Fuels and explosives (G01N33/22)

G   Physics(393877)
G01   easuring; testing(233827)
G01N33/22                     Fuels; explosives(395)

Set of quick tests for presence of explosive materials // 2642599
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for the study and analysis of non-biological materials by chemical indicator means for the purpose of rapid detection of explosive residue in a contact test portion, including during examinations in an off-laboratory environment. The quick tests set for the presence of explosives consists of a portable plastic container equipped with an internal cushioning insert with functional recesses, including recesses for installation of microcolumns, bottles with solutions placed in the recesses, as well as micro-column test systems for detecting the presence of chlorates and perchlorates, cases with rolls tapes of reactive indicator materials containing reagents immobilized on the surface of the carrier. Cases with rolls of tapes of reactive indicator materials consist of a body made of an elastic inert material in the form of hollow cylinders with a coaxial cap tightly adjacent to the cylindrical surface. The side walls of the cases have longitudinal slots through which the edge of the tape passes, and in addition, the body and the cover have mutual angular mobility around the axis, providing, when their longitudinal slots are aligned along one line, before the open window is formed, the function of opening the case with release of the edge of the tape, or mutual overlapping of their longitudinal slots function of hermetic sealing of the case with fixation of the edge of the tape.EFFECT: higher safety of use and simplified operation.9 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl

Device for evaluating electrization of liquid oil products // 2642257
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device comprises a sealed two-stage chamber, in the larger-diameter stage of which there is a generator of electrostatic charges in the form of a vessel with a movable electrode fixed on a fixed metal rod connected to an instrument for measuring electric current. A movable electrode is made in the form of N rotating cascade-shaped hollow cylinders made of foamed nickel. Hollow cylinders are connected to the fixed metal rod by slider bearings under each of which a mercury current collector is installed. The vessel with the movable electrode is made through, with a hole in the bottom and has diametrically arranged branch pipes in the bottom part of this stage for feeding oil product to said vessel. A nozzle for tangential feed and swirling of the oil product is mounted on each branch pipe perpendicularly to it in the horizontal plane. On the outer side of the sealed two-stage chamber above the branch pipes, there is a magnet for the charge concentration on the metal rod. In the lower step of the smaller diameter of said chamber, there is a metal cup with a perforated bottom.EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of evaluation by making it possible to integrally evaluate the effect of various materials on charge accumulation and due to approaching test conditions to the actual pumping conditions.2 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl

ethod of comparative evaluation of efficiency of fuel combustion promoters in combustion chamber of air-jet engine // 2642236
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: at the first step, a reference fuel and air with set temperature and pressure are supplied to the evaporating combustion chamber, excess air coefficient is set from combustion condition exceeding 95% of fuel, air and fuel consumption is increased at constant air excess factor to ensure poor explosion of flame in the combustion chamber, and value of volumetric flow rate of air corresponding to flame blasting mode is registered, at the second stage fuel is used with additive-combustion promoter, which is supplied to an evaporation chamber of combustion at flow rate equal to initial fuel consumption at the first stage, air is supplied with excess air coefficient at temperature and pressure, air and fuel consumption is increased at constant air excess factor to ensure poor explosion of flame in the combustion chamber, and value of volumetric flow rate of air corresponding to flame blasting mode is registered, and evaluation of efficiency of combustion promoting additive is carried out by ratio of volumetric flow rates of air registered during the first and the second stages.EFFECT: improved evaluation accuracy.2 cl, 2 dwg

ethod for evaluation of coal slacking degree, method for evaluation of set coal degree, method to control degree of coal slacking and method for coke production // 2640183
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method to control coal slaking degree includes preliminary determination of surface tension of each semi-coke grade obtained by heat treatment of each of several coal grades at the coal stock, and preliminary evaluation of each of several grades of coal portion at the coal stock; and blending several grades of semi-coke in appropriate ratio to produce mixture of semi-coke, at that the slacking degree of each of several grades of coal is controlled so that the value of surface tension at the boundary of semi-coke mixture phases γinter is determined, which is obtained from surface stresses and ratios of each of several grades of semi-coke and totals 0.03 mN/m or lower. Other variants of the abovementioned method and method for coke production with an application of any of the variants of the method to control degree of coal slacking are also provided.EFFECT: increased control accuracy and reliability.4 cl, 2 ex, 5 tbl, 4 dwg

Sampler for fluid sampling, suitable for installation in system with temperature variations // 2637968
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: sampler (100; 300; 400; 500; 610; 620; 630) is adapted to be installed in a system with temperature variations that contains or conveys liquid. The sampler comprises of a section (304; 404; 504'; 604) with walls partially surrounding the cavity (301; 401; 501'; 601) filled with a liquid and comprising of the first and second opening. Through the first opening (303; 403; 503; 603), the liquid in the cavity flows out of the cavity. Through the second opening (307; 407; 507; 607), the liquid in the system flows into the cavity. The first opening is equipped with the first door element (305; 405; 505'; 605; 605'; 605") that opens when the temperature of the liquid in the cavity increases and the fluid expands and creates excess pressure in the cavity. The second opening is provided with the second door element (309; 409; 509'; 609; 609'; 609'') which opens when the temperature of the liquid in the cavity decreases and negative pressure is created in the cavity. The sampler unit contains at least two samplers. The system undergoes variations in temperature between the residual and operating temperatures and contains a sampler mounted in a hollow component containing or transporting liquid. The vehicle comprises of an internal combustion engine with a fuel system. The method for analyzing a liquid with a sampler or sampler unit comprises of the following steps. The cavity of the sampler is filled with the starting fluid. The sampler is placed in a system in which the sampler comes into contact with the liquid under study. The liquid in the system is subjected to variations in temperature between the residual and the operating temperature, and vice versa. The liquid is allowed to flow out of the cavity to flow out of the cavity when the temperature of the liquid increases, flow into the cavity when the temperature drops, and to stir inside the cavity by inflow and outflow of liquid. The sampler or sampler unit is removed from the system. The liquid is removed from the sampler and the level of the substance in the liquid is analyzed by an analysis method adapted to the substance under study.EFFECT: simplification of sampling fluid in the system with temperature variations for further analysis.21 cl, 13 dwg
arking additive // 2637334
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: marking additive in the form of spherical particles contains a magnetic component and a marking component with the following ratio, wt %: magnetic component 2-98; marking component 2-98. The magnetic component comprises, at least, one component selected from the group consisting of ferrimagnetic iron oxides and/or ferrites with a spinel or garnet structure or particles of metallic Ni. The marking component contains a mixture of salts in the form of nitrates, acetates, chlorides, formates, or oxides, including solid solutions based thereon. The marking component comprises, at least, two elements selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth elements, lanthanides, transition metals, and post-transition metals.EFFECT: increasing the accuracy and reducing the analysis duration of objects containing a marking additive.12 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex
ethod for modelling gasification process of liquid component residues of rocket fuel and device for its implementation // 2637140
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method comprises injection of a heat carrier into an experimental installation (EI) in the range of injection angles, providing the specified leakage angles of the heat carrier on the walls of the EI and model liquid (in the form of drops on a pallet). The pallet is made of a material similar to the material of the fuel tank, and is installed on the base of the EI through thermal insulators. The walls of the EI are made of glass, and the inlet branch pipe is made in the form of a ball-swivel joint located on the side wall opposite to the wall with the outlet branch pipe. During experiment the temperature and pressure are measured at various points of the EI to determine heat transfer coefficient of the EI wall, if requested, by performing blow-off of the EI structure elements and test samples of inner tank elements, heating of gas and structure in the EI in the mode of experiment preparation, etc.EFFECT: expanded functionality of the experimental installation and increased informativity of the modelling.2 cl, 1 dwg

Device and method for determining fuel combustion heat // 2635843
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: device comprises a fuel supply branch pipe for feeding the measured fuel into it. To supply an oxygen-containing gas, a gas supply branch pipe is provided in the device. The device also comprises a combustion unit connected to the fuel supply branch pipe and a gas supply branch pipe, the combustion unit comprising a combustion chamber for burning the measured fuel. The gas discharge branch pipe connected to the combustion chamber allows the exhaust gas to be discharged. The device according to the present invention comprises a flow meter block, preferably a Coriolis-type, located between the fuel supply branch pipe and the combustion chamber.EFFECT: increasing the accuracy and reliability of the results obtained.17 cl, 3 dwg
ethod and device for studying characteristics of charge of explosive substance and method of identification of properties of explosive substance // 2634249
FIELD: blasting.SUBSTANCE: method for investigating explosive charge characteristics includes shock-wave loading of an element when the explosive charge exploded, while using proton radiation formed as separate bunches and using a multi-frame recording system, the compression process of the loaded element under the influence of explosion products, shadow proton images are formed, the obtained frames are processed. The shape of the loaded element, the front of the detonation wave and the front of the shock waves reflected from the loaded element, propagating in the products of the explosion, are recorded. An apparatus is also provided for carrying out this method and a method for processing the results of investigating the characteristics of the explosive charge obtained by detecting the movement of a loaded element upon exploding the charge under study.EFFECT: increasing accuracy and informativeness.4 cl, 31 dwg

ethod and device for calorific capacity evaluation // 2632113
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: method for evaluating calorific capacity of a biomaterial comprises the following stages: correlating the amount of radiation transmitted through several different reference materials. The mentioned radiation is X-ray radiation of at least two energy levels with calorific capacities of the mentioned reference materials, obtained by calorimetric measurements, irradiating the biomaterial with X-ray radiation of the mentioned at least two different energy levels, and measuring the amount of radiation transmitted through the mentioned biomaterial at the mentioned energy levels. The method additionally comprises the stage of determining the amount of transmission through the biomaterial for each energy level based on radiation passing through the mentioned biomaterial, and on the basis of the mentioned specified transmission values and the mentioned correlation, the estimated calorific capacity of the mentioned biomaterial is determined. A device for determining the calorific capacity of a biomaterial is also disclosed.EFFECT: improved accuracy of evaluation.13 cl, 3 dwg

Stand for studying combustion characteristics and burning dancing droplets of organowater-coal fuel // 2631614
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: stand for studying combustion characteristics and burning dancing droplets of organowater-coal fuel contains a supporting frame in the form of a rack with two horizontal shelves placed one above the other. On the lower shelf there is a high-pressure fan connected to air heater. On the upper shelf there is a combustion chamber. Two holes are made on opposite sides of combustion chamber rim side surface, perpendicularly to its axis and symmetrically opposite to a coordinate device located among them. A thermocouple is connected to the second hole in the combustion chamber rim side surface connected to digital temperature meter located on the upper shelf of the support frame. A high-speed video camera, a cross-correlation video camera, a double pulse laser, a signal synchronizer and an analytical scales are mounted on the outer side of the combustion chamber.EFFECT: increase the accuracy and reliability of obtaned data.2 cl, 3 dwg

ethod for determining sensitivity of blasting explosives to mechanical impact // 2630340
FIELD: blasting.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for determining the sensitivity of blasting explosives (BE) to mechanical impacts. The method includes placing the sample BE on an anvil in the center of which a circular section is cut, carrying out shock tests using a load with a central striker, characterized by variable parameters and mounted with the ability to perform reciprocating movements along vertical guides, recording and analyzing the results of measurements. Each of a series of BE test samples is placed before testing in an auxiliary device, which is installed in a cut. The auxiliary device represents two coaxially located monolithic cylinders centered by an external, destroyable after the explosion of the BE shell, BE sample is placed between the ends of the cylinders. The area of the end face of each cylinder must be at least one and a half times the area of BE spot. As cargo characterized by variable parameters, a cargo which is fixed at a constant height is used. The weight of cargo is changed from 0.1 kg to 25 kg with step of no more than 0.5 kg. The speed of cargo motion for all the test BE samplea is kept constant.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the accuracy of reproducibility of measurement results and the correct determination of explosive properties.1 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of estimation of low-temperature perception of motor fuels for engines of vehicles // 2629201
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: method includes supplying the fuel cooled to a predetermined temperature through a fine mesh filter, varying the supply and pressure values of the fuel in the fuel line, recording the fuel consumption through the fine mesh filter and the critical fuel supply temperature, additionally setting the cooling rate of the fuel, thereby forming of the 15 stages of the test cycle as a necessary and minimally sufficient set of test modes in the form of a matrix, at each stage of a given duration, the critical temperature cottages fuel when fuel reaching through fine mesh filter limit value, the generalized parameter Tisp low-temperature pumpability of the test fuel is determined after the test cycle, compare the obtained value with the value of this parameter for fuel, adopted as a standard of Tet and passing an identical test cycle, and when the value of Tis>Tet fuel for use in motor vehicles is recommended, while the generalized parameter Tisp(et) of low-temperature pumpability of fuel is calculated by the formula.EFFECT: increase of informative value and reliability of evaluation due to expansion and creation of test conditions, which are closer to real operating conditions of equipment.6 tbl
ethod of jet-propulsion fuel corrosiveness estimation in dynamic conditions // 2625837
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: fuel circulates in a vertically located closed loop of stainless steel, which is a circular pipe construction, a plate of bronze "ВБ-23НЦ" is placed in the upper horizontal section of the loop, the fuel circulation in the loop is carried out in 3 stages for 3 hours each, with fuel change after the 1st and 2nd stages, before the beginning of the first stage, immediately after the plate, a filter element is installed along the flow. The loss of the mass of the plate during the test, referred to its area (K1), and the rate of the filter element (K2) clogging in the first stage are used as estimates.EFFECT: increased reliability of the jet-propulsion fuel corrosiveness estimation by creating test conditions that are close to the real operating conditions of the fuel system of engines with a significant reduction in test time.2 tbl

ethod of estimation of motor fuel tendency to high temperature deposits generation // 2624848
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: method includes diesel fuel supplying from a predetermined height in a drip-liquid state at atmospheric pressure to the air heated to the motor grain operating temperature at an interval equal to the drop free time of fall during which heating, evaporation, ignition, combustion and thermo-oxidative transformation of the fuel drop occur, measuring the mass of deposits on a heated inclined plate made of a catalytically active material. The supply of the test motor fuel in the drip-liquid state is carried out from a point remote from the center of the heated plate by a distance chosen depending on the group of test fuel. For gasoline, this distance is taken to be equal to 0.6 times the height of the diesel fuel supply, and for aviation kerosene it is equal to 0.8 times the height of the diesel fuel supply.EFFECT: increased accuracy and reliability of estimating the tendency of fuels to form high temperature deposits in the cylinder zone of the internal combustion engine, depending on the group of fuels used.1 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of explosive transformation parameter determination // 2623827
FIELD: blasting.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the explosive reactivity scope by the action of thermal means, in particular, determination of the time before the onset of a self-sustaining reaction and can be used to determine the critical conditions for the occurrence of explosives thermal explosion by direct experimental way and the verification of adequate kinetic models of thermal explosive decomposition. In the method of explosive transformation parameter determination carried out under thermal conditions for the investigated samples of explosives in a reaction chamber that is connected to measuring devices that generate measuring signals and to devices that convert and process measurement signals by recording measurement signals, plotting the graphical dependences of the measured in on-line mode parameters, and evaluation of the conditions for the occurrence of explosive transformations, the thermal effect on the investigated explosive is carried out with heating with a speed of not more than 0.7°C/min, the plotting of graphical dependencies is performed on the basis of the recorded signals characterizing the temperature at all characteristic points of the surface and inside the investigated cylindrical explosive sample of an arbitrary kind and characterizing the pressure of the gaseous medium inside the reaction chamber, and estimating the conditions for the occurrence of explosive transformations are performed visually according to the run of the noted curves behavior of the graphical dependencies in the zone of the observed parameters extreme values, indicative of the onset of explosive transformation, then the revealed extreme values of the parameters are compared with the calculated parameters obtained by means of the kinetic models of the explosives thermal decomposition characterizing the energy state of explosives of an arbitrary type, on the basis of which it is estimated on the adequacy of the used kinetic models types in the establishment of the fact of the onset of explosives explosive transformations.EFFECT: ensuring the possibility of reliable onset moment and parameters establishment of the critical explosive transformation - a self-sustaining reaction in the samples of explosives, obtaining more accurate and complete information on the parameters of the self-sustaining reaction emergence in the explosives, necessary for verifying adequate kinetic models for the thermal decomposition of explosives and predicting the behavior of general explosives under thermal conditions.1 tbl, 5 dwg, 1 ex

ethod for determining the properties of fuel and apparatus for determining properties of fuel // 2622014
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method for determining properties of the fuel to determine fuel properties include: the process of obtaining the temperature distribution in the one-dimensional space using a microflow reactor; During the reaction mechanism analysis, wherein the analyzed elementary reactions that make up the chemical reaction between a plurality of types of raw materials, including the materials which make up the fuel and obtain elementary reactions as fuel elementary reactions; and the process of determining a property, which characteristics are calculated by performing fuel combustion on the basis of elementary reactions fuel modeling and determining the property of fuel based on the combustion characteristics, the microflow reactor comprises a tube, the supply device, the heater, the temperature measuring device and the measurement processing unit and the inner duct of the tube are set to have a smaller diameter than the quench diameter at room temperature. Also, an apparatus for determining the properties of the fuel.EFFECT: simplifying and improving the accuracy of the determination.12 cl, 9 dwg

ethod of determining combustion energy of hydrocarbon fuels // 2621446
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: essence of the invention consists in determining the combustion energy of fuels using a laboratory bypass type installation, taking into account the amount and composition of the combustion products - the adiabatic coefficient k, formed during combustion under conditions close to the engine operating conditions, the mass of incoming fuel mgr into the reaction chamber, which directly depends on the mass mg of the tested fuel and the increase in pressure in the reaction chamber during the combustion of fuel assemblies.EFFECT: increasing the reliability of the received results due to approach of the test conditions to operating conditions of the air-jet engine on the FA of the given structure.2 dwg
ethod for determining monomethylinine content in hydrocarbon fuels // 2617053
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: monomethylaniline (MMA) content in hydrocarbon fuels is determined by the colour transition of the indicating test agent after contacting with the analysed sample. The indicating test agent is a plate for thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of Sorbfi brand with sorbent silica gel impregnated by indicator solution tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone. By appearance at the site of the analysied sample contacting with indicator testing means of a spot having the colour from pale violet to dark blue, a judgement is made on MMA presence in the sample, after which the spot colour intensity is determined, and by calibration dependence of spot colour intensity on the concentration, MMA concentration in hydrocarbon fuel is determined.EFFECT: increased sensitivity and analysis selectivity.4 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

ethod for determining the content of additive "agidol-1" in jet fuel // 2616259
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of determining the amount of the additive "Agidol-1" jet fuel includes sampling, chromatographic separation column with a modified octadecylsilane sorbent with peak identification, defines the components of the corresponding "Agidol-1." Thus before chromatographic separation of sample is mixed with fuel containing no more than 0.1% water, methyl alcohol in a ratio of 5:1, the mixture was stirred to form an emulsion, maintained in a separatory funnel until a clear separation of the emulsion fuel and the methanol layer which is selected from methyl alcohol is distilled at a temperature of 55-60°C and a vacuum of 0.05 MPa, the remaining extract was transferred into a volumetric flask of 10 ml, the flask was adjusted to the mark with heptane, stoppered and stirred. After chromatographic separation is carried out UV detection at 210 nm, determines the peak area corresponding additive "Agidol 1", and the calibration curve constructed in the coordinates of the peak area - the concentration of the additives are the number of additive "Agidol-1" in the test fuel.EFFECT: definition of an additive in jet fuel with high accuracy.1 dwg, 4 tbl

ethod for rapid detection of salts of chloric, bromic acids and explosive compositions based thereon and test system therefor // 2616235
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to analytical chemistry and concerns a test system and a method of detecting salts of chloric acid, bromic acid and explosive compositions based thereon. Proposed method comprises sampling on sorption fibre, exposing sample to a strong acid and reaction with an aniline salt, reaction with a chemical reagent, providing presence of chloride ions. Further, method comprises use of a solid-phase sorbent, having strong acid properties. Sample for reaction is transported into a fixed layer of solid-phase sorbent with aqueous eluent. Test system which implements disclosed method, is a container with aqueous eluent, as well as a transparent micro-column, filled with a sorbent containing chemical reagents. End part of tube is covered with a soft sorption fibre, in contact with solid-phase sorbent forming a sampling surface.EFFECT: using inventions provides high-accuracy of determination of a salt of chloric acid, bromic acid and explosive compositions based thereon.8 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
ethod for determining the quality of micellar water in jet fuel // 2615401
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for the qualitative determination of micelle water jet fuels include jet fuels sampling, micellar bringing water jet fuel in a state of low aggregate stability by adding a polar adsorbent solid iron oxide or silica gel at a ratio of 1:0.05, to bring to a uniform suspension and filtration in a transparent container. After filtration of the mixture is measured amount of the filtrate, which per 100 g added 0.01 g potassium permanganate. After keeping the resulting mixture at room temperature for at least 2 hours, water is determined by the presence of micellar colored pink dropwise transparent bottom container.EFFECT: method has simplicity, and affordability with high accuracy and reliability to determine the presence of micellar water jet fuels.3 tbl
Reagent for quantitative spectrophotometric determination of ferrocene in petrol // 2613899
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: reagent for quantitative spectrophotometric determination of ferrocene in petrol contains an oxidizer, water, a catalyst represented by the hydrochloric acid, and a polar organic solvent with the dielectric permeability from 20 to 35 at 25°C, at the following components ratio, by wt %: an oxidizer 0.016÷2.297; hydrochloric acid 0.1⋅10-5÷0.2⋅10-3; water 0.096÷1.264; a polar organic solvent - the rest.EFFECT: increasing the rapidity and improving the reliability of determination of ferrocene in petrol.3 cl, 4 ex
Plant for calibration and verification of oil and oil products moisture meters // 2612003
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: plant includes a closed calibration fluid circulation loop containing a mixing section, a calibration fluid flow meter, a liquid flow rate control system using a pump with frequency regulation, a thermal control system, docking units for installation of verification and control moisture meters. The closed calibration fluid circulation loop is designed closed at a controlled internal pressure. At the mixing section, the calibration fluid circulation loop is connected with two systems dispensing calibration liquid components - with tanks. The calibration fluid circulation loop is connected to the systen of dosed calibration fluid discharge; the thermal control system includes an external chiller with a heat exchanger, providing calibration fluid cooling and heating to a predetermined temperature. The plant is equipped with an automated control system with an operator automated workstation with power control and process automation equipment.EFFECT: invention allows to increase labour productivity during the studies, obtain the required measurement results in significantly shorter periods of time, to improve the reliability of the regulated measurement conditions, to reduce the human factor influence.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod for qualitative determination of trotyl oil leakage in shells and mortar bombs, charged with trotyl // 2611799
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention involves selection of samples of the investigated substance, by applying the filter paper strips to the released liquid by means of tweezers. When the liquid is detected on the thread of the shell spot, then the sampling is carried out by the brass scraper. The taken samples are dissolved in alcohol and (or) acetone by adding the solutions 10% KOH or 10% NH4OH. Evaluate the obtained result according to the colour of solution: dark brown, bright red and (or) using acetone into a deep red colour. Confirms the defect of releasing trotyl oil from trotyl.EFFECT: exclusion of military use of ammunitions, when it detects a defect in the form of trotyl oil leakage.1 dwg

ethod of marking explosive substance // 2609921
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of expertise of explosive substances and forensic identifying preparations. A method of marking an explosive substance consists in the introduction of a marking composition, containing identifiers, the quantity of which equals the quantity of technical parameters to be marked, into the explosive substance, obtained by mixing of separate components. To mark the explosive substance each separate component, included into the mixture of the explosive substance, is marked. The marking composition for each separate component is composed of at least one polymer material from the group of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of a molecular chain, representing an identifier, different from lengths of molecular chains and values of viscosity of polymer materials in the marking compositions of other separate components, constituting the mixture of the explosive substance. As the marking composition of the explosive substance a set of marking compositions of separate components of the said substance mixture is used.EFFECT: improvement of marking.3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod for determination of monomethyl aniline in hydrocarbon fuels // 2609864
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: test fuel samples are applied on the plate for thin layer chromatography with silica gel sorbent with fluorescent indicator. Chromatography is carried out by ascending flow of eluent in the capacity of which mixture of heptane and acetone taken in the ratio 10:1 is used. The plate is air dried, chromatogram is visualized in ultraviolet light at wavelength of 254 nm without or with preliminary plate treatment with iodine vapors or in visible light after treatment with only iodine vapors, and presence of MMA in the fuel is assessed by availability on the chromatogram of a spot, which is violet-colored when observed in ultraviolet light or brown-colored when observed in visible light and Rf of which is 0.38±0.05; after that, the size of the spot with indicated Rf value is assessed and a preliminarily plotted calibrating curve is used to determine monomethyl aniline concentration in the test fuel.EFFECT: use of the method allows to determine MMA content in hydrocarbon fuels with high accuracy.3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

Device for determining thermal-oxidative stability of fuels under dynamic conditions // 2609861
FIELD: measurement technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laboratory methods of assess of the performance characteristics of motor fuels, in particular to determine thermal oxidative stability (TOS) of fuels under dynamic conditions, and can be used in the petrochemical, aerospace, automotive and other industries. Installation comprises a vessel 26 with the test fuel, connected conduit in series with the pump 27, the pre-filter 28 and the pipe 2 in the bottom of a vertically mounted tubular body 1, on top of which there are two outlet nozzle 3, 4, in one of which the test filter 5 is and fuel temperature meter 7. The upper tubes interconnected through a check valve 34. Concentrically in the housing valuation tube 8 is mounted. In the installation a special unit is introduced consisting of protective cylindrical metal casing 19, inside which a removable cover is installed, turning into a hard cylindrical holder, in the channels where the steel shell 17 and the transition sleeve of temperature sensors 23 are placed, the sensors 18 are distributed throughout the length of the tubular portion of the removable cover. There is a program control unit 33, connected to the sensors and actuators.EFFECT: invention provides increased test reliability and accuracy assessment of TOC fuels.5 dwg, 1 tbl

Explosive marking method // 2609224
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. Explosive marking method is introducing marking composition which contain identifiers in explosive material, the number of identifiers is equal to number of technical parameters subjected to marking. Mixture of polyorganosyloxanes with different molecular chain lengths is used as the identifiers, in each molecular chain each technical indicator matches an identifier in the form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (“retention”) on a chromatogram.EFFECT: so in the composition of explosive element there is formed "chemical bar code", reading of which is carried out on chromatogram on the principle of presence or absence of component at the specified value of time of its "exit" (“retention”).1 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of motor fuels physical stability determining during their storage in stationary reservoirs (tanks) // 2608456
FIELD: testing method.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to motor fuels performance characteristics assessing laboratory methods and can be used for prediction of motor fuels tendency to change in quantitative losses caused by attrition in consuming and producing motor fuel enterprises. Method involves tank filling with fuel to preset level, storage of fuel in specified conditions for certain time interval and evaluation of physical stability by weight of evaporated fuel, wherein tested fuel is placed into thermostatically controlled tank, setting factors of evaporation process conditions, from 15 stages forming testing cycle as required and minimum sufficient set of test modes in form of matrix, after each stage, duration of which is 240±5 minutes, recording weight of evaporated fuel, upon completion of testing cycle determining generalized index mevap of tested fuel tendency to losses due to evaporation, and if mevap is less than mref value obtained for fuel, taken as reference one, considering tested fuel to be physically stable, and that it can be recommended for long-term storage in reservoirs (tanks), wherein composite index mevap(ref) of fuel tendency to losses due to evaporation is calculated by preset formula.EFFECT: enabling higher reliability of results due to approximation of test conditions to storage actual conditions in tanks with simultaneous reduction in tests conducting duration.1 cl, 3 tbl
ethod for evaluation of tendency of motor fuel to form high temperature deposits // 2608455
FIELD: petroleum industry; test methods.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of testing oil products, in particular, motor fuel. Proposed method comprises feeding fuel into liquid droplet state at atmospheric pressure in air, heated to temperature of engine working charge, with an interval equal to time of free fall of droplets, during which there is heating, evaporation, ignition, combustion and heat conversion of fuel droplets, subsequent measurement of weight of deposits on hated place made of catalytically active material heated, installed an angle of 15–45° to horizontal surface, wherein factors are given for conditions of process of formation of deposits, forming from 17 test cycle stages as required and minimum sufficient set of test modes in form of a matrix, after each stage of test cycle fuel (fuel composition) measuring weight of deposits on plate, upon completion of test cycle determining generalized index Misp of tendency of tested fuel (fuel composition) to form high temperature deposits, comparing obtained value with value of said index for fuel (fuel composition), taken as reference Met, that has passed identical test cycle, and if Misp<Met, fuel (fuel composition) is recommended for use in a specific engine, wherein generalized index Misp (et) for tendency of tested fuel (fuel composition) to form high temperature deposits is calculated by a given formula.EFFECT: higher efficiency of evaluation results.1 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex
ethod for concealed marking of explosive substances (versions) // 2607665
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a chemical method of marking and identifying explosive substances (ES), as well as forensic identification of preparations, which can be used in investigation, expert forensic and legal practice. Method for concealed marking of explosives comprises introducing into an explosive, obtained by mixing certain components, a marking composition containing identifiers, number which is proportional to number of technical parameters, to be marked. Each identifier corresponding to a separate property used is a combination of substances (at least two substances), with available detection of fluorescence. Substances can be moulded into separate sets (units), and information (an a unit) is recorded in a binary code with arrangement of substances when detecting on a spectrogram successively built into circuit in accordance with a scale of capacity of units of a binary code. Marking composition is composed of separate sets (units), each of which by a separate stream is fed into an explosive while mixing latter from separate components.EFFECT: method enables to encode data on an explosive substance, provides high security of marking explosive and reliability of identification of explosive based on its marking when reading a graphical recording of latter.6 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of solid fuel unit pulse determining // 2607199
FIELD: rocket technics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to rocketry, namely to methods of solid rocket propellant new compositions characteristics determining, in particular for ramjet engines. During solid fuel unit pulse determining of armored sample of analyzed fuel is burnt in volume of gas and combustion products flow reactive force is measured. Fuel sample is placed in afterburner chamber model, gas dynamically similar to natural engine afterburner chamber, and blown by gas flow with parameters corresponding to natural engine solid fuel charge blowing. Part of sample surface is coated with armoring providing armored surface ignition delay for a time, making 10–50 % of analyzed fuel sample combustion duration without armoring.EFFECT: invention increases reliability of solid fuel unit pulse measurement, as well as reducing duration and number of engine full-scale tests.1 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of coal or coal mix expansion pressure determining and device for its implementation // 2606992
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and device for coal or coal mixture expansion pressure determination by means of laboratory examination. Sample in form of coal or coal mixture is heated in perforated sleeve located inside crucible. Between sleeve external surface and crucible inner surface located granulated inert material in form of granules of coke slag or anthracite with granule size exceeding diameter of holes in sleeve. Crucible is placed in electric furnace and heated in circumferential direction at rate of 3 K/min from ambient temperature to final temperature of coal plasticity. Temperature is measured using temperature measuring device, located on sleeve wall, and piston arranged on sample from above, transmits sample expansion pressure force to force measuring system, and expansion pressure is determined based on measured force. Device consists of electric furnace 1 accommodating crucible 2. Perforated sleeve 3 with arranged on its surface protected temperature measuring device 5 is located inside crucible. Coal sample 4 is placed in sleeve and pressed by piston 6 located on sample surface and connected with force measuring system 7, and control system 8 is made with possibility to control heating and pressure measurement.EFFECT: technical result is reliable determination of coal or coal mixture expansion pressure by simulating such coal behavior, which is observed in coke chamber during industrial process.7 cl, 2 dwg

Device for detection of solids // 2601469
FIELD: instrument making.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for detection of solids, in particular explosives or narcotic drugs. Device comprises carrier disc (20), on which multiple screens are disposed with rotation symmetry. Screens in first rotational position (21) are provided with intake channel (42) for ambient air suction through corresponding screen. Screens in second rotational position (22) are provided with first heating element (40) to evaporate solids captured by corresponding screen during intake of particles. First intake channel (43) for drawing of evaporated particles is connected to analyzing device (45). Angular distance between two adjacent screens of carrier disk (20) is even multiple of angle α, which the carrier disk (20) passes through during the transition from one rotational position of the carrier disk (20) to an adjacent rotational position. Carrier disk (20) is structured with rotation symmetry, in such a manner that as the result of rotation of the carrier disk (20) by the angle a, from one rotational position to the next, a switch from a screen to a blind spot (31), or vice versa, so that intake and aspiration channels (42, 43) are closed off by blind spots (31) in every other rotational position. Blind spots (31) of carrier disk (20) between two screens have plug, which is in the shape of the screen, said plugs are made from non-magnetic, preferably austenite, material.EFFECT: higher efficiency of the device, higher degree of loading and efficiency of operation of the used components.13 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of determining oxidative stability of middle-distillate fuels // 2600723
FIELD: measurement technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fuel quality control. Method comprises accelerated oxidation of fuel sample by passing oxygen at specified modes. After accelerated oxidation fuel is subjected to vacuum distillation at pressure 1-5 mm Hg to achieve fuel temperature 210 °C, mass M of still residue is measured, which is dissolved in dichloromethane, taken in ratio 1:50, then 0.001 cm3 of obtained solution is applied on modified silica gel layer outer surface of quartz rod, which is brought into contact with a mixture of n-heptane and toluene, taken in ratio 20:80. Conditions of immersion of quartz rod are given. After drying rod is subjected to thermal treatment in a burner flame on a mixture of hydrogen and air. Combustion products are detected. On a chromatogram, method includes measuring area of peaks, calculating fraction A of area corresponding to region of rod with resinous compounds. Fuel chemical stability index is evaluated by value Q, equal to product of M and A.EFFECT: higher reliability of determination without reducing accuracy.1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

ethod for quantitative determination of imidazole derivatives (imidazoline group) // 2597787
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry and a method for quantitative determination of imidazole derivatives (imidazoline group). Proposed method comprises dissolving an analysed sample in purified water or alcohol, holding on a heated water bath (30-40°C) until complete dissolution, cooling and diluting with same solvent to mark; treating an aliquot part of prepared solution successively with an alkaline 1% solution of diazotized n-anisidine and 2.5 ml of 0.1 n solution of ammonium hydroxide, then photoelectrocolorimetry of obtained coloured solutions.EFFECT: use of method provides high-accuracy determination of imidazole derivatives.1 cl, 11 tbl, 1 dwg

Test bench for analyzing ignition and combustion of organo-water-coal fuel drop // 2596797
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to experimental equipment, in particular to analyzing heat and mass transfer processes, phase conversions and chemical reaction at ignition of single drops of organo-water-coal fuels which differs in their component composition, in gas oxidizer medium. Test bench comprises a hollow cylinder of quartz glass, which is connected on one side to the injection system for air supply, hole for fuel drop supply, two thermocouples, which are connected to a personal computer through a temperature measuring device, and an exhaust ventilation. Cylinder of quartz glass is arranged on the lower shelf of the supporting metal frame in the form of rack with two horizontal shelves located one above another. One end of the hollow cylinder is connected to the output of the air heater, connected to the high-pressure fan. Other end of the hollow cylinder is connected to the exhaust ventilation by metal corrugated pipe, upper part of the hollow cylinder has two holes. On upper shelf of the support frame, above the first hole of the hollow cylinder there is a coordinate device, on the movable part of which the first thermocouple is inserted to place joint end of the thermocouple with fixed drop of organo-water-coal fuel inside the hollow cylinder. In the second hole of the hollow cylinder the second thermocouple is inserted, both thermocouples are connected to a temperature measuring device, located on the upper shelf of the supporting frame. On outer side of the hollow cylinder high-speed and cross-correlational video cameras, double pulsed laser are installed. Cross-correlational video camera and double pulsed laser are connected to a signals synchronizer. Air heater, high-pressure fan, exhaust ventilation, coordinate device, temperature measuring device, high-speed video camera, cross-correlational video camera, signals synchronizer and analytical balances are connected to a personal computer.EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of analysis.1 cl, 1 dwg

Explosive marking method // 2595245
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. Explosive marking method is introducing marking composition which contain identifiers in explosive material, the number of identifiers is equal to number of technical parameters subjected to marking. Mixture of polyorganosyloxanes with different molecular chain lengths is used as the identifiers, in each molecular chain each technical indicator matches an identifier in the form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (“retention”) on a chromatogram.EFFECT: so in the composition of explosive element there is formed "chemical bar code", reading of which is carried out on chromatogram on the principle of presence or absence of component at the specified value of time of its "exit" (“retention”).1 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod for determining ammunition fugacity characteristics // 2595033
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: method of determining characteristics of fugacity of ammunition includes generation of air blast wave (ABW) by means of explosion of ammunition, detecting change in geometrical characteristics of a witness object, subject to action of ABW, and subsequent determination of fugacity characteristics. Witness-object used is a horizontal platform having a layer of deformable material with given mechanical properties. Result of exposure to ABW with subsequent determination of fugacity characteristics is measured by means of video recording and/or by change of penetration characteristics of witness material. Witness material used is deformable material with elastic properties, liquid highly viscous material or irreversibly deformable material. Layer of deformable witness material can be performed in form of an elastic membrane or in form of multiple elastic elements of limited width crossing in centre of platform.EFFECT: invention increases accuracy of determining shock-wave characteristics of surface explosions.6 cl, 6 dwg

ethod for determining amount of additives "hitech-580" and "agidol-1" in fuel for jet engines // 2593767
FIELD: engines. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to quality control of fuel for jet engines by means of optical devices, in particular to determination of amount of additives "Hitech-580" and "Agidol-1", and can be applied in analytical laboratories, petroleum enterprise laboratories. Method involves collecting sample, spectrophotometry with measurement of optical density at certain wavelengths, refractometry, and calculating concentration of additives in fuel by mathematical relationship, wherein preliminary multiple concentration of fuel sample is performed before spectrophotometry, and extraction of additives with ethyl alcohol is performed before refractometry. EFFECT: invention provides extending range of methods for determining additives in fuels for jet engines, applying IR-spectroscopy without reduced accuracy requirements. 1 cl, 2 tbl

ethod for assessing compatibility explosives with structural materials and device therefor // 2589708
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to investigation of change of properties of explosive substances (ES) by means of heat agents, as well as laws of processes of thermal decomposition of ES in presence of structural materials. Method of evaluating compatibility of explosives with structural materials, involving bringing in contact of analysed explosive with structural materials and further laboratory analysis of gaseous medium released during reaction of analysed materials, from which is score compatibility, first ground together explosive, for example, heating coil, and structural materials, metals or organic substances, then they are placed into reaction chamber made in form of heating device, heating is switched on alternating isothermal and non-isothermal modes of heating reaction chamber, observation in online mode is carried out by registration of measured parameters of analysed gas medium to produce measurement signal with simultaneous combination of taking into account graphic results of thermal gravimetric differential thermal analysis methods and IR spectrometry method, which is interfaced with system of infrared spectrometer interface and PC software algorithm based charting relationships of measured parameters of gas medium from time of observation, converted from Gram-Schmidt profile in graphical view peaks of infrared spectrum. Invention also covers device for realising said method.EFFECT: possibility of reliable determination of developing critical conditions of incompatibility of contacting with ES structural material, as well as higher information value of estimation.2 cl, 14 dwg, 7 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of marking explosive substance // 2577757
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of expertise of explosive substances and forensic identifying preparations. A method of marking an explosive substance consists in the introduction of a marking composition, containing identifiers, the quantity of which equals the quantity of technical parameters to be marked, into the explosive substance, obtained by mixing of separate components. To mark the explosive substance each separate component, included into the mixture of the explosive substance, is marked. The marking composition for each separate component is composed of at least one polymer material from the group of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of a molecular chain, representing an identifier, different from lengths of molecular chains and values of viscosity of polymer materials in the marking compositions of other separate components, constituting the mixture of the explosive substance. As the marking composition of the explosive substance a set of marking compositions of separate components of the said substance mixture is used.EFFECT: improvement of marking.3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod for differentiation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels on combustion efficiency in diesel engines // 2577293
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to investigation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels and can be used in development of new and evaluation of existing fuels. Method involves determining cetane index (CI) at nomogram of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using scales density at 20°C, temperature of boilout 50 vol% and kinematic viscosity at 50°C and additional measurement of kinematic viscosity at 50°C to residual fuel, diesel and heavy diesel fuel; temperature boilout 50% vol. petrol, jet fuel, diesel and heavy diesel fuels, calculation of optimum cetane index (CIon) of the analysed fuel experimentally obtained mathematical relationships of temperature boilout 50 vol%. from kinematic viscosity at 50°C or from the arithmetic mean value on both such values on combined section temperature boilout 50% vol. and kinematic viscosity at 50°C, determination of difference CI and CIon, and its value-differentiation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (from petrol to residual) at combustion efficiency in diesel engines.EFFECT: higher reliability of differentiation of liquid hydrocarbon fuels in combustion efficiency in diesel engines.2 cl, 6 ex, 2 tbl, 3 dwg

ethod of determining octane number of n-alkanes // 2577290
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring an information parameter such as specific magnetic susceptibility and calculating the corresponding octane number using the empirical relationship Z=-8·1011·χ5+3·1012·χ4-6·1012·χ3+5·1012·χ2-2·1012·χ+4·1011 (2), where Z is the octane number based on the analysis method, units; χ is specific magnetic susceptibility, 106, g-1.EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination.1 ex, 1 tbl

ethod for evaluation of tendency of motor petrol to formation of deposits in injectors of injection systems // 2576764
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of evaluation of tendency of motor petrol to formation of deposits on injectors of internal combustion engines. According to the proposed method, pumping of tested petrol through heated to temperature of 180±3°C injector for not more than four days, in each day of which during 18 hours fuel is injected through heated injector for 0.2 s, with an interval between the injections of 300 s, and for the following 6 hours these days, with heating, injector is kept in idle state. At the end of testing fixed colour bottom surface of the injector, which is compared with colour scale, and tendency of tested fuel to formation of deposits is appraised by points, at that each day after faults injector additionally evaluated tightness its shut-off needle, if which gasoline is considered defective.EFFECT: reduction of duration and higher accuracy of tests.1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

ethod for complex processing of objects with application of combined composition for decontamination of surfaces and express-detection of explosive substances after commitment of terrorist acts // 2576051
FIELD: blasting works.SUBSTANCE: in accordance with a method for complex processing of objects, realised is an aerosol dispersion on the surface to be analysed of the combined composition, which includes: alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride, alkyldimethylamine, alkylbenzenesulphonate, formaldehyde, ethyl alcohol, non-ionogenic surface-active substance (OP-7), oxalic acid, orthophosphoric acid, dithizone, and water. The composition is applied by the irrigation of the surface to be analysed by means of an aerosol device from the distance of 10 cm from it from the downwind side with the consumption of 0.7 l/sq.m. The presence of traces of explosive substances is determined by the appearance of characteristic brown coloration 7 minutes after the application of the composition, which is preserved for a long time.EFFECT: extension of exploitation possibilities of the method for complex processing of objects due to the simultaneous performance of deactivation, disinfection and express-detection of traces of the explosive substances based on the polynitroaromatic compounds of a tetranitrotoluene type.1 tbl

ethod of estimating oxidation stability of motor petrol // 2572723
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: estimation is made based on the oxidation time interval using the content of unsaturated hydrocarbons as the information-bearing indicator of a sample. The relationship for estimating the oxidation stability of petrol containing the antioxidant additive Agidol-1 has the following type: where Cn is the content of unsaturated hydrocarbons in the sample of the analysed motor petrol, vol %; K1, K2 and K3 are empirical constant coefficients; K1=0.000222; K2=0.000609; K3=11.8; Ca is the concentration of Agidol-1, ppm.EFFECT: efficiency of controlling the technological process, timely introduction of changes during mixing, providing a stable high quality of petrol, rapidness of estimation.2 dwg, 2 tbl

Coke production process // 2570875
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: process comprises mixing of two or more types of coal and charring of this mix. Note here that, first, relationship is derived between interfacial tension of said coal mix and hardness of coke resulted from charring of said mix of coals. Interfacial tension of said coal mix is obtained with the help of surface tension of every coal type and determination of relative content of every coal type. Note here that used relationship between interfacial tension of said coal mix and hardness of coke is derived so that interfacial tension of said coal mix exists in the range whereat hardness of coke is sufficient.EFFECT: possibility of mixing of various coals and making of metallurgical coke of high hardness.15 cl, 7 dwg, 13 tbl, 6 ex

ethod of assessment of dispersing and solubilising properties of fuels and oils and device for its implementation // 2569765
FIELD: test equipment.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to test of fuels and oils and can be used for assessment of their operational properties. The method of assessment of dispersing and solubilising properties of fuels and oils includes test of the sample of the studied material at optimum temperature in the closed circulating system at which the circulating estimated oil or fuel is contacted with surface of the dissolved control substance which is prepared by its gradual heating up to the temperature 360°C with the subsequent holding within 4 hours, this substance is dissolved while it is contacted with the flow of circulating oil or fuel, periodically the parameters of its dissolution are recorded depending on temperature of circulating oils or fuels, as well as intensity of their circulation, size of surface of contact of tested substance with the flow of circulating oils or fuels, time of contact of the circulating oil or fuel with the surface of tested substance, while the dispersing and solubilising properties of oil or fuel are estimated by the rate of dissolution of tested substance which is estimated by decrease of weight of tested substance during its contacting with the flow of oil or fuel and by the content of tested substance comprised by the circulating flow of oil or fuel. Besides, the device for implementation of the above method is presented.EFFECT: improvement of assessment reliability is achieved.6 cl, 3 dwg
 
2551342.
Up!