Combustion apparatus and combustion processes (F23)

F23            Combustion apparatus; combustion processes(12856)

Combustion chamber wall // 2614305
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: turbomachine combustion chamber annular wall comprises cold side and hot side and has, at least, one primary hole to enable possibility of first air flow ingress, passing on wall cold side, to wall hot side for providing fuel combustion inside combustion chamber and plurality of cooling holes. Each cooling hole has diameter of not more than 1 mm in order to enable possibility of second flow of air ingress, passing on wall cold side, to wall hot side for wall hot side cooling. Plurality of cooling holes is also suitable for dilution of combustion gas, which is result of said combustion, due to use of air flow ingression on wall hot side through cooling holes. Said cooling holes represent not less than 50 % of entire surface area for air passage through wall.EFFECT: invention is aimed for provision of more uniform temperature distribution inside combustion chamber at simultaneous increase of turbomachine hydro-dynamic cycle efficiency.9 cl, 5 dwg

Fuel feed unit to the bypass turbojet engine afterburner // 2614268
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: fuel feed unit to the afterburner of the bypass turbojet engine contains a fuel manifolds with the fuel feed fittings. The fuel manifolds are formed all-in-one with the housing, which by means of fixing elements is connected to the upper diffuser cowl and with the upper ring flame stabiliser fastener. At that the mentioned housing in the cross-section plane has a rectangular shape, and the fuel manifolds are made in the form of a ring.EFFECT: reduction of the full pressure loss in the afterburner flow section, thrust augmentation and reduction of coke formation in the fuel manifolds.3 cl, 3 dwg

Pyrolysis reactor for producing synthesis gas // 2614168
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: internal reactor cavity is charged with raw material with the fraction of up to 50 mm: biofuel, solid household or agricultural waste, coal slurry - by means of the charging unit 3. The reactor comprises a screw compactor 4 and the scraper 5 for removing slag. An odd number of magnetrons 2 creating the temperature of 1000-1500°C by means of microwave radiation is mounted on the reactor housing 1 in the same horizontal plane at the equal distance from each other. Synthesis gas and slags resulting from the raw material pyrolysis are removed from the reactor through the unloading port 9, separated and purified from admixtures. The housing 1 is made three-layered: the inner layer 6 made of ceramic tiles, the intermediate layer 8 is heat-insulating, the outer layer 7 is of stainless steel with the openings for the free passage of microwave radiation from the magnetrons 2.EFFECT: expanding the functional capabilities of the reactor.8 cl, 2 dwg

Pre-filter for biodiesel fuel // 2613790
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: pre-filter for biodiesel fuel contains a housing with inlet and outlet channels, the inlet cavity, formed by coaxially and equidistantly located outer and inner walls, in which a separator-swirler, a sediment bowl with drain cock and sludge level sensor, filter element and a flows spreader is located. Separator-swirler is located at the outlet of the inlet chamber and it is designed as a disk-shaped part, at which along the outer edge the inclined blades in the tangential direction with L-shaped cross section are made. The L-shaped cross section free shelf of each blade is directed towards the outer wall of the inlet chamber. The free shelf blades tilt is made at the angle from18° to 22° to the transverse plane of the inlet cavity section, the flow spreader is in the form of the truncated cone with the radial ribs, the larger base of which is directed to the filter element, and the ribs are located along the longitudinal section plane from the sediment bowl side, the sediment bowl is made cylindrical at the top and conical at the bottom, at that the sludge level sensor upper point is located in the interface plane of cylindrical and conical parts of the sediment bowl.EFFECT: reliability and efficiency increase of the pre-filter for biodiesel fuel, that is, the separation of solid and liquid foreign particless in a wide range of bio-diesel fuel consumtions.2 dwg

System for working fluid supply into combustion chamber (variants) // 2613764
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: system for supplying the working fluid into the combustion chamber and the combustion chamber comprises a flow tube which circumferentially surrounds at least a portion of the combustion chamber. The tube provides fluid communication for the flow of working fluid through the flow pipe and the combustion chamber. The tube has an axial centerline. The first set of injectors is located around the circumference of the tube and extends at an angle in the radial direction with respect to the axial center line of the tube. The first set of injectors provides fluid communication for the flow of working fluid through the tube wall.EFFECT: invention allows to increase thermodynamic efficiency combustion efficiency.20 cl, 4 dwg

Fire chamber for combustion of gas-black oil fuel // 2613539
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: oil-gas burner for burning fuel includes under, arch, walls and screens that mimic the inner surface of the furnace, and the built-in wall oppositely disposed burner. At a distance of 0.33 from the height of the furnace hearth, front, side and rear walls of the furnace are made at an angle of 4-6° the furnace tilted inwardly to form a four-sided truncated pyramid.EFFECT: increased reliability and service life of furnace tubes of the furnace.4 dwg

Electricity generating supply boxes for injection burner // 2613341
FIELD: heating, ventilation.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used in injection burners of domestic heating devices (gas stoves, etc.) for the combined generation of heat and electrical energy. Electricity generating supply box for injection burner contains a support ring, which is made of a dielectric material, with feets, laid on the mentioned ring thermoelectric power section, consisting of thermionic converters, each of which consists of a pair of line segments, which are made of different metals M1 and M2, curved at perpendicular angles at the bottom, the ends of which are connected between each other, and forming by itself a zigzag row in the form of an open circle, annular screen, that is arranged in the form of a flat ring from a dielectric material, with adjacent racks to the row, wherein the supporting ring, zigzag row and annular screen are seted by legs and struts on the working surface of the gas plate around the injection burner; an annular screen separates a zigzag rows on the horizon from lateral aspect and separates it for hot and cold zones, the length of the curved ends of the M1 and M2 metal lines is chosen that the upper junctions of zigzag number were located in the base area of the torch, the lower junctions of the above-mentioned series were close to the working surface of the plate, thermoelectric power and the cold end sections connected to the collector with similar charges, which are connected with the transmitter, where the required voltage and amperage are created.EFFECT: invention, which allows to increase the quality of combustion and at the same time to generate electricity during the production of heat.2 dwg

Surface combustion gas burner // 2613105
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: surface combustion gas burner comprises a combustion grate consisting of a sheet (1) made of metal or heat resistant material pierced with a series of slits (2), wherein the said sheet comprises a series of deflectors (3, 3a, 3b, 3', 3") protruding on its outer surface (12), wherein each deflector (3, 3a, 3b, 3', 3") comprises a guide portion (30, 30') for guiding the gas flow and a junction portion (31, 32, 33', 33") joining to the sheet (1), wherein the said guide portion (30, 30') being spaced from the sheet (1) in such a way as to provide therewith at least one lateral gas ejection port (40, 40', 41). The said deflectors (3, 3a, 3b, 3', 3") being disposed in pairs in such a way that the lateral gas ejection ports (40, 40, 41) of same face each other, the deflectors (3, 3a, 3b, 3', 3") are formed integrally with the said sheet. Each deflector extends longitudinally and transversely above the totality of the surface of a slit (2), wherein in the said sheet (1) is further perforated with a series of ports (5) extending into discharging micro-tubes (6) which protrude from its outer surface (12), wherein the central axis (Z-Z') of the said micro-tubes (6) is perpendicular to the sheet, wherein the gas burner comprises patterns (7, 7') grouping the slits (2) and the ports (5). Each pattern comprises at least one port (5) facing in the micro-tube (6) located between two slits (2) above which there is a deflector (3, 3a, 3b, 3', 3").EFFECT: invention allows flame stabilization, extending service life of the burner, reducing of the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere.11 cl, 12 dwg

Zolotarev pyrolysis reactor // 2613063
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: pyrolysis reactor comprises a sealed chamber for heating and drying wastes and a sealed metal pyrolysis chamber disposed below the drying chamber with external heating for the thermochemical pyrolytic decomposition of wastes by convection heat of wastes from the hot metal body, the heating of which is carried out by passing hot oxygen-free gas into the outer space between the metal shell and the outer insulating shell. Herewith the sealed chambers for drying and pyrolysis chambers have in the cross-section a shape of the extended oval with the rectangular openings located at the base edges of the cameras to issue wastes via the mounted screw feeders, and a vane rotary actuator is mounted between the rectangular openings of the camera base to prevent hang-up of wastes.EFFECT: increased efficiency of the pyrolysis reactor.1 dwg

Steam-gas generator // 2613011
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: steam-gas generator contains cooled ballasting component chamber, the mixing head comprising a housing, the ends of which are secured upper and lower bottom, an intermediate bottom arranged between the housing and the bottom head, oxidant manifold mounted on the casing and nozzles evenly spaced around the circumference. The nozzles consist of an axial duct, made dull by its front part connected by means of tangential holes disposed uniformly circumferentially cavity fuel annular channel with tangential openings spaced evenly around the circumference and opening into the cavity of the oxidizer, located coaxially to the axial channel pre-chamber, which is a continuation of the annular channel, communicating with one side of the annular channel and an axial channel, and on the other hand - the steam-gas generator chamber with the cavity. At around the end of the nozzle pre-chamber provided with holes connecting the cavity of the ballasting components, preferably water, steam-gas generator chamber with the cavity. Hollow chamber regenerative cooling path is connected with the cavity ballasting components.EFFECT: reduction in size and weight of steam-gas generator, temperature field uniformity increase in combined cycle sweep the output over a wide range of temperatures and pressures due to the intensification of the process of evaporation ballasting component.2 cl, 6 dwg
Filter for biodiesel fuel // 2612891
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: filter for biodiesel fuel contains a housing 1 with inlet 2 and outlet 3 channels, the inlet cavity 4, formed by coaxially located outer 5 and inner 6 walls, in which a blade hydrocyclone swirler 7, a sediment bowl 8 with drain cock 9 and sludge level sensor 10, filter element 11 and a flows spreader 12 is located . The blade hydrocyclone swirler 7 is located at the outlet 13 from the inlet cavity 4 and made as a ring, on which the blades 14 are formed along the outer edge with the inclination from the axis line from 8° to 12° to the cross-section plane 15, and the total average blade length projection 14 is larger than the average length of the inlet cavity circle 4 at 8-12% for each of the radial distances from the filter axis. The flows separator 12 is designed as a plate part 16 with a truncated cone 17 and radial ribs 18, the larger base 19 of which is directed to the filter element 11, and the ribs 18 are arranged along the plane 20 of the longitudinal section from the sediment bowl 8, and a sediment bowl 8 is made of two coupled between each other parts, the upper cylinder 21 and the lower conical 22, and the upper point 23 of the sludge level sensor 10 is located in the interface plane 24 of the cylindrical 21 and conical 22 parts of the sediment bowl 8.EFFECT: invention improves the reliability and efficiency of the biodiesel fuel filter.3 dwg

Combustion chamber with forced flow reversing // 2612694
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: furnace devices of all types, used as fuel oil, gas and coal dust, have combustion chamber for combustion and air distribution stabilization. Present invention represents combustion chamber with forced flow reversing, which includes housing, made in form of curved cavity, similar to hand with fingers, bent towards palm and symmetrically arranged relative to its center. Combustion chamber also comprises set of swirling blades for air supply to combustion chamber, arranged on flame outlet inner side. Fuel injector is arranged in combustion chamber inner end center and is built-in into combustion chamber inner wall so, that its outlet passes through inner wall. After air and fuel mixing combustion chamber outlet end is flame outlet.EFFECT: combustion chamber with forced flow reversing according to present invention provides solution for disadvantages of known straight-flow combustion chambers, associated with poor flame stabilization, low rate of fuel burn-through and poor ecological parameters.3 cl, 2 dwg

Boiler operating on gasifiable pulverised coal // 2612682
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to boilers operating on gasifiable pulverised coal. The boiler operating on gasifiable pulverised coal includes: a boiler housing with a furnace; a rotary regenerative heater; a flue gas duct, the input device of which is connected to the furnace and the output device is connected to the rotary regenerative heater, wherein multiple steam superheaters are installed in the flue gas duct; and the air duct for feeding air into the other receiving part of each pair of receiving parts, so that heat carrier received therein exchanges heat with air; a high-temperature collection gas duct, one end of which is connected to the end of the flue gas duct facing the furnace, and the other end is connected to the output device of the flue gas duct; and a gas collection control device for controlling a first volume of flue gas fed through the high-temperature collection gas duct.EFFECT: invention is aimed at improving completeness of fuel combustion, reducing environmental pollution, improve stability and sustained operation of the boiler.9 cl, 2 dwg

Pellet-fired boiler with rotary type regneration heater // 2612680
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: pellet-fired boiler with rotary type regenerative heater comprises a furnace; a rotary type regenerative heater comprising: a main body of a heat exchanger; drive means for imparting rotation of the heat exchanger main body around its central axis; a separating element mounted in the heat exchanger main body along the central axis, dividing the heat exchanger main body by at least one pair of receiving chambers. Each pair of receiving chambers is situated diametrically opposite with respect to the central axis; heat-carrying medium received in the receiving chambers, respectively, made of non-metallic solid material, wherein the flue gas has a temperature of 65-75 deg. C after heat exchange with the help of rotary type regenerative heater; a furnace gas pipeline with an input connected to the upper part of the furnace, and an output connected to a rotary type regenerative heater, to supply the furnace gas to at least one receiving chamber of coupled receiving chambers and exchange heat with heat-carrying medium placed therein; and an air outlet port for supplying air to the other receiving chamber of coupled receiving chambers so that the heat-carrying medium placed therein exchange heat with the air, and after the exchange the air is supplied to the furnace.EFFECT: increased efficiency of residual heat recycling.9 cl, 2 dwg

Active spreader for atomizer // 2612495
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: at Actively divider for injector comprising a hollow cylindrical body with an external thread for connection to the nozzle distribution manifold for liquid supply and fixed to the bottom of the housing union nut with a liquid flow divider, wherein in the housing, coaxially to it, holds a cylindrical hole in the upper part of which is mounted strainer, and the bottom part is installed orifice plate with restrictor and the splitter, the liquid flow divider is attached to the end surface of the coupling nut and formed stick-type truncated tetrahedron fastened to an end surface of the cap nut, the edges of which are bars with blades fixed on them with abutments so as to be able by their rotation, outflows from throttle washers with jet nozzles, while the edges of the tetrahedron base and connected with rods fixed on their blades and stops, and the projection of the throttle washer jet with axis 3 of 5 to the base of the tetrahedron coincides with the intersection point of its bisectors.EFFECT: fine liquid spraying efficiency increase.1 dwg
Kochetov's pneumatic nozzle // 2612483
FIELD: fire safety.SUBSTANCE: pneumatic nozzle comprises the fluid and the gas supply systems and the nozzle, the liquid supply system is carried out in two directions comprising the axial liquid supply through the inlet pipe and the confuser and the cylindrical nozzle, connected in series and coaxial with it, and the tangential liquid supply is carried out through the housing in the form of a cylindrical-conical sleeve, coaxial with the cylindrical nozzle, on the cylindrical part thereof the annular vortex chamber with the liquid supply pipe is fixed. Along the annular chamber edges, two rows of inlet fluid tangential channels are provided, each row comprising at least three tangential channels connecting the annular chamber with the cylindrical cavity of the housing, to which the circular plate is coaxially fixed, located perpendicularly to the axis of the annular vortex chamber and rigidly connected to the cylindrical cavity of the housing in its end section, and a slotted nozzle is attached perpendicularly to the circular plate. The slot nozzle is made combined and consisting of two mutually perpendicular rectangular parallelepipeds with throttle through openings of a rectangular cross section, connected with the housing cavity, and the divider of the two-phase flow is attached coaxially to the circular plate, to its peripheral portion, formed as a perforated conical surface surrounding the slotted nozzle with throttle through openings of a rectangular cross section connected to the housing cavity.EFFECT: increased efficiency of the gas-drop jet formation and expanding its supply area.2 cl, 2 dwg

Aircraft gas turbine engine combustion chamber // 2612449
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: aircraft gas turbine engine combustion chamber, where the combination of the main combustion chamber and afterburner into a single chamber is realized. The combustion chamber has two combustion areas: the main and the afterburner. The main area is permanent, the afterburner is for chamber working at the augmented rating. The positive result is due to the fact, that the combustion conditions in the main combustion chamber afterburner area of at the same values of the total air excess ratio is objectively better, than in the afterburners of similar gas turbine engines.EFFECT: invention allows to expand the operating modes range of the main combustion chambers according to the total air excess ratio.6 cl, 3 dwg
Device for exothermic underwater cutting // 2612353
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for thermal cutting of metals and nonmetals under water and on surface in ambient conditions. System of hoses and pipelines of oxygen system main line 2 connects independent source of oxygen 1 with electrode 4 holder 3. Ignition device 5 is made in form of independent moisture proof power unit, connected by wiring 6 with electrode 4. Oxygen system has controlled oxygen reducer 8 and is equipped with flow control valve 9, operating mode tap 10 and blowdown valve 11 connected to oxygen system main line 2. Oxygen system is also equipped with quick-detachable connection assembly 12 for supply of oxygen from surface, check valves 13 and 14 and controlled check valve 15. Control panel 16 has mimic oxygen system and control members of flow control valve 9, operation mode tap 10 and blowdown valve 11.EFFECT: device provides high safety when conducting underwater exothermic cutting and ease of use.8 cl, 5 dwg

ethod to supply liquid fuel in burner and apparatus to supply liquid fuel in burner to fuel assembly // 2612307
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method to supply liquid fuel in a burner includes the use of a fuel assembly unit, a first control unit, which is designed to provide a choice of operating modes of the fuel assembly unit and control of the last, a fuel heating unit, which is designed to be located downstream of the fuel flow immediately before the fuel assembly unit and to provide heating of the liquid fuel before it is supplied to the fuel assembly unit and the fuel injection unit; developing fuel pressure in the fuel assembly unit by the fuel injection unit; spraying liquid fuel by the fuel assembly unit. The invention comprises also a fuel treatment unit, a fuel pressure control unit which is located between the fuel injection unit and the fuel heating unit and is designed to control pressure and performance, a second control unit which is designed to contain a thermostat and to control and to adjust the set temperature in the fuel treatment unit, in addition, the fuel injection unit is designed to control fuel pressure at the outlet, the first control unit is designed also to control fuel heating unit anf fuel treatment unit and to choose operating modes depending on the type of fuel used, and the fuel assembly unit, the fuel heating unit, the fuel pressure control unit, the fuel ingection unit and the fuel treatment unit are designed to drop excessive fuel.EFFECT: invention allows stable operation of the burner in constantly changing operating conditions.11 cl, 1 dwg

Gte combustion chamber and nozzle unit // 2612231
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: gas turbine engine combustion chamber comprises an outer housing, a flame tube and an annular shape plate with nozzle units mounted on it and a fuel manifold connected to the plate and mounted in air space in front of the nozzle plate, which chamber is connected with the pipe line on one side, and with nozzle units containing jet fuel nozzle and air supply and spin channels on the other side by fuel channels. Wherein central electrodes are mounted inside the fuel nozzles, electrically connected to eachother and with a high-voltage insulated wire connected to the high-voltage unit output. Also a nozzle unit is presented.EFFECT: invention allows to increase fuel combustion completeness and reduce harmful substances emissions for all modes, ensures uniform temperature field at combustion chamber outlet in a circle for all modes.3 cl, 8 dwg

ethod for preparation of water-bearing fuel-coal slurry // 2611630
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparation of water-bearing fuel and coal slurry comprising M40 mazut dispersion, containing 1 % wt of water, in an amount of 60 % wt, grinding the dry coal in an amount of 40 % wt or dropout of it in a grinder to fraction less than 10 mm, supply of water-mazut mixture and pulverized coal in a mixer, mixing them in a mixer, subsequent supply of mixture to the next stage of dispersion of coarse grind, regrinding of slurry in a fine grinder, after which the slurry becomes homogenity and stable flow characteristics because of humic acids and humates extracted from coal.EFFECT: increased calorific efficiency of fuel in form of a slurry.3 tbl, 1 dwg

Firebox (versions) and method of fuel distribution in furnace // 2611551
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: insert contains a set of pipes, flow regulator, the radial channel passing through the mentioned flow regulator, and an annular liner. Set of tubes is positioned to form tube bundle, supported by at least one plate extending in a radial direction inside the furnace. Each tube has an upstream end spaced axially from the downstream end, and provides fluid communication through the tube bundle. Stabilizer flow passes upstream of the upstream end of one or more tubes of a set of tubes. The flow stabilizer has an inner surface and an outer surface. The annular liner has an inner surface and an outer surface that is generally concentric with a flow regulator and has a downstream end which is at least partially surrounded by said stabilizer. The downstream end of the edge ends. The inner surface of the flow and the outer annular surface of the insert to limit radial flow regulator area, and inner and outer surfaces of the liner to limit axial annular flow area. Method of fuel distribution in the furnace provides a working fluid flowing through the flow regulator.EFFECT: increase in the flame stability during combustion and expansion performance range for low reactive fuel gas, such as methane.16 cl, 5 dwg

Device for combustion of solid powdered fuel in dynamic flare of small length // 2611532
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal power industry, namely to combustion equipment, and can be used in systems for coal dust combustion. A burner for combustion of powdered solid fuel comprises a channel delivering high-concentration mixture of dust of solid fuel, the channel has rectangular shape and is installed inside an air duct delivering a secondary air, and an outlet opening of channel is closed by arch-like element in form of flat plate with dimensions identical to dimensions of the channel outlet opening, and installed overhead against the outlet opening of the channel at distance equal to width of the outlet opening.EFFECT: increased intensity of mixing of powdered solid fuel with oxidant in zone of combustion reactions, thus ensuring, if possible, most complete fuel combustion upon flame length shortening.3 dwg
Tubular-ring combustion chamber with staged and tangential fuel-air nozzles for use in gas turbine engines // 2611217
FIELD: fuel combustion devices.SUBSTANCE: tubular-ring combustion chamber for gas turbine used in above ground power generation, ground or sea transport vehicles or in aircraft engines, comprises plurality of flame tubes distributed along circumference, enclosed between two cylindrical linings. Each flame tube is flame tube lining, making tubular volume and having located upstream end, containing front wall, and located downstream end, first and second sets of fuel and air nozzles tangentially directed and distributed along circumference. Plurality of dilution holes is made in front wall to direct leaving compressor air into flame tube. First set of tangentially directed and distributed along circumference first nozzles is arranged between located upstream and located downstream ends of flame tube lining for injection of one of components, air or fuel-air into tubular volume. Second set of tangentially directed and distributed along circumference second fuel and air nozzles is arranged between first nozzles and located upstream end of flame tube lining for injection of fuel component into tubular volume between plurality of dilution holes in front wall, located upstream end of flame tube lining and first nozzles.EFFECT: invention enables optimal fuel and air mixing, as well as creates combustion conditions reducing amount of pollutants emissions, reduces need for expensive emissions control devices, improves ignition and increases flame stability, reduces control problems and reduces vibration.5 cl, 7 dwg

System (versions) and procedure for operational fluid medium infeed into combustion chamber // 2611135
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: system for the operational fluid infeed into the combustion chamber comprises a fuel injector, combustion chamber, flow sleeve which circumferentially encompasses the combustion chamber to limit the annular channel, which surrounds the flame tube, fuel injectors, distribution manifold, fluid passage. The combustion chamber is disposed downstream of the fuel injector and comprises a flame tube which is circumferentially disposed around at least a part of the combustion chamber. The fuel injectors are arranged circumferentially around the flow sleeve and provides fluid communication through the flame tube and the flow sleeve into the combustor. Discharge header circumferentially covers the fuel injectors by ensuring annular volume between the collector and the flow sleeve. A fluid passage extends through the discharge header and provides fluid communication through the discharge header to the noted annular volume and fuel injectors.EFFECT: increasing efficiency and reducing emissions from the combustion chamber.20 cl, 10 dwg

Solid-fuel boiler // 2611079
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid fuel combustion devices, preferably with lower combustion zone, and can be used in heat engineering, chemical and other industries. In fact, solid-fuel boiler includes furnace, attached to it heat exchanger chamber with exhaust pipe and grate located in furnace lower part with slots made in it for ash removal into ash box arranged under grate. At that, grate consists of stationary metal plate inclined towards gases exit from furnace, in middle part of which over it movable plate is located, and above moving plate fixed coating plate is attached to furnace walls. Above grate at distance of 2–4 cm from plate with grate protective angles are made, serving to prevent air passage shutting off in grate slot.EFFECT: technical result is enabling of boiler operation power control in wide power range from 5 % to 100 % while maintaining optimum conditions of fuel combustion and high efficiency.1 cl, 2 dwg

Fuel injector for two types of fuel // 2610979
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Fuel injector 2 for two types of fuel with internal pipe 5 with radially oriented outlet holes for first type of fuel and with outer pipe 6 surrounding internal pipe with axially oriented outlet holes 10 for second type of fuel. At that, groove passing along axis on internal pipe outer surface, and external pipe projection, entering in engagement with groove as slipping protector, are located between two axial outlet holes 10. Invention also discloses burner and gas turbine.EFFECT: invention allows to improve gas turbine design and operation.10 cl, 17 dwg

Gas control module // 2610635
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Gas control module with electronic ignition intended for a gas-operating heating device, in which switching on and off is performed in each case by one motion. Besides, provided is switching the gas control module off even at the voltage source failure.EFFECT: invention ensures simple manual control.1 cl, 2 dwg

Fan cooling tower // 2610630
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: fan cooling tower includes a housing, a spraying device, a liquid collection tank and a fan, the casing consists of two parts - the upper part, including a sprinkler and a water-drop eliminator between which the manifold of the spraying device with solid-cone spray nozzles is located, and a lower part in which a water collection tank for collecting cooled water with a fan mounted on it is located. The housing is made from sheet stainless steel and the water collection tank has a diffuser which is a part of the housing and is connected with a fan, arranged with a plastic impeller and a multi-speed motor, allowing to change performance of the cooling tower during operation, depending on the weather conditions, by changes in air flow, and the sprinkler includes stacked in layers parallel tubular elements made of thermoplastic material with a lattice wall. The edges of the tubular elements are welded together, the tubular elements are made with a triangular cross-section, and between each layer of tubular elements across the tubular elements along each their end there is strip is laid from thermoplastic material, welded to tubular elements in areas of their contact with the strip. In process of welding end sections of tubular elements are fused, as well as end sections of strips laid between them, and solid end walls of the block are formed in process of fusing. Cavities of each tubular element and tube-to-tube space is filled with hollow polymer balls. Ball diameter÷ is 510% more than the maximum size of the cell of the lattice wall of the tubular elements and the spray nozzle comprises a hollow housing with a nozzle and the central core, the housing is designed with a duct for liquid supply and comprises a coaxial bushing rigidly connected with the housing with the nozzle fixed in the lower part of the bushing, the nozzle is designed as a cylindrical two-section bushing, which top cylindrical section is coupled by a threaded connection with a central cylindrical core having a through inner central hole and mounted with an annular space relative to the inner surface of the cylindrical bushing and the annular space is connected to at least three radial ducts made in the two-secttion busshing, they connect the duct with an annulus, formed by the inner surface of the bushing and the outer surface of the top cylindrical section. The annulus is connected with the duct of the housing for liquid supply, and at the bottom of the central cylindrical core a hollow conical swirler is fixed which conical shell is fixed by means of at least three spokes fixed with one end to the conical shell of the swirler at its upper part and with the other end - in an annular groove formed on the inner cylindrical surface of the central cylindrical core. On the outer surface of the hollow conical swirler a spiral slicing is made.EFFECT: improved performance of the cooling tower.4 dwg

ethod for treatment of waste water produced in manufacture of solid propellant components // 2610601
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: waste water, produced in the manufacture of solid propellant components, contaminated with nickel and lead ions, sulphates, nitrates and organic materials is directed to a thermal treatment plant, where it is subjected to fire treatment. First it arrives in a cyclone furnace at a temperature of 800-900°C, therefrom it is sent to a secondary incinerator at a temperature of 1100-1200°C provided with a secondary combustion air blower for flue gas burning. Incinerator secondary chamber inlet is fitted with a carbamide solution injector, where 40% solution of carbamide is injected into the gas flow for neutralisation of nitrogen oxides. Nitrates, sulphates and organic materials along with the heavy metal ions are removed from the contaminated waste water. Environmentally friendly universal process of advanced treatment of combustion products.EFFECT: cost-effective method, improved decontamination efficiency.2 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

ethod of black dust electrochemical flame combustion // 2610370
FIELD: heating, drying.SUBSTANCE: proposed technical solution relates to heat power engineering. The method of black dust electrochemical flame combustion is about levelling of burning torch pre-flame zone electric potential, while ensuring a steady flow of heterogeneous chemical reactions in the ignition zone, the ignition and torch burning stabilization. The invention reduces the costs of black dust flame combustion stabilization, reduces the requirements to the technical composition of burned dust and expands the burning capacity adjustment range without use of highly reactive fuel for the torch lighting purposes.EFFECT: invention can be used for black dust electrochemical flame combustion with a high degree of black dust torch burning stabilization.1 dwg

Burner // 2610163
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention may be used to burn gaseous fuel in boiler furnaces and industrial furnaces, especially in medium and large bath-type furnaces of reflective type. Gas injection burner comprises a flame-stabilizing tunnel, a refractory ramming mixture, 30 cylindrical mixers combined by a common welding gas distributing chamber, in each mixer four nozzles are drilled at the angle of 25° to their axes. Burner comprises a jacket welded to the gas distributing chamber, where the refractory ramming mixture is filled, a cast flame-stabilizing tunnel, which is put at the bottom onto the gas distributing chamber and jacket and welded along the perimeter to the gas distributing chamber, comprises a device to regulate air flow rate, besides, the gas distributing chamber contains: in the upper row there are 10 mixers with attachments, having 16 cast fins on the inner surface, in the central row there are 10 mixers without attachments, and in the lower row there are 10 mixers with attachments having a device for final mixing of the gas and air mixture.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase burner shelf life, to improve process of gas and air mixture mixing.9 cl, 15 dwg

Burner device for production of thermal and electric energy // 2609918
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Burner device for production of heat and electric energy comprises a vertical combustion chamber of liquid fuel, fuel bowl with a screen under a cover, fire chamber with a system for extracting combustion products. Main portion of air is supplied into the combustion chamber through circular slits between the cover of the fuel bowl and the screen; heat carrier for heating rooms and reservoirs with water for household needs is located between the bodies of the fire hamber and boiler; fuel bowl is detachable and attached to the fixed cover; fuel is supplied into the combustion chamber from the fuel bowl through slits at the base and openings; there is an opening to ignite flame above the cover of the fuel bow; there is a second combustion chamber housing a thermoelectric generator, which converts thermal energy into electrical energy, above the circular system for feeding air into the fire chamber.EFFECT: invention provides stable combustion of waste oils and other heavy hydrocarbons and reduce emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere.1 cl, 1 dwg

Gas burner with inward-facing flame // 2609814
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Gas burner (100) with inward-facing flame comprises a base body (2), designed to be placed under gas hob (1), and disk-shaped cover (5) located above said base body (2), the said base body (2) comprises a central chamber (30) – cylindrical or truncated-conical, designed for connection with at least one horizontal venturi pipe (7), fed at least one gas injector (6); and peripheral toroidal chamber (23), at least two partitions (4) forming at least two holes (40), providing communication between said central chamber (30) and said peripheral toroidal chamber (23). Note here that said cover (5) comprises a central plate (50) located on said central chamber (30) of the main body, intermediate toroidal section (51) located on the said walls (4) of the main body, and ring (52) for flame arranged on said peripheral toroidal chamber (23) of the main body and has inclined surface, where there are multiple holes (53), communicating with said peripheral toroidal chamber (23). Note here that said holes (53) have axis inclined upwards and to vertical axis of torch for flame propagation inside.EFFECT: invention allows creating an effective, safe and easy to manufacture burner.11 cl, 8 dwg

Prismatic settling chamber // 2609268
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used in solid fuel combustion boilers, heat-recovery boilers of industrial plants for removal of ash and dust before combustion products discharge into atmosphere via chimneys. Prismatic settling chamber has vertical front, rear and side walls, horizontal roofing and bakestone dust output opening, arranged on front and rear walls with abutment to dusty and cleaned gas flows inlet and outlet opening roofing, installed with abutment to roofing and integrated into longitudinal and transverse rows with constant pitches in staggered order tetrahedral vertical dust traps, having working cavities, rear and lateral vertical walls, front vertical walls with vertical slit-like openings, horizontal bakestone dust output openings, arranged in common horizontal plane with settling chamber horizontal bakestone dust output opening, as well as vertical water heating pipes. At that, vertical water heating pipes are combined into groups with conditional transverse central planes, in each group pipes are installed in longitudinal and transverse rows, pipe groups and dust traps longitudinal rows are arranged in chamber in turns with constant pitch between groups central conditional planes sgr, equal to dust traps longitudinal rows pitch sdt and making sgr=sdt=(1.5-2.5)B, where B is width of dust traps side walls, m.EFFECT: technical result is increasing reliability and efficiency at supply of high-temperature gases.1 cl, 4 dwg

Annular combustion chamber in turbine machine // 2608513
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: turbomachine annular combustion chamber includes two coaxial circular walls, inner and outer, – connected by their located upstream ends by means of chamber bottom circular wall, containing openings for injection systems installation. Each of injection systems comprises nozzle and at least one spiral element, intended for air swirling flow formation, mixed downstream with fuel supplied from nozzle, and at least one spark plug installed in outer circular wall opening downstream of injection systems. Spark plug is arranged along circumference between two adjacent injection systems, which are made so, that to make fuel-air mixture jets, rotating in opposite directions.EFFECT: invention is aimed at improvement of fuel-air mixture jets ignition.10 cl, 8 dwg

Burner with high-temperature furnace (bhtf) // 2607938
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used both in domestic heating systems and at small industries using heat energy, as well as for utilization of ground combustible wastes. Burner with a high-temperature furnace includes a housing made in the form of a four-sided rectangular prism, the inner surface of which is lined with a layer of clad, herewith in the burner housing there is a pyrolysis chamber connected with a fuel supply pipe, in which there is an air supply branch pipe and a fuel supply screw, which is connected with an electrically controlled drive of a fuel supply geared motor, besides, in the burner housing there is an ash window, an inspection window, air is supplied to the combustion chamber tangentially relative to it with a transition inside it into a circular motion, there is an afterburning chamber in the form of a rectangular tetrahedral prism, the lower part of which includes the burner nozzle, and the afterburning chamber upper part is made in the form of vertically arranged plates with a space between them.EFFECT: invention provides high-efficiency high-temperature combustion of solid loose fuel, as well as utilization of ground combustible wastes.1 cl, 1 dwg

Disc sprayer // 2607913
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to centrifugal sprayers, used in chemical and other industries for processes, associated with processing suspensions, solutions and emulsions. Disc sprayer includes a housing, in which there are nozzles, each including a housing accommodating a nozzle, in form of an inverted cup, in bottom of which there is turbulent fluid flow swirler with at least two inlets inclined towards axis of nozzle in form of cylindrical holes, located in bottom of nozzle, where there is also a central cylindrical orifice, connected with mixing chamber of nozzle, communicated in series with outlet diffuser chamber. In lower part of each nozzle, to end surface of cylindrical sleeve, is attached by means of at least three spokes a splitter made in form of a perforated disc, convex part of which is directed towards diffuser outlet of chamber.EFFECT: technical result is high efficiency of spraying and reduced power consumption.1 cl, 2 dwg

Separation device, comprising swirler // 2607429
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Separation device comprises swirler (1, 20, 30) from sheet material, containing plurality of bent blades (4) with edge (6) on flow inlet side, forming inlet angle (α), and edge (8) on flow outlet side, forming outlet angle (β), wherein flow inlet side edge and flow outlet side edge extend from central section (3) to peripheral edge (9), wherein peripheral edge passes between edge endpoints on flow inlet side and edge on flow outlet side, and inlet angle is more than outlet angle, wherein bent blades peripheral edge is made circular on top view. Inlet angle (α) is at least 70°. Outlet angle (β) is in range 20–60°.EFFECT: invention allows to increase fluids separation efficiency, reduce pressure losses.15 cl, 9 dwg

Fluid medium heating device // 2607427
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Device for fluid medium heating contains first burner, providing first combustion of limiting fuel component and excess fuel component, and heat exchanger first module, in which first combustion gases produced during said first combustion, transfer heat to fluid medium. At that, device additionally contains second burner, into which first combustion gases are brought from one side, on other side is limiting fuel component for performing of limiting fuel component second combustion and at least part of unburnt excess fuel component contained in first combustion gases. At that, second combustion gases produced during said second combustion, circulate in heat exchanger second module and also transfer heat to fluid medium. Thus, combustion gases produced in each combustion circulate via combustion gases tubes, inside same common heat exchanger consisting of said heat exchanger modules, in which they transfer heat to fluid medium. Disclosed also is carrier rocket with fluid medium heating device.EFFECT: invention increases temperature and pressure of fuel liquid component before its injection to combustion chamber.9 cl, 3 dwg

Dry sorbent introduction under conditions of non-stationary state into dry gas cleaning scrubber // 2607410
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removal of solids and other contaminants from flue gases, produced during fuel combustion. Method of reducing emissions during fuel combustion, produced under operating conditions in non-stationary state in fuel combustion system, having gas passage path, which passes from fuel combustion chamber through spraying drier-absorber to bag filter, located downstream of spraying drier-absorber, wherein method includes: admixing of calcium hydroxide dry powder to carrier gas into gas passage path in input position, located downstream of fuel combustion chamber and upstream of bag filter, spraying of water into carrier gas in spray drier-absorber for moistening and carrier gas temperature reducing and calcium hydroxide powder deposition in bag filter for precipitate producing on filter, which reduces emissions during fuel combustion, wherein temperature in spray drier-absorber is less than 220 °F.EFFECT: removal of solid particles and other contaminants from flue gases produced during fuel combustion.24 cl, 7 dwg

ethod of solid fuel gasification and device for its implementation // 2607397
FIELD: waste processing and recycling.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling of industrial and household wastes by their processing. Method comprises continuous feed of a solid fuel into a shaft onto its combustion grate to make on it from the top to the bottom a distribution of the solid fuel, herewith the continuous feed of the solid fuel into the shaft onto its grate is performed with the solid fuel being uniformly distributed within the volume of the shaft starting from the grate and upward to the place of its loading. At the bottom of the shaft in the area of the producer gas outlet an afterburning zone is formed of the slag and ash passed through the grate. Producer gas is removed in the common flow of the producer gas removal from the shaft, herewith onto the grate an active layer of slag and ash is formed, the activity of which and its level is controlled by the position in the shaft of the high-temperature zone in the solid fuel and the rate of passage of slag and ash downward the shaft into the zone of their afterburning. Preliminary the grate is arranged in the shaft horizontally, and its gear wheels are forcedly rotated in the same direction or in different ones while activating the adjoining layer of slag and ash.EFFECT: technical result is gasification of full volume of the processed solid fuel and effective control over the process of reverse gasification.3 cl, 1 dwg

Annular combustion chamber of turbo-machine // 2606460
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an annular combustion chamber containing two circular walls, an inner and an outer ones, interconnected upstream with an annular wall bottoms of a chamber, through which spray systems pass containing each at least one spiral intended to deliver the air flow rotating downstream from the fuel injector, and a fixed cone in the form of a truncated cone downstream from the spiral formed with an annular row of air injection holes. Outer circular wall comprises an annular row of primary diluting holes. Holes of the fixed cones are distributed and their dimensions are calculated so, that jets of the fuel-air mixture have local expansion overlapping in the circumferential direction the adjacent fuel jet upstream from the primary diluting holes.EFFECT: invention is aimed at improvement of characteristics of the combustion chamber.10 cl, 12 dwg

Air heater // 2606291
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used in devices for air heating, supplied for heating rooms. Essence of invention in that the air heater which comprises cylindrical housing and cylindrical afterburning chamber, convective heating surface, made of tubes arranged uniformly around the afterburning chamber parallel with its axis, spiral channel in annular space of convective heating surface, enveloping afterburning chamber outside from the air feed branch pipe to its discharge branch pipe, as the burner is installed cyclone furnace, between cyclone furnace and afterburning chamber there is connecting gas duct, axis of the cylindrical body is directed vertically, between the cylindrical casing and afterburning chamber is installed concentrically to them the intermediate pipe, which divides the convective heating surface into two – first, installed between the walls of intermediate pipe and afterburning chamber, and the second, located between walls of intermediate pipe and cylindrical housing. In the upper part of the intermediate pipe between the last turns of the intermediate tube plate, generatrix of the spiral channel, there is formed an opening, connecting the air space of the second convection heating surface and first, in the lower part of the intermediate pipe is formed an opening connecting in alignment with the outlet air space of the first convective heating surface with an air space of the second, spiral channel in annulus of second convection heating surface is made rising from the inlet branch to the upper opening in intermediate pipe, spiral channel in annular space of the first convective heating surface is made descending from the upper opening in the intermediate tube to bottom, a connecting gas duct is equipped with two or more pipes with seats for attachment of cyclone burners.EFFECT: in so doing it increases the efficiency of the air heater due to involvement in heat exchange between combustion products of fuel and heated air radiation component and wider range of air temperature control.1 cl, 5 dwg

Ceramic tiles for lining of combustion chambers, in particular, gas turbines, and its production method // 2606288
FIELD: devices for fuel combustion.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ceramic tile for lining of combustion chamber of, in particular, gas turbines. Ceramic tile for lining of combustion chambers of, in particular, gas turbines comprises base layer, made from ceramic material, e.g. alumina or alumina-mullite, and coating, which is applied, at least on one side of base layer; coating is multilayer ceramic coating, containing at least one external layer made from alumina or ceramic material containing alumina, and at least one intermediate layer located between outer layer and base layer and made from ceramic material, contained mullite and preferably mullite or alumina-mullite.EFFECT: invention provides higher resistance of tiles to high temperatures, corrosion and mechanical loads.11 cl, 1 dwg

Coal grinding mill coal-and-air mixture temperature control system // 2606083
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for controlling over of explosive fuel drying process in coal grinding mills. Coal-and-air mixture temperature control system comprises coupled gates of flow rate of hot and lightly heated air and cold air gate. Hot and lightly heated air gates are connected to first actuating mechanism. To switching unit first input emergency cold air additive controller with second temperature sensor and setting device is connected. To switching unit second input first actuating mechanism "lower" path switch sensor is connected. First actuating mechanism input is connected to second switching unit output. Switching unit first input is connected to coal-and-air mixture temperature regulator output. Switching unit second input is connected to RS-trigger output. Trigger inputs are connected to “AND” element output and to second actuating mechanism "closed" limit switch sensor. “AND” element first and second inputs are connected to comparator unit and timer outputs. Comparison unit is connected to first temperature sensor and third setter. To timer «start» and «reset» inputs second actuating mechanism "closed" limit switch sensor is connected.EFFECT: invention increases air gates control accuracy.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod for fire cleaning of process equipment // 2605241
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to chemical industry, namely, to cleaning of process equipment made from row and alloyed steels, from polymer deposits and emulsion rubber by thermal decomposition. Method involves non-oxidising heating of equipment and thermal decomposition of polymers in a reactor by products of natural gas and pyrolysis gas combustion with further decontamination of gases and carbon before discharge into the atmosphere by means of their combustion in a cyclone furnace with a preliminary stage of thermal decomposition of high-molecular polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) into low-molecular polyaromatic hydrocarbons by a high-speed burner with the flame temperature of 1,700-2,000 °C in the antechamber of a cyclone furnace, heating of equipment is performed by high-speed heat transfer medium flow in a downward direction by means of circulation circuit,while additional air is introduced into the excess heat-transfer medium discharge after the cyclone furnace. Fire cleaning of equipment is carried out at the heat transfer medium temperature of 650 °C, and in the temperature range between 400-550 °C in order to avoid valley separation of pyrolysis gas heating is carried out at a rate of 10-15 °C/h.EFFECT: longer service life of process equipment, reduced contamination of the environment.3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

Universal mixing head swirl atomizer for gas burner // 2605166
FIELD: energetics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. Swirl atomizer for gas burner comprises atomizer housing, made with possibility to be fitted in burner head and having central channel, extending between atomizer housing first and second ends, first part of which envelopes spinning deflector; second part of said central channel, including atomizer opening with diameter smaller, than diameter of said central channel first part; third part of said central channel, including mixing chamber having diameter larger, than atomizer diameter, and smaller than diameter of said central channel first part; and at least one gas supply channel, coming out from mixing chamber onto atomizer housing outer side to receive gas fuel from gas fuel supply line and its direction said mixing chamber, wherein at least one gas supply channel is in communication with part of fuel supply line smaller diameter, located within burner head, wherein fuel pipeline has larger diameter part, passing in axial direction from fuel pipe end, and smaller diameter part passes from larger diameter part lower end.EFFECT: invention allows to create simple design of mixing head, providing resistance to flame backfires/flarebacks and operating with different fuels.19 cl, 12 dwg

Fuel nozzles unit and unit of combustion chamber // 2605164
FIELD: engines.SUBSTANCE: fuel nozzles unit, used in turbine engine comprises set of fuel nozzles. Group of fuel nozzles is located inside air pressure chamber confined by housing. Each of above fuel nozzles is connected to flame tube, restricting combustion chamber, and includes housing, mixing tubes, and at least one heat-removing pipeline. Housing has inner surface limiting cooling fluid medium pressure chamber and fuel pressure chamber. Mixing tubes pass through housing, and each has inner surface limiting flow channel passing between air pressure chamber and combustion chamber. At least one of mixing tubes has at least one cooling fluid medium opening, intended for cooling fluid medium flow discharge from cooling fluid medium chamber to said flow channel. At least one heat-removing pipeline communicates with cooling fluid medium pressure chamber in flow manner for supply of cooling fluid medium flow into it.EFFECT: invention is aimed at flame stabilization, improvement of exhaust gases emission characteristics, combustion chamber nozzles unit longer service life.10 cl, 15 dwg

Working fluid pulse small-sized powder displacer // 2604775
FIELD: manufacturing technology.SUBSTANCE: working fluid small-sized pulse powder displacer comprises combustion chamber with powder charge, pyro-cartridge and container divided by everting diaphragm into two cavities, gas, communicated with combustion chamber, and fluid, filled with working fluid. Combustion chamber is made in form of barrel installed in gas cavity, inside of which charge is fixed in end, and on barrel open end pyro-cartridge is arranged. Between charge and pyro-cartridge partition with holes is installed with gap on both sides, which axes are located at acute angle to barrel longitudinal axis with tops towards pyro-cartridge. Cavity between partition and charge is interconnected with container gas cavity by barrel side holes, wherein axes of holes in barrel are located between holes axes in partition with barrel inner surface intersection points and charge end and arranged at angle to barrel longitudinal axis with tops towards partition.EFFECT: invention enables displacer downsizing and avoiding direct exposure of pyro-cartridge and charge combustion products to everting diaphragm at initial moment of displacer operation.1 cl, 2 dwg
 
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