At least one of the fluids being submitted to a swirling motion (F23D14/24)

F23D14/24                     At least one of the fluids being submitted to a swirling motion(78)

Combustion method of contaminated industrial gaseous fuel and burner device for its implementation // 2558810
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combustion of contaminated industrial fuel and can be used in metallurgy, chemical industry and other branches to obtain high-speed and low-temperature flow of combustion products. Gaseous fuel is supplied to a combustion chamber with a perforated wall and mixed with air delivered through chamber walls cooled by it with further exit of combustion products through the outlet nozzle of the combustion chamber. With that, gaseous fuel is supplied to the combustion chamber through a vortex cyclone chamber as a continuous flow spirally along the surface of the perforated wall of the combustion chamber, the length of which is 1.2 to 2.0 of its diameter. Possible deposits on the inner side of the combustion chamber during operation are burnt out little by little with carry-over of residues from the combustion chamber or easily removed during preventative maintenance of the burner.EFFECT: invention allows intensive combustion of contaminated industrial gaseous fuels.2 cl, 3 dwg

Burner for thermal afterburning device // 2545604
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power industry. A burner for a thermal afterburning device includes housing (12), atomiser (1) located in housing (12) and having external tube (2) and internal tube (3), which restrict with their end areas the ring-shaped outlet slot (4), swirling device (13) located in the end area of housing (12) and having a possibility of passage of waste gas through it, which is subject to cleaning; with that, an inner cavity between external tube (2) and internal tube (3) to outlet slot (4) has a possibility of passage of gaseous fuel through it; on the way of a flow of gaseous fuel near outlet slot (4) there is a constriction point; external tube (2) and internal tube (3) are installed so that they can be relatively moved relative to each other in an axial direction. External tube (2) in its end area restricting outlet slot (4) has conically converging section (2a) in the direction of the gaseous fuel flow; internal tube (3) is provided with groove (3c) on its external side surface in its end area restricting outlet slot (4). Inside internal tube (3) there is igniter electrode (5). Groove (3c) is V-shaped in a longitudinal cross section of the atomiser.EFFECT: invention allows reducing NOx and CO generation.3 cl, 3 dwg

Air heater with upper heating // 2539492
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: air heater contains a burner system including the burner with a structure of multiple pipelines various in diameter and meant for transfer of fuel gas or air for combustion, and the burner channel. The central pipeline and the middle pipeline contain a device for a vortex flow generation meant for generation of the vortex flow of fuel gas or air for combustion. An external pipeline is meant for a linear flow of fuel gas or air for combustion. Combustion gas is supplied to the combustion chamber from at least one or several burner systems in an affluent direction which doesn't pass through the combustion chamber centre.EFFECT: using this invention ensures the efficiency of combustion in the burner system and excludes the damage of a fire-resistant material on an internal wall of the burner channel.5 cl, 9 dwg

Air heater with top heating // 2529436
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: air heater comprises a checker chamber and a combustion chamber, which includes a burner chamber and is located above the checker chamber. The burner system comprises a burner equipped with a fuel gas pipe, an air pipe for burning and a burner channel communicating with the burner outlet. The burner channel outlet is communicated with the combustion chamber. The burner channel to the middle is made with an inner diameter D1 and comprises a section with increased throughput cross section with an inner diameter D2.EFFECT: use of invention provides for high efficiency of burning due to stabilisation of point of ignition inside burner channel and suppression of arising flicker phenomenon.2 cl, 8 dwg

ethods and device for raw material mixing in reactor // 2520440
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gasification systems and can be used in chemical reactors and pipeline systems for raw material injection. Injection system for raw material feed contains several ring channels 314, 316, 318 arranged in concentric configuration around longitudinal axis, and several helical elements 312 passing into path for fluid flow. The helical elements 312 are made with possibility to move axially in ring channel. At least one helical element 312 contains several blades placed along helical path and spaced from each other. In this structure, one of helical elements 312 is made capable to impart the first circular rotation to fluid flow, and the other helical element 312 is made capable to impart counterflow circular rotation.EFFECT: invention permits to mill and mix raw material, to increase time of its presence in the device and to improve efficiency of processing.23 cl, 9 dwg

Burner for gas burning // 2511783
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: gas burner includes cylindrical shell, stabiliser, gas swirler, where cylindrical shell features adjustable gate valve for air supply and stabiliser with gas feed pipe, mounted axially at the other end of shell; secondary air swirler vanes are attached rigidly to external cylindrical surface, injector is attached coaxially and rigidly in the inner cavity at air and gas feed end with gas swirler vanes attached to outer injector surface and plate swirler of primary air with two swirl flows, mounted at inner injector surface, where vanes of gas and secondary air swirlers and plate swirler of primary air have the same rotation direction, and gas and secondary air swirlers have the same number of axial vanes attached rigidly; according to invention, flame emission sensor, electric motor for vane rotation in peripheral secondary air swirler and electric motor for air gate valve are added, so that emission sensor has electric link to electric motor for vane rotation in peripheral secondary air swirler and electric motor for air gate valve.EFFECT: enhanced fuel combustion quality in all burner operation modes.1 dwg

Device for fuel burning // 2480673
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: device for fuel burning includes central and peripheral air channels with swirlers arranged in a cylindrical body, the main and additional headers, rotary gas-dispensing tubes, installed on a circumference between air channels. Outlet holes of some tubes are arranged tangentially, and of the other ones - radially to the axis of the device, along the device axis there is additionally a central channel of gas supply installed, at the same time the ratio of the area of outlet holes of the central channel of gas supply to the total area of gas outlet holes of rotary gas dispensing tubes and central channel of gas supply makes 0.1-0.4. Gas-dispensing tubes are connected with the main header, and the central channel of gas supply - with an additional header.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce content of nitrogen oxides in combustion products and provide for stable operation of a device in a range of control of thermal capacity of a device and safe mode of equipment operation in general.2 dwg

Improved burners for gas turbine engine // 2461779
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: burner for gas turbine engine includes centrifugal atomiser to provide swirled mixture of air and fuel, and combustion chamber for combustion of swirled mixture of fuel and fuel. Besides, centrifugal atomiser includes several blades located in circumferential direction; several flow slots provided between the above adjacent blades; at that, each slot has inlet end and outlet end. When using centrifugal atomiser, the air passes along each flow slot from its inlet end to its outlet end, and fuel is supplied to flow slots, due to which there created near outlet ends of flow slots is the above swirled mixture of fuel and air, which has round shape and is spread from centrifugal atomiser in combustion chamber direction; and device for creation of preliminary film, which has the possibility of arranging the fuel in zone of large shift between adjacent flows in the burners; at that, the above zone of large shift is determined by creation of low pressure zone by means of centrifugal atomiser, and the above adjacent flows are the above circular swirled mixture of fuel and air, which is located in radial direction near the above low pressure zone, and counterflow inside flow (a), which is created with the above low pressure zone; at that, the above counterflow is mainly directed to centrifugal atomiser from combustion chamber, due to which liquid fuel from preliminary film creation device is subject to spraying due to large shift.EFFECT: invention allows improving fuel spraying quality.23 cl, 21 dwg

Burner // 2459146
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: burner with burner head includes mixing tube (3) for pre-mixing of air and fuel; at that, pilot burner system is provided in lower part of mixing tube (3); besides, pilot burner system includes annular mixing cavity (10) with inlet for auxiliary air and for fuel for pilot burner and with outlet nozzles (7), mixing cavity (10) is equipped at least with two swirling blades (18) located near each outlet nozzle (7). Swirling blades (18) at least almost fully cutout the height of mixing cavity (10) relative to axial direction of outlet nozzles (7). Swirling blades (18) are located as pairs of swirling blades (18). One swirling blade (18) of pair of swirling blades (18) is located on outer part, and the second swirling blade (18) is located on inner part of mixing cavity (10) if to see in radial burner direction. Swirling blades (18) are fully integrated with tip (1) of burner. Burner head includes tip (1), intermediate ring (2) and mixing tube (3), which are assembled with each other in order to form the burner head. In circumferential direction of intermediate ring (2) there located are air inlet holes (15) connected to air channels (14). On outlet end of each air channel (14) there located is one or more reflecting holes (16) and reflecting holes (16) open to mixing cavity (10). Outlet nozzle (7) has round or conical or elliptical cross section.EFFECT: invention allows preventing the flame propagation against the flow direction.12 cl, 6 dwg

Burner for gas burning // 2450209
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: burner for gas burning comprises a cylindrical vessel with a controlled gate for air supply, where there is an assembly unit for air and gas supply, comprising gas and secondary air swirlers, having equal quantity of axially arranged blades, a stabiliser with a gas supply pipe, on the external cylindrical surface of which there are blades of the secondary air swirler rigidly fixed, at the same time in the inner cavity of the stabiliser there is an injector installed coaxially and rigidly fixed near the end of air and gas supply, and on its outer surface there are gas swirler blades rigidly fixed, and on the inner side there is a plate swirler of primary air fixed with two twist flows, besides, blades of gas swirlers and secondary air swirlers and the plate swirler of primary air have the same twisting direction. The burner comprises a toothed rack, which is fixed in the cylindrical vessel, and a system of furnace lining temperature monitoring, comprising a converter of thermal electromotive force electrically connected to a thermocouple installed aflush with the inner surface of the furnace lining, at the same time the assembly unit of air and gas supply is arranged as movable and installed with the capability of axial displacement relative to the cylindrical vessel by means of an electric motor introduced into the burner and connected with the thermal electromotive force converter with a mechanism of displacement along a toothed rack, fixed on the basic blade of the secondary air rigidly fixed on the basic blade of the secondary air swirler.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to eliminate thermal overheating of furnace lining, by provision of automatic control of the distance between the burner torch and the lining surface depending on the thermal capacity of the torch.1 dwg

Burner and method for alternate realisation of oxygen burning and air burning // 2433340
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: method to burn at least one fuel with application of at least one oxidiser and at least one mainly inert gas, in which the fuel and the oxidiser are injected so that flame is developed, mainly the inert gas is injected in the form of two jets so that the first jet surrounds the flame developed by the fuel and the oxidiser, and the specified first jet has an opening twist in respect of the specified flame, the second jet surrounds the first jet of the mainly inert gas, and the specified second jet has a closing twist in respect of the flame developed by the fuel and oxidiser. The oxidiser is an oxygen-containing gas, and the mainly inert has consists of gases produced by burning. Consumption of the mainly inert has injected in the first jet of the mainly inert has makes from 50 to 97% of the total consumption of the injected mainly inert gas. Consumption of air supplied as the oxidiser makes from 5 to 30% of the total consumption of air required to burn the fuel. The coefficient of each jet twisting of the mainly inert gas is between 0.26 and 1.73.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce content of CO2 and NOx in combustion products.15 cl, 1 dwg

Burner for gas turbine, in which gas with low calorific value is used as fuel // 2430308
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: burner (4) for gas burner includes: swirler (21), plate (58), the first channel (18) via which fuel gas with low calorific value is supplied, and second channel (17) via which combustion air is supplied. The first and the second channels (17, 18) are located concentrically relative to longitudinal axis (2). Output of the first channel (18) is formed with convergent nozzle (50). Swirler (21) is installed at the outlet of the second channel (17). Plate (58) is tightly installed in the first channel (18) upstream nozzle (50) and has many holes (56) with calibrated section of the passage. Holes (56) are inclined in tangential direction relative to longitudinal axis (2) at the specified angle. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of less than 300 mm/s, plate (58) has 36 to 38 holes (56) the diameter of which is 11.5 to 12.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is approximately 22. For fuel gases having flame propagation speed of 300 mm/s to 400 mm/s, plate (58) has 80 holes (56) the diameter of which is 8.5 mm to 9.0 mm, and inclination angle of holes (56) is 17 to 22. If calorific value of gas with low calorific value from the first channel (18) is less than 4.0 MJ/kg, then natural gas consumption is assumed from pilot line (46). Burner (5) is used only when gases with low calorific value are not available.EFFECT: high burner flexibility; operation is possible at the gas used with low calorific value and of any type within the whole working range of gas turbine.12 cl, 3 dwg

Flat-flame roof burner with low level of polluting emissions // 2429414
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: flat-flame roof burner (10) intended for installation in roof (21) that restricts combustion chamber (20) of steel heating furnace, includes the main metal hollow cylindrical housing (12), single fuel gas supply channel (13) which is concentric relative to the main housing (12), internal central nozzle (14) for injection of fuel gas and single air channel (30) connected to the main housing (12). Burner includes at least two external nozzles (17) located outside the main housing (12) for injection of fuel to combustion chamber (20), the first distributing device 15) made in the form of distributing valve for flow control of central fuel gas flow, gas distributing system (16) consisting of row of tubes (16') and meant for feed of at least two above external nozzles (17), the second distributing device (18) defined as the second distributing valve and meant for flow control of gas flow at least in two above external nozzles (17). By means of the above distributing valves (15, 18) the gas distribution percentage can be regulated between central internal nozzle (14) and at least two above external nozzles (17) so that possibility of continuous transition from flame working mode in which fuel is supplied only through central gas nozzle (14) to flameless mode in which fuel is discharged only through external gas nozzles (17) is provided.EFFECT: invention allows providing low level of NOx emissions to atmosphere.16 cl, 5 dwg

Burner for gas burning // 2396488
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: burner for gas burning comprises cylindrical vessel, stabiliser, gas swirler, besides cylindrical vessel is equipped with controlled gate for air supply, and at other side of vessel there is a stabiliser installed along axis with pipe of gas supply, and secondary air swirler blades are rigidly fixed on external cylindrical surface of stabiliser, in inner cavity there is injector installed coaxially and rigidly fixed near end of air and gas supply, and on its outer surface there are blades of gas swirler fixed, and on inner side there is a plate swirler of primary air fixed with two twist flows, besides blades of gas swirlers and secondary air swirlers and plate swirler of primary air have the same twisting direction, and gas swirlers and secondary air swirlers also have equal number of rigidly fixed and axially arranged blades.EFFECT: improved quality of fuel burning by improved arrangement for mixing of fuel gas, primary and secondary air jets.1 dwg

Burner // 2391604
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: burner consists of air supplying case with vortex, of central gas pipe, and of cup with air holes; inside cup there is installed gas distributing grate made in form of two hollow truncated cones; burner also contains tangential branch rigidly fixed in case base. Section areas of spaces between the cup and bigger bases of hollow truncated cones of the grate and section areas of spaces between the cup and smaller bases of the hollow truncated cones of the grate are equal.EFFECT: design of burner facilitating combustion of low-calories gaseous fuel in boilers, chambers and furnaces; also combustion is characterised by considerable volume consumption, by generation of short flare of length not over 3-5 of diametre of outlet opening of burner and by elimination of gas flue thermal damage.2 cl, 5 dwg

Burner device // 2327928
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: burner device incorporates a central fuel jet and coaxial circular rings forming air feeding channels provided differently directed blade swirlers and tapered deflectors arranged at the output of every channel to deflect air flows from the center to periphery. Here, the swirler adjacent blade inclination angles are set be different with the 0.5 to 0.8 ratio.EFFECT: higher uniformity of heating the furnace space by intensifying air turbulence in crossing its swirled flows.3 dwg

Flow swirler // 2323386
FIELD: hydrodynamics; heating engineering.SUBSTANCE: flow swirler can be used for processes of mixing and re-mixing of media, for handling heat exchange process between media and for transportation of different media with lower hydraulic resistance, particularly, different kinds of liquids, gases, different-phase media mixtures and pseudo-liquated powder-shaped media. Double-bladed fluid medium flow swirler has flat blades mounted in tube at angle to flow of liquid medium. Swirler has two similar swirlers mounted in tube with round cross-section. Any blade has profile in form of half-ellipse cut along its longer axis to two blades and achieved due to sloped section of tube, which section is made at angle to axis of tube being equal to angle of slope of blade's edge, formed by longer axis of ellipse, to axis of tube at mounting blades in tube. Angle of slope of blades' edge, formed by longer axis of ellipse, is inversely symmetrical to axis of tube and it equals to 5-85°.EFFECT: reduced cost of manufactures; improved reliability of operation.2 cl, 5 dwg

Diffusion injector-type burner (variants) // 2319073
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of incineration of fuel particularly to the construction of a fuel-feeding arrangement.SUBSTANCE: there are two proposed variants of fulfillment of diffusion injector type burners consisting of a body from one side rigidly connected with a nozzle fulfilled in the shape of a diffuser and from the other side- also rigidly- with a control mechanism having a branch pipe for feeding gas. Inside the body there is built-in from the side of the nozzle a throttle fulfilled in the shape of a truncated cone, with its large foundation directed into the side of gas movement, moreover the correlation of the diameter of the nozzle to the large diameter of the throttle does not prevail 1,4. On the throttle there are blades rigidly fixed in such a way that the projections of the lateral walls of the blades overlap free section of the burner. At that the throttle is connected with the control mechanism with the aid of a rod connected with the control mechanism movably. According to the first variant the rod is fulfilled hollow and the throttle is fulfilled with a hollow axis channel, at that the throttle and the rod are connected between themselves hermetically and a regulated shutter is installed in the rod from the side of the control mechanism. According to the second variant the rod is fulfilled hollow. The throttle is fulfilled with a hollow axis channel, at that the throttle and the rod are connected between themselves hermetically. In the channel formed with the cavity of the rod and the axis channel of the throttle there is the second burner for liquid fuel and (or) a tube each of which has one end on the edge of the throttle and with the other end the burner for liquid fuel is connected with an alternative kind of liquid fuel, and the tube is connected with liquid combustible wastes. Besides a regulated shutter fulfilled with possibility of overlapping the free section of the hollow rod and for possibility for passing through it of the second burner for liquid fuel and the tube is installed in the rod from the side of the control mechanism. The invention is directed on increase of intensification of incineration of fuel and besides on providing incineration of several kinds of fuel including utilization of liquid combustible gases.EFFECT: allows reduce consumption of materials in the process due to replacement of part of the main fuel on more cheap residues of production.2 cl, 8 dwg

Vortex burner // 2308645
FIELD: combustion.SUBSTANCE: vortex burner comprises central pipe for supplying oxidizer and outer pipe for supplying fuel. The central oxidizer supply pipe and fuel supply pipe are axially aligned. The oxidizer supply pipe is provided with the deflecting housing that is coaxial to the pipe and is provided with the blades of static swirler and central coaxial cylindrical passage. The outlets of the deflecting housing, the pipe for oxidizer supply, and the pipe for fuel supply are U-shaped to turn around the burner. The surface of the deflecting housing traces the inner wall of the pipe for supplying oxidizer, and the blades of the swirler pass from the surface of the body having no aerodynamic form to the surface of the deflecting housing. The inner and outer blades of the swirler are mounted inside the swirler with an inclination of from 15 to 75 degrees, preferably 20-45 degrees. The outlet cone angle of the central pipe for supplying oxidizer and outer pipe for fuel supply ranges from 15 to 60 degrees, preferably from 15 to 40 degrees.EFFECT: enhanced reliability.3 cl, 2 dwg

Whirl gas burner // 2267705
FIELD: the invention refers to burners in which rotational motion is given at least to one of the components.SUBSTANCE: the burner is designed for installation into the front arrangements of the combustion chambers of stationary gas turbine engines working on gaseous fuel and provides reduction of detrimental rejections of NOX into the atmosphere. The whirl gas burner has a pipeline of feeding of gaseous fuel and coaxially located behind its output a cylindrical mixer of fuel and air with an air wane swirler at the input into the mixer. Inside the pipeline of feeding gaseous fuel there is an output section of the pipe of feeding water with a water swirler. Behind the cut of the pipe of feeding water there is a cylindrical mixer of gaseous fuel and water with a fuel wane swirler before its output.EFFECT: allows to reduce detrimental rejections of NOX into the atmosphere.4 cl, 4 dwg

Whirl burner // 2267704
FIELD: the invention refers to arrangements in which components of fuel are given rotational motion.SUBSTANCE: the burner is designed for combustion chambers of stationary gas turbine engines and provides reduction in forming nitric oxide Nox and their rejections into the atmosphere. The whirl burner has a pipeline of feeding of gaseous fuel with a cylindrical mixer of fuel and air coaxially located on it behind its output with an air wane swirler on the input into the mixer and a diffuser at the output. The pipeline of feeding of gaseous fuel has in series connected a fuel collector, a swirler and an output section in the shape of a cylindrical bushing closed from one butt-end and connected from the side of the other butt-end trough the output bushing of the smaller diameter with the mixer of fuel and air, the cylindrical bushing is additionally connected through the water swirler and the water collector with the pipeline of feeding water. At that the fuel and water collectors are located on the cylindrical mixer of fuel and air in the area of the air wane swirler, the fuel and water swirlers are fulfilled in the shape of channels in the blades of the air swirler directed crosswise the longitudinal axle of the burner at a tangent to the inner diameter of the cylindrical bushing.EFFECT: provides reduction in formation of nitric oxides Nox and their rejections in the atmosphere.4 cl, 4 dwg

Burner // 2265772
FIELD: combustion.SUBSTANCE: burner comprises first piping passage provided with at least one end section having outlet port with rectilinear axis, second piping passage which is external and coaxial to the first passage and defines a ring-shaped free space together with the first passage, and means for supplying independent fluids to the first passage and in the space. The fluids are made of fuel and agent for maintaining combustion. The outlet port of the first passage comprises axially symmetrical surface. The burner is additionally provided with means for setting the fluid in flow. The surface is conical with an angle of 20°-80° and has curved cross-section.EFFECT: enhanced reliability.8 cl, 1 dwg

Burner // 2244213
FIELD: combustion.SUBSTANCE: burner has swirler, gas supplying pipe, and chamber for preparing mixture.EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.6 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

Gas burner with forced air supply // 2187758
The invention relates to a power system, in particular for gas-burning devices that use natural gas as a source of thermal energy

Gas burner with forced air supply // 2187757
The invention relates to a power system, in particular for gas-burning devices that use natural gas as a source of thermal energy

Vortex nozzle device of the apparatus, for example a gas burner // 2180078
The invention relates to burner devices thermal units, can be used in the metallurgical industry and industrial heat engineering and provides improved reliability and reduced cost of manufacture of the vortex nozzle devices devices

The method of firing the boiler with vortex burner and installation for its implementation // 2180077
The invention relates to energy and can be used for lighting and stabilize the combustion of pulverized coal flame on energy and hot water boilers with a vortex burners

The method of preparation of natural gas and gas burner with forced air supply // 2176358
The invention relates to a power system, in particular to the use of natural gas as a source of thermal energy

The method of burning gas and device for its implementation // 2176050
The invention relates to oil and gas, mining and processing industry and can be used when burning petroleum gases

Swirl burner // 2171429
The invention relates to energy and can be used for lighting and stabilize the combustion of pulverized coal flame on energy and hot water boilers with a vortex burners

Gas burner // 2171428
The invention relates to a power system and can be used in manual and stationary combustion devices for igniting and maintaining combustion in boiler furnaces and gas turbines, as well as for heating, tempering and heat treatment details

A method of burning fuel and a device for its implementation // 2160414
The invention relates to a power system, fire technology, and can be widely used in thermal power plants (boilers, blast furnaces, and so on), as well as in jet and gas turbine engines that use fuel burner for converting heat energy of burning fuel into jet kinetic energy of the jet of flame and exhaust gases

The method of preparation of natural gas // 2150044
The invention relates to a power system, in particular to the use of natural gas as a source of thermal energy

Gas burner // 2107224
The invention relates to gas burners and can be applied in metallurgical and other industries

The burner // 2101618
The invention relates to a device for the combustion of the gas and can be used in mechanical and electrical engineering for welding, brazing, heating, cutting, and fire cleaning metal

Swirl burner // 2091668
The invention relates to apparatus for effecting the combustion of fuel, in particular to the swirl burner with channels for separate fuel and oxidant, which can be used in reactors for the process of combustion of gaseous fuels

Device for the combustion of gaseous fuels // 2076271
The invention relates to energy and can be used for burning gaseous fuel, chemical, petrochemical and other industries
 
2551217.
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