixed hingedly along the neutral plane directed in the middle. Prior to tests the reservoir is rotated to ensure complete contact of wetted surface of the sample with water. The reservoir is fixed, and the sample is loaded by water pressure, and volume of absorbed water is recorded. Water impermeability of building materials, detection of the position, speed and acceleration of moisture movement front is determined during synchronous recording of holographic interferograms.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to detect water impermeability of existing building materials, as well as used in development of new building materials.1 dwg

Prediction of concrete final actual strength // 2557984
FIELD: instrumentation.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to prediction of final actual physical strength of concrete. This method comprises conductimetric measurement of specific electric resistance and temperature of mortars in their hardening in real time and evaluation of actual mechanical compression strength of preset type of concretes. The following process parameters are controlled: start of motor hardening and concrete specimen strength at 28-day age. Duration of measurements makes 100-125 min from mortar filling into container pickup till termination of hardening induction period. In said range parallel measurements of specific electric resistances of mortar specimens are performed for calibration and design minimum compositions. Correlation dependence between specific electric resistance and actual mechanical strength of concrete of preset type at design age is set. Results of analysis of variation in specific electric resistance in said range are used for control over of early hardening of said motor of preset concrete type to evaluate actual mechanical compression resistance of concrete.EFFECT: higher quality of evaluation.5 dwg, 6 tbl

Thermionic method for quantitative determination of ammonia in concrete // 2552914
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method comprises the preliminary moistening of concrete sample and its subsequent heating, in which the thermal emission is carried out in case of discharging of 700 mm Hg and temperature of 80-300°C.EFFECT: increase of the efficiency and acceleration of analysis.1 dwg

Research method of fibreglass resistance to exposure of aggressive medium // 2547579
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: study the interaction of fibreglass with cement stone within the specified time. Previously, the fibreglass is glued on the plastic plate, put into the mould to prepare cement samples and filled with cement slurry. Plastic plate with the glued fibreglass is put in such a way that the fibreglass is in contact with the cement slurry. After solidification the cement specimens are removed from the mould and the fibre is separated from the plate. Then, the fibre is investigated by means of X-ray spectrum analysis and electron microscopy. Method allows to determine the element composition, structure of interaction products of fibre with cement stone. Besides, the resistance of fibreglass compared with the diameter of fibreglass after test with the diameter of raw fibre is evaluated.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to compare the use of fibreglasses of various compositions as reinforcing materials.7 dwg

ethod of experimental determination of static-dynamic characteristics of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading // 2547348
FIELD: testing technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, in particular to determining the parameters of deformation of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading to a level not exceeding the tensile strength of concrete to compression Rb and extension Rbt. Essence: securing a test concrete sample in the form of a prism in the jaws of the test stand is carried out using a centring device which provides a central application of load during loading. The force and deformation of the prism in time is registered by using the dynamometer and the strain-gauge station. The multiple static or dynamic loading is performed by rotating and short-term changing the diameter of the axis in the place of junction of the lever and the compensating element.EFFECT: simplification of the test method, expanding the functional capabilities of the experimental determination of the static-dynamic characteristics of concrete under conditions of cyclic loading, which consists in alternating application of static and dynamic loads on the sample.4 dwg

ethod for experimental determination of static-dynamic characteristics of concrete // 2545781
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method is realised by fixation of an experimental concrete sample in the form of a prism in clamps of a test bench using an alignment device, providing for central application of stretching load in process of loading, and registration of a force and deformations of the sample in time using a dynamometer and a strain gauge station during loading executed via a lever system in two stages: at the first stage - stepped static loading of the sample to the specified level by means of laying of piece weights onto a load platform, at the second one - instant or stepped dynamic additional loading or unloading by means of short-term variation of the axis diameter in the point of force transfer from the lever to the compensating element, setting, if necessary, the value of movements in the elastic element.EFFECT: simplified methodology and increased validity and reliability of test results.5 dwg, 2 ex

ethod for determining concrete grade as to freeze resistance // 2543669
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: method relates to test methods of porous water-saturated bodies. It provides for production of a series of concrete specimens, saturation of specimens with water, measurement of specimens, determination of their initial volume, their frosting/defrosting to specified temperatures and recording of deformation. In addition, long-term strength limit of each specimen is determined by a non-destructive method under tension conditions. After defrosting, relative residual deformation of specimens is determined and energy dissipated in unit volume of each specimen is determined during its frosting/defrosting. Then, they are loaded under conditions of uniaxial compression to an extreme load meeting short-term strength limit; energy dissipated in unit volume of the specimen is determined during its compression to an extreme load, and as per the obtained results, grade is calculated as per freeze resistance of each specimen. Grade of concrete as to freeze resistance is determined as an arithmetic mean for grades of specimens.EFFECT: increasing flexibility, reducing labour intensity and enlarging the number of hardware.1 tbl

ethod to determine composition of dry construction mix for concrete // 2540426
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: previously prepared samples with various quantity of a filler in a highly dispersed condition for a dry construction mix are placed into a hollow part of metal washers, placed on a metal plate, are compacted by any available method under permanent load of up to 5 MPa per 1 cm2 of sample surface for 10-15 seconds, then marks are applied on the surface of each sample in the form of drops of a solution of various concentration, wetting angles of samples are measured θ, a curve of dependence is built cosθ-1=f(1/σl), where σl - surface tension of the liquid, they determine the angle of inclination of this functional dependence a for each sample of different composition, the curve of dependence a is built on quantity of mix components, and by the point of break of the curve of dependence they define the optimal content of a modifier in the tested object.EFFECT: reduced number of tests and higher accuracy of mixture composition selection.2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod to determine durability of ceramic items // 2526299
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: at the first stage they determine process mode of manufacturing of ceramic items providing for required operability reserve. Using the produced operability reserve and knowing the suggested time, during which ceramic items must preserve strength parameters, they assess the permissible rated speed of produced reserves consumption. At the second stage, modelling conditions of real operation by means of reproduction of accelerated cyclic variations of temperature with simultaneous impact of possible mechanical factors, they determine actual speed of consumption of the same reserves. Received results of rated permissible speed and actual speed produced for imitation of operation conditions are compared, and results are produced, making it possible to judge on ceramic items.EFFECT: possibility to determine durability of ceramic items with regard to certain conditions of use.3 dwg

ethod to determine limit tensile strength of cement plastering compounds // 2506587
FIELD: measurement equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of tests of cement plastering compounds for tensile strength under static loading. Substance: the value of the limit tensile strength is defined by testing steel beams with applied plastering compound according to the scheme of the double-point bend with smooth loading by small steps and fixation of the loading step corresponding to the moment of cracking, and the value of the limit tensile strength is calculated using the formula.EFFECT: simplified technology for testing, exclusion of the necessity to apply strain metering facilities, higher accuracy of detection of limit tensile strength and completion of tests on plaster layers with specifically small thickness from several mm to 2-3 cm.1 tbl, 1 dwg

ethod of concrete strength growth monitoring during heat treatment // 2504773
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method involves measurement of hardening concrete temperature at given time moments and calculation of concrete strength over three days for hardening in standard conditions by the formula: where R, % is concrete strength gained in time τ, days, Kt is temperature factor depending on concrete hardening temperature and three-day strength.EFFECT: reduced labour consumption of monitoring.1 tbl, 2 dwg

Apparatus for determining concrete carbonation kinetics // 2502711
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: apparatus has at least two sealed chambers with a U-shaped pipe filled with water for releasing excess pressure in the chamber, inlet and outlet gas-distributing manifolds, filters for cleaning the gas-air medium collected from the chambers and the inside of each chamber is fitted with a ventilator and a bath with a saturated salt solution for creating and maintaining given relative air humidity inside the chamber, connected to the sealed chambers through the inlet gas-distributing manifold and, installed on pipes, electromagnetic valves, a carbon dioxide gas source, an automatic gas analyser with a gas flow activator, a gas distribution switch for alternately collecting samples from the chambers and transferring the samples to the gas analyser through the gas flow activator; the gas analyser is also connected to a computer for automatic monitoring of gas concentration in the sealed chambers and feeding gas into the chambers through the electromagnetic valves.EFFECT: high information value and faster determination.1 dwg

ethod to determine dependence of concrete frost resistance grade on water-cement ratio // 2490631
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: previously they make at least two samples with different water-cement ratios, thermal cycling and cyclic compression of the sample with the least water-cement ratio are alternated until proportion is disturbed between relative residual deformation and number of cycles, the ratio is calculated between relative reduction of threshold load and relative residual deformation, the concrete grade of frost resistance is determined, as well as relative residual deformation εm, corresponding to reduction of the strength limit specified by the standard for the frost resistance grade of the investigated concrete, they alternate thermal cycling and cyclic compression of other samples with higher water-cement ratios until residual deformation is achieved εm, the number of cycles required for this purpose is accepted as the grade of concrete frost resistance with higher water-cement ratio, using the produced results, they calculate parameters of the function that approximates experimental results.EFFECT: expanded arsenal of technical facilities for detection of concrete frost resistance dependence on water-cement ratio.

ethod to determine water impermeability of cement materials // 2487351
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: in the method including drying of a sample to permanent mass, hydraulic insulation of its side surfaces and water saturation, nonwetting of the upper end surface of the sample is provided, and a light-reflecting water impermeable coating is applied on it, and continuous even water saturation is carried out via the bottom end surface of the sample, at the same time the sample is installed onto fixed supports inside a reservoir for water saturation, the reservoir is filled with water, and even contact is provided between the lower end surface of the sample with water during the entire cycle of measurements, then with the help of laser radiation a series of holographic interferograms is registered on a non-wetted surface of the sample in process of water saturation, at the same time position, speed and acceleration of moisture movement front are determined by comparison of changes in the field of movements of the registered surface, produced according to interferograms, with the rated field of movements of a geometrically similar sample.EFFECT: improved information value and reliability of detection.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for experimental detection of static-dynamic diagrams of concrete and coefficient of dynamic strengthening of concrete with account of crack formation // 2482480
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method is realised by fixation of an experimental concrete sample in the form of a prism between bearing plates of a test bench using a centring device, providing for central application of a compressing load in process of loading, and registration of a force and deformation of a prism in time using a dynamometer and a strain station with loading, realised through a lever system in two stages: at the first stage - stepped static loading of a sample to the required level in different shares of the crack formation load by means of laying of unit weights onto a loading platform, at the second stage - instantaneous or stepped dynamic additional loading with a weight dropping during reduction of current force in an electromagnet, the axis of the centre of gravity of which matches with the axis of the loading platform.EFFECT: increased reliability of tests.2 dwg
ethod of testing structural materials for biostability // 2471188
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves dipping and holding samples of the test materials at room temperature into a weakly aggressive medium - mixture of organic acids: 0.9-1.1% acetic acid, 0.9-1.1% citric acid, 0.09-0.12% oxalic acid, said acids being in ratio of 1.8:2.7:0.8-2.1:3.1:1.2. After exposure, the samples are removed and dried to constant weight and their strength characteristics are then determined.EFFECT: high efficiency and reliability of tests.2 tbl

ethod to analyse structure and monitor strength of building structures concrete and device for its realisation // 2441234
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method includes soaking concrete, drilling concrete, detection of power spend for drilling, measurement of value and speed of drilling tool displacement with production of data in the form of curves of power, displacement, speed of the drilling tool, characterising structure and layer strength of concrete with production of digital data on each curve, besides, prior to performance of tests on this investigated section of a concrete item selected for detection of structure and strength of concrete, preliminary preparation of the concrete item surface is carried out, for this purpose the investigated section is polished, and its surface strength is determined in dry condition, then this section of the concrete item is soaked, and surface strength of concrete is identified with account of its moisture, then a drilling plant is installed on the investigated section for drilling of concrete, and by means of drilling, the layer structure and layer strength of concrete in moist condition are identified, besides, as a result of drilling, additionally a cylindrical reference concrete sample is produced, which is used for further tests during determination of strength of the reference concrete sample for compression or axial tension, at the same time readings are compared with readings produced by other previous methods, and the reference concrete sample is previously dried. Also a device of similar purpose is provided.EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of analysis and monitoring.8 cl, 10 dwg

Structural element to reveal mechanical damages // 2441216
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to structural element 11 from electrically insulating material with structure made up of conductors 14a, 14b, 14c to reveal mechanical damages, say, fractures. Said structure varies its electrical properties in continuing fracture formation (arrow 20) to allow timely replacement of structural element 11. In compliance with this invention, said electrical conductor consists of particles with metal surface that stay in contact. This allows making the electric conductor that reacts to mechanical damages to increase sensitivity of aforesaid structure 14a, 14b, 14c. If said metal surface is formed solely by shell of particles and particles consist of the material of structural element 11, then it is possible to develop a conductor with matching characteristics of thermal expansion for thermally heavily-loaded structural parts, in particular, plates of heat protection shield.EFFECT: higher sensitivity in detection of damages.8 cl, 6 dwg

ethod to monitor quality of road concrete mix in process of its preparation in mixer // 2438126
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method includes monitoring quality of finished mix, initial components of the mix, their dosing, mixing, maintenance of the specified temperature mode and registration of mix temperature at the outlet of the mixer, besides, at all stages of the technological process the spectral density of acoustic noise capacity is registered, and the mixture readiness and necessity to disconnect the mixer's drive are decided by change in density of distribution of the spectral density of capacity radiated by fractions of filler during mixing depending on extent of mixture homogeneity.EFFECT: higher informative value and reliability of monitoring.3 cl, 1 ex, 2 dwg

ethod of estimating cohesion of filling agent with mortar part of asphaltic concrete // 2435744
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method can be used in field of road-building materials. When estimating cohesion of filling agent with mortar part of asphaltic concrete fixed is stamp-standard from three rigidly connected similar elements with lower part from filler in mortar part of examined asphaltic concrete at specified depth of metal reservoir, connected with bed, by fastening stamp-standard in rod system, moving it with respect to surface of mortar part of examined asphaltic concrete by means of thread connection, connected with rod system. After that, metal reservoir is rotated at 180° with respect to bed. Then, stretching effort is created in contact zone of each element of stamp-standard by application to each of three similar elements of stamp-standard of static rupture loading, said loading is recorded at the moment of breaking off of each of three similar element of stamp-standard, located at angle 120° with respect to each other, from mortar part of examined material, and value of tension in contact zone of each of three similar elements of stamp-standard by value of ratio of loading value to size of area of contact zone between filling agent - lower part of each of three similar elements of stamp-standard - and mortar part of asphaltic concrete.EFFECT: increased accuracy of experimental estimation of cohesion parameter and reduced labour consumption of method realisation with application of great number of stamp-standards.3 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod to detect frost-resistance of coarse filler in concretes // 2426117
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method to detect frost resistance of a coarse filler in concretes by means of saturation of investigated concrete with water and their cyclic freezing-thawing is characterised by the fact that prior to testing a surface layer is removed from the samples, thus baring grains of a coarse filler. Thickness of the removed layer makes at least a half of a diameter of coarse filler grains, and hardness of bare filler grains is detected in process of cyclic freezing-thawing.EFFECT: detection of actual frost resistance of a coarse filler in concretes, with simultaneous detection of kinetics of filler grains destruction and mortar fraction.1 cl, 2 tbl

ethod of automatic correction of concrete mixture composition // 2410689
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to automation of construction materials manufacturing and may be used in construction industry. Method for automatic correction of concrete mixture composition and includes definition of dose of water and cement depending on properties and quality of non-sorted fillers, on content of sand, crushed stone, water and cement in mixture, specified slump, specified specific surface of sand, thinness of cement grinding, specified strength of concrete. Correction of composition is carried out with account of data of non-sorted fillers quality forecast produced by results of georadar research of fillers field, with the possibility to use feedback for selection of required field map, on the basis of which the required dose of correcting fraction of sand is defined, and in case the permissible value is exceeded, decision is made to use non-sorted filler from another point of field or to prepare concrete of other grade.EFFECT: increased quality of concrete mix and accuracy of its composition correction when using non-sorted filler, reduced material intensity and increased efficiency.1 dwg

ethod to control construction structure quality // 2392620
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of controlling the quality of construction structures, in particular that of vertical sealing curtains formed by jet cementing. Proposed method consists in using an effect of ultrasound wave reflection to detect structure defects between probes, i.e. radiator and reflector fitted in water-filled access channels made in wells drilled vertically down to designed level, and receiving data in the form of ultrasound profile, that is, processed ultrasound pulses with due allowance for probing depth. Quality control is effected in ready sealing curtain. Access channels in the form of tubes are arranged at the center of intercrossing soil-cement piles that form said sealing curtain in soil by drilling wells and jet cementing of soil. Data on defect zones in said curtain are derived from ultrasound pulses readings between centers of soil-cement piles with due allowance for probing depth, primarily, along straight line as follows: body of one pile - intersection of piles - body of another pile, and or with additional diagonal crossing of pulses in the same manner in two- and more-line sealing curtain.EFFECT: ease of quality control, higher efficiency of sealing curtain quality control, reduced terms and costs.2 ex, 1 tbl, 10 dwg

ethod for detection of concrete crack resistance // 2390018
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method for detection of concrete crack resistance includes loading concrete samples with compression and stretching forces, definition and comparison of parametres that specify their physical properties - υ, E, µ, Rc, Lr, measured after drying until mass stabilisation and water-saturated condition, besides, process of drying - mass stabilisation occurs with moisture of 40% and temperature of 18-20°C, and process of water saturation at atmospheric pressure until mass stabilisation, and assessment of crack resistance by coefficient of crack resistance Kcr with the help of method of integration of all cracks available in concrete sample into one - reduced - crack, length value of which is calculated according to formula Lr=2Eυ/(πµ2Rc 2), where υ- surface energy of concrete, J/m2, E - module of concrete elasticity, MPa, µ - Poisson coefficient, Rc - concrete compression strength, MPa, and crack resistance coefficient is calculated according to formula where - length of reduced crack in dry substances, m, - length of reduced crack in water saturated samples, m.EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of concrete crack resistance detection.2 tbl

Instrument for strength testing of construction materials // 2381503
FIELD: testing equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to testing equipment, namely to instruments for strength testing of construction materials. Instrument for strength testing of construction materials comprises unit for installation of sample, loading device with drive and device for measurement of load, which are installed in power frame. Two elastic elements of various pliancy are installed serially with sample, besides one of them, for instance in the form of spring, is installed between sample and drive that deforms it with a certain rate, and the other detector of load measurement, with lower pliancy, is installed between sample and base of power frame.EFFECT: increased accuracy and reproducibility of test results, improved efficiency of instrument and expansion of its application field.3 dwg

ethod of determining frost resistance of stone // 2380681
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: stone sample saturated with water is frozen to a specified temperature. The sample is unfrozen and deformation is measured. Before freezing, the threshold load which accounts for long-term compression strength of the sample is measured using a nondestructive method. After several thermal cycles, residual deformation of the unfrozen sample is measured in the direction perpendicular the previous compression. A least residual deformation is achieved through periodical compression of the sample in the current direction from zero to a load which exceeds the threshold by not more than a third. The number of thermal cycles required for reducing long-term strength to the required value is determined by repeating these operations.EFFECT: reduced labour input and increased efficiency.1 tbl
ethod of determining crystalline phase in crystalline glass materials // 2379682
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to determine crystalline phase in crystalline glass materials. A sample is treated with solutions of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acid, with subsequent filtration and calcination of the residue. The analysed sample with 10% solution of hydrofluoric acid is treated in a laboratory ultrasonic bath with water heated to 50°C for 5 minutes, with subsequent addition of a 2% solution of sulphuric acid and treatment with ultrasound for 5 more minutes.EFFECT: faster and simpler process of determining content of crystalline phase in crystalline glass material with retention of its accuracy.1 tbl

odel for compressing rock when evaluating freeze-thaw resistance // 2370767
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: model for compressing rock when evaluating its freeze-thaw resistance consists of a rod of the analysed material, component metal holders with depressions into which the ends of the rod enter, and a fixing structure between supports and ends of the rod. The fixing structure is based on cement which expands during solidification. The depressions in the holders have the least cross sectional area where the rod enters the holder, perpendicular to the axis of the rod.EFFECT: increased accuracy of determining type of construction materials from freeze-thaw resistance, reduced labour input and cutting on number of tests.1 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod of evaluating cement activity in water-cement systems // 2370766
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: in the method of evaluating cement activity in water-cement systems, cement is mixed with water, obtaining cement dough which is then put into a mould. For 60-70 seconds change of temperature of the cement dough is measured using at least one temperature sensor from the beginning of mixing to the onset of cement setting. Histograms are drawn for distribution of the obtained values of periods versus the values and cement activity is determined by comparing the obtained histograms with standard histograms. A fibre optic or resistance thermometre is used, preferably with sensitivity less than 0.05°K. A plasticiser can be added when preparing the water-cement mixture.EFFECT: more accurate and faster method with simplification of its implementation.4 cl, 4 ex, 1 dwg

ethod for imitation of thermomechanical action of x-ray radiation of nuclear explosion at samples of structural materials // 2366947
FIELD: physics, nuclear engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to equipment for creation of short-term intense pressure pulses and may be used for testing of structural material samples for resistance to action of shock waves of nuclear explosion (NE), in particular X-ray radiation (XR). Method for imitation of thermomechanical action of NE XR at samples of structural materials includes fixation of exploded foil to tested sample, discharge of electric current pulse that results in foil explosion, and resulting loading of sample by mechanical pressure pulse from explosive shock wave. Besides previously thickness is identified for layer of loaded sample substance sublimated in nature process, and then it is removed from the surface by any of available methods. Then uneven heating is carried out in sample thickness.EFFECT: provision of possibility to bring reproduced conditions to nature condition of tested sample under thermomechanical action of NE XR.4 dwg

ethod of determining flame resistance of building mesh-reinforced brick piers // 2357246
FIELD: fire safety.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire safety of the buildings and can be used to classify mesh-reinforced brick piers and separating walls with respect to their flame resistance characteristics. The proposed method comprises performing tech inspection, defining the bricklaying type, types of bricks and mortar, the bricklaying elastic stability, the pier support and attachment conditions, determining the probable time of occurrence of limiting flame resistance conditions of mesh-reinforced brick piers at rated load in the conditions of standards fire. Testing the said mesh-reinforced brick piers involves no destruction and incorporates a set of separate quality properties of the mesh-reinforced brick piers. The date and place are selected for quality characteristics to be defined. The aforesaid tech inspection is supplemented by instrument measurements of mesh-reinforced brick pier geometrical sizes at critical sections. The pattern of heating in aforesaid critical sections of piers in fire is determined, as well as temporary compression resistance of bricklaying. The rated load onto mesh-reinforced brick piers is selected for flame resistance test conditions and strains in the pier critical sections are defined.EFFECT: determination of mesh-reinforced brick pier and separation wall flame resistance involving no natural heating; higher validity of quality control checks and non-destructive tests.14 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of determining flame resistance of building brick piers // 2357245
FIELD: fire safety.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fire safety of the buildings and can be used to classify brick piers and separating walls with respect to their flame resistance characteristics. The proposed method comprises performing tech inspection, defining the bricklaying type, types of bricks and mortar, the bricklaying elastic stability, the pier support and attachment conditions, determining the probable time of occurrence of limiting flame resistance conditions of plain brick piers at rated load in the conditions of standards fire. Testing the said plain brick piers involves no destruction and incorporates a set of separate quality properties of the plain brick piers. The date and place are selected for quality characteristics to be defined. The aforesaid tech inspection is supplemented by instrument measurements of brick pier geometrical sizes at critical sections. The pattern of heating in aforesaid critical sections of piers in fire is determined, as well as temporary compression resistance of bricklaying. The rated load onto brick piers is selected for flame resistance test conditions and strains in the pier critical sections are defined.EFFECT: determination of plain brick pier and separation wall flame resistance involving no natural heating; higher validity of quality control checks and non-destructive tests.12 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
 
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