Combustion apparatus and combustion processes (F23)

F23            Combustion apparatus; combustion processes(12992)

Solid-fuel feeder // 2628366
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: solid-fuel feeder contains a hopper placed above the furnace, the outlet of which is communicated through the fuel supply chamber to the grate surface, equipped with a crank-and-rod mechanism of its reciprocating motion, and a drive of this mechanism. In the cavity of the fuel supply chamber, the fuel dispenser is placed, the upper and lower gate valves are rotatable about horizontal axes parallel to the front wall of the furnace and the baffle plate with an inclination of not less than the sliding angle of the coal along the steel. The dispenser comprises a cylindrical fuel drum provided with equidistant triangular protrusions oriented along generatrixes, rotatably mounted about the horizontal axis parallel to the front wall of the furnace, is provided with a rotation drive and is made of a length equal to the width of the fuel supply chamber. The upper gate valve is hinged to the rear wall of the fuel supply chamber with the upper edge, and the lower part is supported on the portion of the fuel drum facing it. The lower gate valve is hinged to the rear wall of the fuel supply chamber with the upper edge, below the rotation axis of the fuel drum, and the lower one is supported against the surface of the grate plate surface facing it. The feeder is provided with a work unit for coordinating the operation of the reciprocating motion of the grate plate and the drive of the fuel drum. In addition, a receiving chamber is formed between the hopper and the fuel supply chamber in the form of a hollow body contiguous therewith, in the cavity of which there is an inclined unloading plate with an inclination of not less than the sliding angle of the coal along the steel, the upper edge of which is rigidly fixed to the rear wall of the receiving chamber, is placed with a clearance to the front wall of the receiving chamber. Improved depth regulation of fuel delivery and accuracy of its dosing is provided for operation at low loads.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the depth of fuel supply regulation and the accuracy of its dosing, when operating at low loads.2 cl, 2 dwg
Device for fuel combustion in the enriched and depleted zones // 2628249
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: fuel combustion device in the enriched and depleted zones contains the first plate 110 and the second plate 120, facing each other to provide the enriched mixture to pass between them through the rich mixture channel 173; the third plate 130, configured to provide the depleted mixture to pass through the depleted mixture channel 176, formed between the second plate 120 and the third plate 130; the first burner outlet element 140, configured to combust the enriched mixture; and the second burner outlet element 150, configured to combust the depleted mixture, wherein the mixture inlet 161 is formed between the first plate 110 and the second plate 120, to which some air amount is supplied by the fan 300 and gaseous fuel, injected from the nozzle 710, the channel supply section 171 for the mixture and channel diffuser 172 for the mixture to provide the enriched mixture passing, having passed through the mixture inlet 161 into the enriched mixture channel 173, the air inlet 162 to which the rest of the air is supplied by the fan 300, and the air channel supplying section 174, through which the air passes through the air inlet 162, at that the plurality of the air through holes 121 are formed for passing through the second plate 120, to provide the air passing from the air channel supplying section 174 into the air channel 175, formed between the second plate 120 and the third plate 130, and the plurality of distribution holes 122 are formed to pass through the second plate 120 to provide passing of some mixture amount, coming through diffusor 172 of the mixture channel into the depleted mixture channel 176.EFFECT: invention allows to reduce NOx and CO emissions into the atmosphere and increase the stability of fuel combustion.7 cl, 10 dwg

Device for cleaning and utilisation of flue gases of roof boiler // 2627808
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: device for cleaning and utilisation of flue gases of a roof boiler includes a box, made of corrosion-resistant material, connected to the atmosphere on opposite edges through chimneys, equipped with deflectors placed on the roof of the roof boiler room, in the bottom of which there are openings connected to the chimney of the heat generator and equipped with cartridges. Perforated baskets, filled with pumice granules, are placed inside the box on the support bars and a vertical perforated partition. The pumice is made of metallurgical slag with a lime factor of M>1 and a granule diameter of 5 to 10 mm. Above the baskets there are washing branch pipes, perforated below and connected outside the box to the wash water manifold. The bottom of the box is made with a slope I to the openings. The bottoms of the cartridges are connected to an acid condensate manifold, which is also connected to a drain manifold and an adsorber filled with adsorbing agent, i.e. pumice granules of metallurgical slags, and equipped with a hydraulic gate connected to a storage tank, which is connected through a condensate pump to a feedwater pipeline of the heat generator, the adsorber wash water pipeline and the wash water manifold.EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency of the device.4 dwg

Consequent burning with the dilution gas mixer // 2627759
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: consequent burner (104), containing the first torch (112), the first combustion chamber (101), the mixer for mixing dilution gas to hot gases, coming out from the first combustion chamber (101) during operation, the second torch (113) and the second combustion chamber (102), disposed consequently in the connection along the fluid medium downstream. The mixer contains the plurality of injection tubes (115), directed inwardly from the side walls of the mixer to mix the dilution gas for cooling the hot fuel gases, coming out from the first combustion chamber (101) with the low pressure drop. The invention additionally relates to the operating method of the gas turbine plant (100) with such combustion device (104).EFFECT: invention makes possible to provide the proper flow conditions at the inlet for the second torch.15 cl, 12 dwg

Layer boiler with vertical swirling-type furnace // 2627757
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: layer boiler with a vertical swirling-type furnace contains a layer furnace that includes fuel feeders, a grate and an ash discharge path installed under a swirling-type combustion chamber formed by walls from masonry and furnace screens, with a gas outlet window located on the ceiling screen, and secondary blowing nozzles. Some of these nozzles are mounted on the walls, oriented tangentially to the conditioned body of rotation of the formed vortex with the axis passing through the gas outlet window and directed along the direction of vortex rotation and downward towards the grate, and a part of the secondary blowing nozzles is installed in the combustion chamber corners and directed downward. The gas outlet window is made in the form of a hollow cone with a half-angle of opening of 35 to -35 degrees, protected by lining and pipes and protruding into the swirling-type combustion chamber, with tangentially oriented afterburning blowing nozzles directed to the furnace.EFFECT: deep burning of combustibles from the layer, entrainment, and of volatiles is provided, due to the stepwise delivery of blast according to an ecologically efficient scheme with the layer combustion device optimal for the fuel applied.21 cl, 3 dwg

Boiler with double-chamber swirling-type furnace // 2627752
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: boiler with a double-chamber swirling-type furnace contains two shielded swirling-type combustion chambers having lower fuel jet ejectors and secondary blast nozzles, oriented tangentially to the conventional rotary body of the formed vortex with an axis passing through the gas outlet windows with which they are connected to the afterburner chamber located between them. The gas outlet windows are made in the form of a protruding annular air duct with a nozzle for feeding a swirling stream of afterburning air blast installed on its end surface and directed into the combustion chamber. The swirling-type combustion chambers in section have the form of a polygon circumscribed around the conditional circle, and they are equipped with burners, ash-handling devices, as well as layer furnace devices with fuel supply systems and ash unloading units.EFFECT: efficient combustion process without stagnant zones and stable operation of the boiler.8 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of sealing anode paints with collision of a sandwashing machine // 2627072
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: direct two jets of abrasive material towards the part covered by the mentioned paint. The jets are oriented with convergence at the focusing point in front of the part.EFFECT: processing speed is increased.5 cl, 4 dwg

Heat-insulating insertion for fuel system pipeline // 2626915
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: heat-insulating insertion (1) for the fuel system pipeline (2) comprises the first part (3) in the form of a pipe with a cross section and the second part (4) adjacent to the first part (3) that extends above the cross section and has openings (5) to achieve a sieve effect, the first part (3) and the second part (4) are formed from one blank. The second part (4) is at least partially formed as a cone. The openings (5) are drilled openings.EFFECT: invention provides a high degree of protection from both heating and contamination in combustible material, with simplest installation and economical manufacture.6 cl, 5 dwg

Burner device for heater // 2626910
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: burner device (1) for a mobile fuel oil heater comprises a combustion chamber (2) for fuel convertion to air for combustion into a combustion flame, a that, the combustion chamber (2) extends along the longitudinal axis (Z) in the direction (H) of the main flow; a premixing chamber (3) which is located upstream of the fluid from the combustion chamber (2) to form a fuel-air mixture, the premixing chamber (3) comprises a side wall (4); a fuel evaporation surface (O) located in the premixing chamber; fuel supply (10) to supply liquid fuel; and the first combustion air supply (6) having a swirler (7) to supply combustion air flow to the premixing chamber (3) with twisting, so that the combustion air is directed along the fuel evaporation surface (O) with a tangential flow component, at that, the neck portion (5) is formed on the transition from the premixing chamber (3) to the combustion chamber (2), in which the flow cross section sharply expands in the direction (H) of the main stream. The fuel evaporation surface (O) continues for at least a portion of the sidewall (4) and the fuel supply comprises a fuel outlet (11) opening onto the sidewall (4). The first combustion air supply (6) is opened to the premixing chamber (3) on the front side (8) of the premixing chamber (3), which is turned away from the combustion chamber (2). The fuel evaporation surface (O) is formed by the side wall (4) of the premixing chamber (3).EFFECT: invention avoids precipitation build-up in the area of liquid fuel evaporation, improves of fuel combustion quality, prevents flame from escaping from the combustion chamber into the premixing chamber.16 cl, 4 dwg
Gas-turbine engine direct-flow combustion chamber // 2626892
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: gas-turbine engine combustion chamber comprises a case, a fuel-air channel with a fuel spray nozzle and a plug. The combustion chamber is direct-flow accomplished. The fuel-air channel is axially set to the case and is attached to it. There is a register with a blade twist angle 60±5° in the case on the bullet. The fuel film is formed on the case internal surface by means of the centrifugal forces of the fuel-air swirling flow.EFFECT: toxicity reduction, efficiency upgrading, start when burning the lean air-fuel mixture reliability enhancement.4 dwg

Tangential annular combustor with premixed fuel and air for use on gas turbine engines // 2626887
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: method of mixing substances entering the combustion reaction of a gas turbine engine includes the following steps - providing a combustion chamber comprising an outer shell, an inner shell and a perforated front wall, the fuel injectors. The premixed fuel-air mixture is injected in the combustion chamber volume. Reactive substance, injected by fuel and air nozzles, are combusted within mentioned area and create a flow field through the combustion chamber, which rotates around the axis line of the engine. Injected air is coming from the compressor through the perforated front wall. The injection of the mixture is operated through a first series of nozzles disposed adjacent the front wall and having a higher fuel/air ratio than the second set of nozzles with the injection of the mixture downstream of the fuel nozzles, thereby providing the desired mixing and stepped fuel-effect, which in turn, creates optimal conditions for the combustion and reduces NOx and CO emissions from the combustion chamber under partial load and/or full load. Display the hot combustion products from the combustion chamber through the annular opening.EFFECT: improving the combustion efficiency and reduced emissions of combustion products toxicity.6 dwg

Turbomachine combustion chamber shell // 2626876
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: turbomachine combustion chamber shell contain dilution holes (39), ventilation holes (38) which surround the dilution holes (39) and are thinner and more numerous than the last ones. The shell contains plates (40), running over and around the dilution holes (39) on the outside of the shell (2, 3). The shell lacks ventilation holes (38) in parts beneath the plates. Each plate contains a ledge (42) fastening to the shell and a hole (43), running over one of the respective dilution holes. Holes (45) pass through the plates. The holes are directed towards said parts of the shell.EFFECT: increased cooling efficiency and improved ventilation.10 cl, 3 dwg
Device for igniting and supplying fuel to burner-type evaporator // 2626870
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: device for igniting and supplying fuel to a burner-type evaporator, comprising a fitting connected to furnace chamber, air and fuel supply nozzles, a glow plug, a porous transporting evaporating element disposed within the fitting between the inner wall and the glow plug with a gap, a heat shield, located between porous transporting evaporative element and glow plug, at the base of which in the porous transporting evaporation element and the heat shield a hole is made coaxially, in which the air supply nozzle is gas-tightly disposed, wherein the device further comprising a transfer nozzle, an external heat shield, a heat distribution cylinder and a radiator in which holes are made in which air and fuel supply nozzles are gas-tightly arranged, wherein the lower base of transfer nozzle is gas-tightly connected to the housing of furnace chamber along the contour of the hole in furnace chamber, and the upper base of transfer nozzle is the gas-tightly connected with the lower base of heat distribution cylinder, in the upper base of heat distribution cylinder a central hole is made, along the contour of which fitting is attached gas-tightly, connected to the furnace chamber, the lower end of radiator is pressed to the upper base of heat distribution cylinder, the flange of external heat shield is gas-tightly attached to the side surface of transfer nozzle.EFFECT: increasing the completeness of combustion when using fuels withsignificant number of fractions having a low evaporation temperature and reducing the concentration of toxic substances in combustion products.1 dwg

Remote combustion chamber // 2626180
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: remote combustion chamber contains the power case in the form of two conical walls, integral connected among themselves by the large bases, and the smaller bases connected respectively to the compressor and the turbine casings. The wall attached to the compressor has the openings framed by flanges, to which the casing with located inside and fixed with respect to them the flame tubes are attached. The flame tubes are telescopically connected to the gas collectors, which are fixed to the flange, located on the inner surface of the conical wall, attached to the turbine. The windows for the gas collectors passage are made in the power casing conical wall, connected to the turbine. On its outer surface there is the ring flange, adjacent to its larger base and the ring diaphragm, adjacent to its smaller base. The outer casing is connected to the conical wall ring flange and the diaphragm ends.EFFECT: provision of maintainability in operation and improvement of the gas turbine reliability.2 cl, 2 dwg

Catalytic heat generator and method for regulating its power // 2626043
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: catalytic heat generator consists of a vertical enclosure with air and fuel feeds at the bottom, flue gas discharge pipes and catalyst charge in the upper part, with a gas distribution grid inside the housing between the air and fuel nozzles on which the mixture of the granular oxidation catalyst and an inert material, above which the organizer and non-isothermal nozzles, the heat exchanger, are sequentially arranged, the housing under the non-isothermal packing, the nozzle for catalyst unloading is located, and the non-isothermal nozzle is connected to the vibrating mechanism. The method of controlling the power of the catalytic heat generator is that the adjustment of the thermal power is carried out by changing the temperature in the fluidized bed over the non-isothermal packing by changing the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations of the non-isothermal packing and changing the amount of fuel burned.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the limits of the change in the power of the fluidized-bed heat generator with a mixture of catalyst and inert material, without changing its design parameters and without reducing the height of the fluidized bed.2 cl, 1 dwg

Dust concentrator // 2626027
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: dust concentrator contains a cylindrical body with a swirler located inside the body, located in the upper part of the body by a discharge tap and an annular gap between the body and the discharge tap, while outside the body there are dust pockets connected on one side with an annular gap, and on the other - with a mixer of the hot gas supply line. Inclined guide baffle is installed between the annular gap and dust pockets. Hot air or an inert gas is used as a hot gaseous agent.EFFECT: invention allows to implement higher heating of the pulverized fuel, which helps to reduce the formation of harmful nitrogen oxides, as well as to exclude the intersection of the concentrated dust and gas stream with the discharge tap, which reduces the amount of dust entering the discharge tap, and consequently increases the amount of dust entering the main burners of the combustion chamber of the boiler.3 cl, 3 dwg

Furnace of steam generator // 2625887
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: steam generator furnace has a horizontal combustion chamber limited with two vertical shielded side walls, a vertical front shielded wall, a horizontal shielded roof, burners, a cold funnel formed by means of a group of inclined shielded walls according to the invention, a horizontal combustion chamber is square-shaped, the burners are of the direct-flow type, the furnace is equipped with an additional cold funnel formed by means of a group of inclined shielded walls, like the main funnel, the cold funnels are made of longitudinal shape and are connected by means of a horizontal shielded wall equipped with N≥1 rows of burners, each sidewall is provided with M≥1 rows of burners, planes formed by the intersection of the longitudinal axes of the burners, form the tiers of burners, the longitudinal axes in each tier of burners are directed along the tangent to the conditional circle with a relative diameter of 0.15<dy<0.20, , where d is the diameter of the conditional circle, D is the diameter of the circle that is conventionally inscribed in the square section of the combustion chamber.EFFECT: reduction of the steam generator heating surfaces slagging in the boilers with horizontal layout.2 dwg

Kochetov swirl atomizer // 2625884
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: swirl atomizer comprises a housing with an auger installed coaxialy in the lower housing part, and a connecting pipe installed in the upper housing part and fitted by a cylindrical hole with a diffuser being axisymmetrical to the housing and the connecting pipe, and the auger is pressed-in the housing to form a conical chamber located above the auger coaxially to the diffuser and coupled to it sequentially. The auger is made solid, and theits outer surface is two series-connected surfaces, one of which is at least a single-threaded screw groove with right or left thread and is located inside the housing, and the second surface is made smooth in the form of a rotary body which is axisymmetrically connected with a spraying disk located perpendicular to the axis of the housing, and protrudes beyond the end surface of the lower part of the housing. Both a straight line and a curved line of the n-th order can be used as the line forming this surface, the surface of the spray disc protruding beyond the end surface of the lower part of the housing is made deflected towards the housing bottom and has on the peripheral part the radial cuts alternating with the solid part of the surface of the spraying disk, the spraying disk is displaced along the axis of the nozzle down from the smooth surface of the auger rotary body, connected to the helical surface of the auger by a value h, depending on the sprayed liquid viscosity and is connected to the auger by the rod located axially to the auger, and a diffuser is attached to the end power surface of the nozzle, covering the spraying disc. At the top of the diffuser, at least three ejection openings are made, a divider is attached to the diffuser cut, made of coaxially arranged, perforated conical shells, external and internal, the space between which is filled with a fine-meshed screen. The apices of the conical surfaces of the shells are directed away from the diffuser, and in the lower part of the divider the spherical perforated segment is fixed in such a way that the apex of the external conical shell coincides with the center of the spherical surface of the perforated segment.EFFECT: increased efficiency of dispersion.1 dwg

ethod and system for emission combustion // 2625883
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: device for multiphase hydrocarbon fluid combustion comprises a multiphase flowmeter having an inlet of multiphase flowmeter connected to the multiphase hydrocarbon fluid source and an outlet of the multiphase flowmeter. The multiphase flowmeter is configured to determine the water content in the multiphase hydrocarbon fluid; a burner having a fuel opening connected to the outlet of the multiphase flowmeter to produce primary fuel flow of multiphase hydrocarbon fluid and an igniter configured to ignite flame in the burner for multiphase hydrocarbon fluid combustion; a source of supplemental fuel having a connection with the burner fuel opening; a supplemental fuel valve arranged between the fuel source and the burner fuel opening. The supplemental fuel valve has a first position configured to block the supplemental fuel flow into the burner fuel opening, and the second position configured to allow the supplemental fuel flow to the burner fuel opening; a controllerfunctionally connected to the multiphase flowmeter and the supplemental fuel valve. The controller is programmed to control the flows of primary and supplemental fuel on the basis of water content in the multiphase hydrocarbon fluid.EFFECT: invention enables to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere.24 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of producng aluminium oxide // 2625575
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for producing aluminium oxide includes washing, purification from metal oxides by means of hydrochloric acid and drying. As the starting material for the production of aluminium, an aluminous sludge formed after burning the solid-fuel rocket motor (SFRM) is used. The sludge is separated from the impurities by filtration. Then, purifying with a solution of 10% hydrochloric acid, washing with water without heat treatment and plasticization and drying are carried out.EFFECT: invention allows to simplify the production of aluminium oxide satisfying the requirements for non-metallurgical alumina, with reduction in acid consumption and energy consumption and increase in environmental friendliness.1 dwg,1 tbl

Combustion chamber of gas turbine engine and means of air activation // 2625076
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine comprises a housing, a flame tube, a burner plate and nozzles, a fuel manifold ring and at least one means for activating air by laser radiation. The fuel manifold ring is installed in the front cavity on the burner plate and a fuel line is connected to it. Each means of air activation is installed outside the housing, the air outlet pipe is connected to it from the last stage by the compressor. An air manifold ring is installed in front of the fuel manifold ring and an activated air supply line is connected to it, the input of which is connected to the outlet of the air activation means. The activation means is made in the form of a housing with a system of mirrors installed inside it and a laser unit mounted on the housing.EFFECT: increased reliability of the means of air activation and ensured maintainability.13 cl, 13 dwg

Fuel feed system of combustion chamber of gas-turbine engine // 2624783
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: fuel feed system of the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine engine contains an annular fuel collector installed around the outer side of the combustion chamber body and a plurality of annular collector mounting brackets. Each of the brackets is made of several straight segments of the twisted rope, located in a single plane. The ends of the segments are rigidly connected to the fixing flanges. The segments of the twisted rope are additionally interconnected in the middle part by at least one plank. The segments of the twisted rope are additionally covered with an elastic material on the outer side.EFFECT: by providing sufficiently rigid support of the fuel collector to the combustion chamber body in the axial and circumferential directions, compensating for the thermal expansion of the body in the radial direction and damping the oscillations of the fuel feed system of the combustion chamber, its reliability is increased.3 cl, 3 dwg

ethod and installation for purifying waste gases // 2624706
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: installation contains a liquid absorber designed to remove organic substances from the treated gases due to absorption and condensation; a heat exchanger connected to the liquid absorber in the liquid phase and configured to cool the liquid sorbent circulating between the liquid absorber and the heat exchanger; a refrigeration unit connected to the heat exchanger and configured to supply the heat exchanger with a refrigerant circulating between the refrigeration unit and the heat exchanger to cool the liquid sorbent; a catalytic afterburner connected to the liquid absorber over the gas phase and configured to oxidise organic substances in the treated gases supplied from the liquid absorber; a supercharger connected in the gas phase with the liquid absorber and the catalytic afterburner and configured to force atmospheric air into a stream of the treated gases between the liquid absorber and the catalytic afterburner to reduce concentration of organic substances in the treated gases.EFFECT: invention allows to expand the value range of the gas volume supplied for purification per unit time and concentration of organic compounds at the inlet.34 cl, 6 dwg

Annular combustion chamber of gas turbine engine and method of working process implementation // 2624682
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: annular combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine contains an outer and an inner case with an inlet and an outlet, an annular flame tube, prechambers, spark plugs installed in the flame tube. The annular flame tube consists of an upper and a lower shells connected to each other by the front wall of the combustion chamber. The prechambers are installed in one plane on the front wall of the combustion chamber in two tiers. Each prechamber is designed as a vortex countercurrent combustion chamber. The central axes of the prechambers located on different tiers of the combustion chamber converge at one circumference in the plane of the normal central axis of the annular channel of the flame tube. The diameter of the circumference is determined by the formula protected by the present invention. The angle between the central axes of the prechambers is from 30 to 90 degrees. Fuel prechamber nozzles are hydraulically combined into three independent groups. The first group contains the nozzles of the upper and lower tiers operating in the maximum thrust mode. The second group contains a part of the nozzles of the upper and lower tiers operating in the cruising mode. The third group contains nozzles of the lower tier operating in start-up and low-gas modes. The nozzles are connected to the fuel manifold connected to the switching device. The nozzles of the prechambers are located on the front wall in the prechamber end opposite to the nozzle twist apparatus, in the central zone of which there is a cylindrical branch pipe forming a channel which axis coincides with the central axis of the prechamber.EFFECT: increased efficiency of the combustion process in the combustion chamber in different operating modes, reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides, reduced length of the flame tube and reduced weight of the combustion chamber and the engine as a whole, reduced thermal load on the walls of the prechambers and the walls of the flame tube in the combustion zones, decreased non-uniformity of the temperature field of the combustion products at the chamber exit.5 cl, 6 dwg
Kochetov's acoustic nozzle // 2624680
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: acoustic nozzle contains a housing with an internal acoustic oscillator in the form of a nozzle and a resonator, tubes for supplying air and liquid. The housing is made in the form of a glass with a bottom. It has a cylindrical cavity for supplying liquid through a tube located in the cover, in the upper part of which there is a fastening part, fixing the upper part of the rod of the jet-edge generator in the nozzle provided in the cover, and the upper part of the rod is hinged to the lower part of the generator in the cover by means of at least one fixing disc made in the form of at least three elastic lobes, interacting with the inner surface of the taper hole of the cover. There is a conduit between the hole in the housing bottom and the outer surface of the cover nozzle. The conduit supplies liquid. And there is an annular duct between the inner surface of the taper hole and the outer surface of the rod lower part, which supplies an atomizing agent. An external diffuser of the atomizer is coaxially attached to the lower part of the nozzle body, and an internal perforated diffuser is attached to the tapered surface of the Hartmann rod generator in such a way that the outlet sections of the external and internal diffusers lie in the same plane perpendicular to the axis of the jet-edge generator.EFFECT: increased efficiency of atomizing.1 dwg

Recuperative burner // 2624676
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: recuperative burner comprises a casing enclosed in a casing to form a smoke channel with a twist generator and a tangential air supply pipe installed in a casing with an annular clearance, a combustion chamber with gas nozzles in the inlet section and equipped with an exit nozzle and a swirler. The case of the recuperative burner is made in the form of a truncated cone tapering towards the exit nozzle.EFFECT: intensification of heat transfer in the most thermally stressed sections of the combustion chamber and the burner housing near its outlet nozzle will allow the effective cooling by a swirling air flow, reducing the maximum temperatures and increase the operational reliability of the recuperative burner.3 dwg

Burner // 2624421
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: burner of the gas turbine extends along the axis (X) and contains in the axial order: the swirl section (SW), the mixing section (MX), the output section (OT), the main combustion zone (CZ). Wherein the mentioned mixing section (MX) conducts the premix (MFOCG) of the fuel (F) and the oxygen-containing gas (OCG) to the mentioned output section (OT), which produces the mentioned premix (MFOCG) to the specified combustion zone (CZ), expanding the premix stream (MFOCG) from the smaller axial cross-section of the mentioned mixing section (MX) upto the larger cross-section area of the mentioned combustion zone (CZ), which causes the radial deflection of the mentioned flow current lines. To improve the stability of the outlet section (OT) surface, facing the mentioned premix (MFOCG) flow, provided with a first fuel injectors (FN1), injecting the fuel into the mentioned premix (MFOCG) in the deflected radially inward direction before the flow of the mentioned premix (MFOCG) enters into the mentioned output section (OT) and into the mentioned combustion zone (CZ).EFFECT: invention allows to increase the combustion stability.6 cl, 4 dwg
Acoustic burner with spraying diffuser // 2624153
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: acoustic burner with spraying diffuser contains a housing with an internal acoustic oscillator in the form of a nozzle and a resonator, a tube for supplying a spraying agent and liquid, the housing is in the form of a cylindrical sleeve in the upper part of which there is a tube for air supply, and a tube for liquid supplying is located perpendicular to the tube axis. The sleeve with the top and bottom flanges is rigidly fixed inside the housing, in axial alignment to it. The bottom flange is rigidly fixed in the groove made in the housing, and the annular volume resonator made in the form of a cup with a conical surface is located inside the sleeve in axial alignment to it. The cup is pressed on a rod with a diameter d of the resonator, and in its tail part there are fixing disks made in the form of elastic lobes interacting with the inner surface of the sleeve, and in the bottom flange there is at least one nozzle at an angle to the resonator axis, the value of which lies in the following values interval 20°÷40°. The extension of the nozzle axis lies on the circle located in the middle part of the resonator conical surface, an external diffuser of the atomizer is coaxially attached to the lower part of the nozzle body, and an internal diffuser is coaxially attached in its lower part in such a way that the output sections of the external and internal diffusers lie in one plane perpendicular to the gas-jet radiator axis.EFFECT: increased efficiency of dispersion.1 dwg
ethod of arc ignition of a steam-oil atomizer and device for its implementation // 2623640
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used for arc ignition of a steam-oil atomizer of power plants boilers. Method of arc ignition of a steam-oil atomizer consists in steam-oil mixture supply from the nozzle in the boiler furnace and high-pressure voltage supply on the rod electrodes of the arc igniter ignition lance to produce arc discharge on them, by stretching arc length coaxially to the ignition lance, supplied into space between coaxially installed insulator of the rod electrode and cylindrical tubular of the ignition lance by excess air, and ignition of fuel from the atomizer.EFFECT: invention provides fast and reliable ignition of the steam-oil atomizer, which requires minimum fuel oil consumption, as well as eliminates early wear and burning contacts of the ignition lance.2 cl, 2 dwg

Solid fuel fire-tube boiler // 2623594
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: solid fuel fire-tube boiler contains a front loading unit for solid fuel, a horizontal cylindrical boiler water tank and an elliptical flame tube with a horizontally oriented ellipse inserted into it, terminating in a cylindrical fire chamber with diverting smoke tubes, the lower part of the fire chamber is provided with a chimney forming a cooled slag mine. The fire tube is equipped with a system of shuffling slats of a pendulum type, for which a horizontal run in the form of a hollow tube is installed on the vertical axis of the flame tube, with the possibility of rotating it at the passage nodes through the front and rear walls of the flame tube, the rotary chamber and the boiler; radially connected to the girder down and diluted at a central angle of not more than 80°, two rows of rigid rods and shufflers fixed at their free ends, placed along the flame tube symmetrically with respect to its vertical axis, with the possibility of their forced oscillations about this axis according to a given program. Shurting bars are installed along the flame tube at an angle to the generatrix of the flame tube with an ascent along the inner surface from the front to the rear.EFFECT: complete burning of fuel in focal residues and increase in fuel combustion efficiency.5 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of thermal neutralisation of municipal waste in melted slag and furnance for its implementation // 2623394
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: in the method of thermal neutralisation of solid municipal waste in a melted slag including loading of a prepared charge to the working chamber, burning it with formation of a melted slag bath, bubbling the melt with natural gas combustion products through submerged lances, discharging smelting products and cleaning gases after thermal decomposition of the charge, the thermal detoxification of waste is carried out directly in the bath of melted slag due to loading of the charge directly to the level of the melted slag bath and the supply to the melt of the air, preheated to 500°C, with an excess air ratio of α≤1.3 through lances located on the side walls of the working chamber, while the temperature of the slag bath is maintained in the interval of 1400-1600°C, the natural gas is combusted in the removable furnace chambers under α≤0.9, where the combustion products of the natural gas for bubbling of the slag bath and maintaining its tempreture are supplied for the melt level through the nozzles, mounted in the furnace chambers, disposed on the side walls of the working chamber in the staggered order against the nozzles, located on the opposite wall. The furnace for implementating the method comprises a caissonized working chamber equipped with remote combustion furnaces and lances for supplying air to the melt, which are disposed on the side walls above the nozzles of the removable combustion furnaces; the nozzles of the removable combustion furnaces are disposed on opposite side walls of the working chamber in a staggered order against each other; the upper parts of the side walls of the working chamber are inclined; and the loading device is disposed above the level of the axes of the combustion chambers outlet nozzles at a distance no more than 40 diameters of the outlet section of the combustion chamber nozzle.EFFECT: simplified preparation technology of materials for processing.14 cl, 1 dwg, 9 tbl

ethod of obtaining antieroasion coating on the internal wall of chamber unit and the anchor structure for obtaining such coating // 2623267
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: method includes: (i) forming a honeycomb metal anchor structure, mentioned anchor structure being formed by a plurality of strands connected in pairs by a connection of the fastening sections of these strips so as to obtain a plurality of cells between two adjacent strips; (Ii) attaching mentioned anchor structure to mentioned metal wall, so that each cell of the anchoring structure is welded to the wall of the chamber at least at the junctions between the contacting fastening sections of two adjacent strips; (Iii) placing the composite material in the cells from the metal wall up to at least the upper longitudinal edge of each strip.EFFECT: invention provides a coating that is resistant to the phenomenon of decomposition, particularly corrosion, especially due to sulfidation, carburization, oxidation or carbon formation.18 cl, 6 dwg

ethod for solid carbon-containing fuels or wastes incineration // 2622596
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method for solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste incineration includes solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste grinding, ground solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste injection into the combustion chamber and initiation. The fineness of solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste grinding is adjusted to a size less than 1 mcm to form a micronanocomposite mixture of gound solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste with water, and then the resulting mixture is injected by means of a drop dispenser into a combustion chamber, wherein the said solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste grinding particle size is effected in two stages, at the first stage - coarse grinding is performed, and at the second stage, grinding is adjusted to a size not greater than 1 µm using a cavitation dispersant. Initiation of combustion of droplets of the micrononocomposite mixture of grinded solid carbon-containing fuel and/or waste with water is carried out using a fuel supply unit by means of a fuel energy reserve, by which a flame is ignited in the combustion chamber.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase plant reliability and efficiency by reducing parts wear and costs of fuel preparation.2 cl, 4 dwg

Heat shield element for the compressor air pass by around the combustion chamber // 2622590
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: element (14) of the heat shield, in particular, for lining a combustion chamber wall, including the first wall (17) with the hot side (18), to which the hot medium can be supplied, from the opposite to hot side (18) the cold side (19), and the circular edge (24), which extends along the first lateral side (20), the second lateral side (21) and the third lateral side (22) of the first wall (17) beyond the cold side (19) limits, generally, upto the first height (25), wherein the circular edge (24) on the fourth lateral side (23) extends to the second height (26), which is less than the first height (25) and that, in general, at the second height (26), the second wall (27) is opposite to the cold side (19) and extends across the width of the fourth side (23) from the fourth lateral side (23) through the length part of the adjacent to the fourth lateral side (23) of the lateral sides (20, 22), at that the second side (27) at its end (28), directed from the fourth lateral side (23) has the edge (29), which extends upto the first height (25). The combustion chamber and gas turbine is also presented.EFFECT: invention allows to implement the bypass air flow into the hot air flow without serious modification of structural elements, feeding the hot gas.12 cl, 3 dwg

Liquid-fuel burning device // 2622361
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: liquid-fuel burning device comprises a housing with a drive unit placed inside it. A drive unit shaft is hollow, atomizing cone is mounted at its outlet end. The inlet end of the hollow shaft is configured to inject liquid fuel therein. The first fan impeller is mounted at the inlet end of the hollow shaft, the second fan impeller is mounted at the hollow shaft on the side of the outlet end. The first fan is connected to the second fan and to the housing outlet via air channels. The atomizing cone is placed inside the convergent channel which is formed by connection of fixed nozzle with flanged cover of the second fan. The flanged cover passes into the nozzle, the air is supplied to flare burning between the nozzle and the convergent channel. The second fan supplies the air between the convergent channel and the cone for fuel atomization. The drive unit is connected to a control unit which is connected to pressure sensors mounted in the housing and to the fuel supply device. An air intake is mounted in the liquid-fuel burner device at the first fan inlet.EFFECT: improved efficiency of device perfomance and increased fuel combustion ratio.2 cl, 1 dwg

Gas flat flame burner with integrated radiation recuperator // 2622357
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: gas flat flame burner with integrated radiation recuperator contains a chimney, an air pipe, a gas pipe with holes for gas outlet. Straight chimney with a wound flaring is located inside the gas and the air pipes for recuperation along the device length in the radiative heat exchange mode, the air passage is extended by the outer air pipe, a ring with a set of replaceable screwed nozzles of certain diameter of holes for different calorie gas is placed in the outlet end of the gas passage containing an additional outer gas pipe, the outside air pipe is fastened to the outer gas pipe by flanges and gaskets by bolts.EFFECT: increased releasing and burning stability of torch, reduced aerodynamic burner resistance, burner central section use for smoke selection and its heat recuperation in radiative heat exchange mode.3 dwg

Burner unit for low-calorie gases burning // 2622353
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: burner unit (100) for burning low-calorie gases flowing through the first cylindrical pipe comprises a burner pipe (102) disposed along the axis (104) of burner pipe, wherein the burner pipe (102) comprises an expansion pipe (112) connected to the first pipe, wherein the cross-sectional area of the expansion pipe, extending substantially perpendicular to the axis (104) of burner pipe, is larger than the cross sectional area of the first pipe; a distribution assembly (120) located within the downstream portion of the expansion pipe (112), the distribution assembly (120) has an upstream end (122) facing the upstream side of the expansion pipe (112) and a downstream end (124 ) of the distribution assembly. Distribution assembly (120) determines the maximum distribution assembly cross sectional area extending substantially perpendicular to the axis (104) of burner pipe. The maximum distribution assembly cross sectional area is from about 30% to 50% of the cross sectional area of the expansion pipe; a plurality of guide blades (130) connecting the expansion pipe (112) and the distribution assembly (120), each of the plurality of guide blades (130) comprises an upstream surface (132) facing the upstream side of the expansion pipe (112), and oriented by the guide blade angle, which is approximately 20 to 45 degrees relative to the axis (104) of burner pipe; and a deflector (140) coupled to the distribution assembly (120). The outer surface of the deflector (146) has a substantially frustoconical shape extending radially outward from the axis (104) of burner pipe and axially downstream from the downstream end (124) of the distribution assembly, the outer surface of the deflector (146) is oriented at an angle which is approximately 20 to 45 degrees relative to the axis (104) of burner pipe.EFFECT: efficient combustion of low-calorie gas at different pressures, increased combustion stability, reduced probability of flame damping.20 cl, 4 dwg
Device for dosing injection of liquid fuel // 2622147
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, can be used for dosed supply of liquid fuel in a combustion chamber of a burner. Device for dosed supply of liquid fuel comprises float chamber (1) with cover (2) and sleeve (3), float (4) with piston (5), fuel bowl (10) of combustion chamber (8), system to feed fuel into float chamber. Position of sleeve (3) of float chamber (1) is adjusted along the vertical axis, float (4) tightly coupled with piston (5), having a blind central bore with drain side bores (6) to feed fuel into float chamber, float chamber (1) rigidly connected with fuel bowl (10) of combustion chamber (8) of flow tube (9), fuel level in combustion chamber and a float chamber is determined by the position of sleeve and float.EFFECT: technical result is- simplicity and reliability, stability of combustion of liquid fuel in burner devices.1 cl, 1 dwg

Powdered fuel boiler with rotary type cycle heater // 2622139
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: powdered solid fuel boiler with rotary type cycle heater comprises a furnace; a rotary type cycle heater which comprises a heat exchanger main housing; a drive gear; a separative element fixed on the heat exchanger main housing along the centroidal axis that divide the heat exchanger main housing into at least one pair of the receptor chambers, where each pair of the receptor chambers placed diametrically opposite towards the centroidal axis; a heat-transfer fluid that is received in the receptor chambers respectively, and made of nonmetallic solid material, with the heat-transfer fluid equipped with the catalyst denitration bed; moreover, a fire gas run the 50-80°C temperature after the heat exchange by means of the rotary type cycle heater; a gas tube of the fire gas with the connected with the furnace upside input and connected with the rotary type cycle heater output; an air circuit for the air delivery into the other receptor chamber of the plug-together receptor chambers.EFFECT: boiler efficiency upgrading.11 cl, 2 dwg

Fuel-air nozzle (versions), fire-fighting camera for a gas turbine engine (versions) and a method of operation of a fuel-air nozzle (options) // 2621566
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber for a gas turbine engine has a front end portion that supports at least one fuel-air nozzle. Each fuel-air nozzle comprises an auxiliary pre-mixing nozzle comprising pre-mixing lines that have concentric axes guiding the fuel-air mixture along the axis from the auxiliary pre-mixing nozzle. The auxiliary nozzle may have an annular channel located radially outwardly of it, and air jets that direct air radially outward from the pre-mixing lines. Also versions of the way of operation of the fuel-air nozzle for the gas-turbine engine are presented.EFFECT: invention allows the premixing of fuel and air with simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides.24 cl, 11 dwg

Boiler unit // 2621443
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: boiler unit comprises a boiler with an attached gas exit flue, split after the boiler into the main and the bypass gas flues, which are connected to a common gas flue before the exhaust fan, installed in the main flue, heat exchanger recovering exit gases. In place of the gas exit flue sepeartion to the main and bypass gas flues, controller is installed distribuding the exit gases between the main and bypass gas flues associated with the moisture containing exit gases regulator in general gas flue before the exhaust fan, and the moisture containing exit gases controller is connected to the moisture content sensor mounted in the general gas flue before exhaust fan.EFFECT: accuracy and reliability of moisture content control of exit gases in order to avoid condensation in the gas flues and chimney.1 dwg

Camera of mixing afterburner // 2621431
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: afterburner mixing chamber is proposed. It includes an outer annular body, a kok-drainer and a shell on which are located radially directed pylon ducts fixed on the opposite side on a common divider that divides the inner contour into the central and vernal parts and also provides air supply of the external circuit, through the pylon cavity, directly to the central part of the internal circuit, thereby ensuring an even distribution of oxygen along the radius of the mixing chamber, one native temperature field at the outlet from the mixing chamber and effective cooling of the nozzle and afterburner stabiliser assemblies.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create conditions in which a homogeneous temperature field at the exit from the mixing chamber was provided, a uniform distribution of oxygen along the radius of the afterburner, and effective cooling of the nozzle and stabiliser assemblies.9 dwg

Water heating device and method for flame current measuring in flame in water heating device // 2620916
FIELD: physics, measurement equipment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water heating device. Device comprises a burner and a flame current measuring device. Measuring device comprises two electrodes and a voltage source, wherein each of the poles of voltage source is connected to one of the electrodes. Water heating device comprises additional heat exchanger which is electrically insulated with respect to a burner. Burner and heat exchanger form here flame current measuring device electrodes. A heat exchanger acting as an electrode may be grounded. The measured power of the flame current can be used to determine the coefficient of excess air during combustion. Water heating device may comprise additional air/fuel control for regulated air/fuel ratio, and air/fuel control uses a certain air excess coefficient for controlling air/fuel ratio. Invention also relates to a method of measuring flame current in the flame.EFFECT: invention improves the reliability of fire detection, ensures the stability of combustion process.5 cl, 4 dwg
Air heater - gas duct // 2620738
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: air heater - gas duct includes a housing, consisting of a frame and glass blocks with air channels, made from heat-resistant low-alkali glass with an elastic gasket between them, laid forming the longitudinal gas ducts between them. The housing consists of connected with each other sections, arranged from the side and inner walls, bottom, ceiling and sectional air collectors. The glass blocks are made of various configurations: with a through longitudinal air channel, with a longitudinal air channel plugged from the end face, with the longitudinal air channel plugged from the end face and connected to one lateral intake opening, plugged from the end face with the longitudinal air channel, connected to two lateral intake openings: direct U-shaped, angle L-shaped. Intake openings and air channels of the side and internal walls, bottom, ceilings in each section are communicated between each other and connected with its sectional air collector, respectively, which in its turn connected through the air pipe to the main air manifold.EFFECT: increase of the air heater-gas duct efficiency.8 dwg

ethod and installation for waste water burning // 2620669
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: waste water incinerator contains a coarse filtration unit, a chemical preparation unit, an electric flotator, a settler, a dehydrator, a fine filtration and ion exchange unit, an incinerator and a scrubber. In this case, according to the method for incineration of sewage, contaminated effluents are fed to the incinerator for incineration, the treated effluents are fed to a scrubber for spraying in the combustion product stream from the incinerator, and the cake is sent to thermal neutralisation for further utilisation.EFFECT: increasing the volume of sewage treatment without draining into water basins or draining the processing result.38 cl, 9 dwg

ethod of pulverized coal, natural gas and liquid-fuel mixture combined combustion // 2620614
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method of pulverized coal, natural gas and liquid-fuel mixture combustion by exothermic air oxidation in a vertical quadrangular prismatic furnace with supply through burners of primary reactant flows of preprepared pulverized-coal-air mixture, gas-air mixture and liquid-fuel-air mixture mounted on two opposite walls in horizontal and four vertical rows tangentially to horizontal circumferences at the furnace center to form two oppositely-spaced fluidic fuel-air couples, as well as post-combustion air flows tangentially to the horizontal circumferences adjacent to the walls on the level of each horizontal burner. Pulverized coal is used as a fuel component for one of the fluidic couples, natural gas and liquid-fuel mixture are used for another fluidic couple, wherein alternating supply of primary reactant flows of pulverized-coal-air mixture and primary reactant flows of gas-air mixture and liquid-fuel-air mixture are carried out through the burners of vertical rows.EFFECT: invention enables to reduce heat losses with exhaust gases and unburnt fuel, regardless of the fuel mode.9 dwg

Device for measurement, control and diagnostics of combustion process in combustion engine chamber // 2620477
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: device for measurement, control and diagnostics of the combustion process in the combustion engine chamber contains an ionic detector including electrodes isolated from each other. One electrode, negative, is cylinder head casing. Another one, positive, is a metal rod isolated from the cylinder head. The second electrode is installed in the hole which is in the cylinder head. The metal rod of the second electrode is covered with a layer of electroinsulating vanish and has a spherical build-up at one end. The hole in the cylinder head casing is equipped with a bevel face and has a diameter which is equal to the rod diameter. The device contains a registering device for sensor readings.EFFECT: increased reliability and prolonged life of the measurement system for ionic currents in the combustion chamber.3 cl, 2 dwg

Gas turbine engine combustion chamber // 2620187
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: combustion chamber of the gas turbine engine contains an outer shell, a flame tube, a burner plate and nozzles, a ring manifold. The ring collector to which the fuel line is connected is installed in the front cavity on the burner plate. Inside the annular collector, two ring electrodes are concentrically made and connected by insulated high-voltage wires to a high-voltage unit.EFFECT: increased completeness of fuel combustion in the combustion chamber of a gas turbine engine.5 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of cleaning of steam boiler air-heaters // 2620140
FIELD: heating, ventilation.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the boiler equipment and may be used in boiler units of thermal power stations and heat supply systems. The method includes cleaning of air-heaters by means of impact on sediments with water sprays. Whereupon, bleed water exported from a steam boiler drum and injected into an exit flue before an air-heater is used as a cleaning medium of an air-heater.EFFECT: peculiarity of the invention is the increasing of economic efficiency and reliability of a boiler unit.1 dwg

Tangential combustion chamber with vaneless turbine for gas turbine engine // 2619963
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: annular combustion chamber for a gas turbine engine is designed with an outer casing, the inner casing, the front wall and the grooves which are spaced apart circumferentially and formed with one or both of the inner casing and / or the outer casing and twisted around the center line of the engine in the longitudinal direction and spaced around the nozzle in the outer casing. The front wall connects the outer casing with the inner casing forming an annular space. The grooves are positioned downstream of the nozzles. The nozzles are designed to inject fuel and air into the annular space and direct the flow into the combustion chamber cavity in the direction with the explicit tangential velocity component. The grooves are designed to whirl and accelerate the hot gases reaching the optimal speed in contact with the turbine entrance.EFFECT: optimal conditions for the combustion, reducing emissions of nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide, increasing the cooling efficiency.4 cl, 13 dwg