Steam generation (F22)

F22            Steam generation(4355)
Vacuum deaeration plant for make-up feed water of thermal power plant // 2607439
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. Vacuum deaeration plant for make-up feed water of a thermal power plant comprises a vacuum deaerator with a deaerated make-up feed water pipeline, connected to a main condensate pipeline of a turbine, with pipelines for initial water and heating agent, in which initial water heaters are connected and a heating agent with pipelines for heating medium, vented steam pipeline.EFFECT: higher efficiency of vacuum deaeration plant for make-up feed water of thermal power plant and lower electric power expenditure on auxiliaries by providing technologically required temperature mode of deaeration owing to use as heating medium for heaters of vacuum deaeration plant cheap heat carrier with parameters sufficient for deaeration.1 cl, 1 dwg
ethod and system for deep heat recovery of boiler combustion products of thermal power plants // 2607118
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to station power, particularly, to energy saving during operation of boilers power stations, comprising steam-turbine plants (STP). Method for deep recovery comprises feeding STP condensate into water-gas heat exchanger (WGH) at boiler outlet and heating condensate using heat of combustion products (CP), combustion products (WGH) are cooled to temperature below dew point by (5–10) °C, obtained condensate (OC) is collected, purified according to a known technology and fed into a condensate line and then successively into condensate heater, deaerator and boiler. In order to implement method, deep recycling system (DR) includes arranged under water-gas heat exchanger (WGH) condensate drain tank (OC), condensate collection and storage tanks, drain and condensate pumps, as well as condensate treatment sections, connected to condensate line of station.EFFECT: besides saving heat (fuel) present solution reduces emission of toxic oxides NOx and CO2 due to suppression with water vapour, reducing fuel consumption, obtaining additional water, which can be used for boiler makeup and other needs, eliminates or minimises condensation in gas path and stack, improving maintenance conditions, avoiding need for flue gas recirculation for preventing condensation.2 cl, 4 dwg
ethod of flue gases deep heat recovery // 2606296
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. Flue gases deep heat recovery method involves flue gases preliminary cooling in gas/gas surface plate heat exchanger, heating dried flue gases by counterflow, to generate temperature margin, preventing residual water vapors condensation in stack. Further flue gases cooling to temperature close to water vapors dew point, is carried out in a contact gas-water water heater, which heats water. Cooled wet flue gases are supplied into gas/air surface plate heat exchanger-condenser, where water vapors contained in flue gases are condensed, heating air. Dried flue gases are supplied by additional smoke sucker into gas/gas surface plate heat exchanger, where they are heated to prevent possible water vapors condensation in gas ducts and flue pipe and are directed into smoke stack.EFFECT: increasing flue gases heat recovery efficiency due to use of water vapors condensation latent heat and increased temperature of flue gases themselves.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

Evaporator with multiple drums // 2605865
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. Evaporator for a heat recovery steam generator has two horizontal steam drums of a moderate size, one of which is located slightly higher than the other one. It also includes a coil having pipes located in the hot gas flow. Lower drum communicates with inlets of pipes for the coil. Outlets of pipes are connected to the upper drum. Drain line connects the lower part of the upper drum with the lower area of the lower drum so, that water flows from the upper drum into the lower drum. Water, which is mainly in the liquid phase, enters the lower drum through the inlet line and is mixed with water from the upper drum. Mixture flows into the coil. Here some part of it is converted into saturated steam, while the other part remains as saturated water. Saturated steam and saturated water flow into the upper drum, where the steam is released, and water flows back into the lower drum for recirculation through the coil. Due to their moderate sizes the drums can withstand high pressure without excessive walls thickness, and it makes it possible to introduce the evaporator into the working mode with minimum points of delay or without them. Herewith the said two drums provide the retention time and protection corresponding to one drum of a high capacity with significant thickness of the walls.EFFECT: proposed is an evaporator for a heat recovery steam generator.15 cl, 2 dwg

High-pressure superheated water producing plant // 2604261
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for producing of high-pressure superheated water and can be used in heat engineering, including in field conditions at oil deposits. Device includes steam generator, degasser for preparation of feed water, feed water injection pumps and deaerator for water conditioning, taken from natural source, and mixer, wherein for water supply into mixer downstream of deaerator pressure pumps are used. Injection pumps have common power drive in form of steam turbine, which working medium is steam, generated by steam generator. Cooled at turbine outlet steam is used for water heating in degasser and deaerator. Water-steam mixer is similar to liquid-propellant engine combustion chamber and has double-loop multi-nozzle head, wherein steam and water are separately supplied into mixer working cavity via own loop centrifugal nozzles.EFFECT: steam-water mixer has discharge branch pipe to supply high-pressure superheated water to consumers.1 cl, 2 dwg

Feringer steam evaporator for bath furnaces // 2603454
FIELD: devices for fuel combustion.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stationary and mobile baths types equipment, as well as for domestic and industrial premises heating. Steam evaporator for bath furnaces includes vertically oriented housing formed by outer and inner shells installed with radial clearance relative to each other to form annular gap between them for steam forming liquid and connected to each other at ends. Steam evaporator housing bottom is made shaped with seat for chimney outlet connection, and steam generator housing upper part is made shaped for chimney inlet part connection. Steam generating liquid supply inside circular gap branch pipes are opened into annular gap between shells and removal of steam therefrom, wherein inside steam evaporator housing with radial clearance between its walls and inner shell walls, furnace gas flow coming from chimney outlet part spreader is installed.EFFECT: higher heat emission of fuel combustion products, simplified design with possibility of superheated steam obtaining with controlled temperature and humidity.7 cl, 3 dwg

Feringer steam generator for bath furnaces // 2603448
FIELD: furnaces and ovens.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of furnaces and method of superheated steam generation and can be used in equipment baths of stationary and mobile types, as well as for domestic and industrial premises heating. Steam generator for bath furnaces includes vertically oriented housing, formed by outer and inner shells, installed with radial clearance relative to each other to form annular gap between them and connected to each other at ends. Steam generator housing bottom is made shaped with seat for chimney outlet jointing, and steam generator housing upper part is made shaped for chimney inlet part jointing. Inside housing vessel is installed with radial clearance between its walls and inner shell walls, having channels for supply of water inside its cavity and heated-up water discharge from said cavity. Water supply and discharge channels of said vessel are passing through annular gap between shells and connect vessel cavity with source of water and storage tank for heated water/hot water consumer. Annular gap between inner and outer shells is divided in axial direction for isolated annular cavities, upper and lower, by means of partition, into which vertical branch pipe is installed, which cavity connects cavities of said annular cavities to each other. Upper annular cavity has water supply branch pipe, and lower annular cavity has steam discharge pipe from said cavity. In this embodiment annular gap area between vessel wall and inner shell wall is equal to or greater than furnace one outlet area.EFFECT: increasing fuel combustion products heat output.4 cl, 4 dwg

Feringer steam generator for bath furnaces // 2603447
FIELD: furnaces and ovens.SUBSTANCE: steam generator for bath furnaces includes vertically oriented housing, formed by outer and inner shells, installed with radial clearance relative to each other with formation annular gap between them and connected to each other by ends. Steam generator housing bottom is made shaped with seat for chimney outlet connection. Steam generator housing upper part is made shaped for chimney inlet part connection. In annular gap between shells opens channel for water supply inside annular gap. Inside housing vessel is installed with radial clearance between its walls and inner shell walls, having channels for supply of water inside its cavity and steam discharge from said cavity. Said vessel cavity is connected to said gap cavity between outer and inner shells by means of said water supply channel, and steam discharge channel from said vessel passes through annular gap between shells and connects vessel cavity with ambient environment/steam consumer. In this embodiment annular gap area between vessel wall and inner shell wall is equal to or more than furnace pipe outlet part area in channel outlet part, which connects vessel cavity with annular gap between outer and inner shells, baffle plate is installed, channel for water supply into vessel is made inclined towards vessel, vessel surface is made wavy in form of alternating projections and recesses, vessel is made in form of hollow cylinder.EFFECT: invention can be used during equipment of stationary and mobile types of baths, as well as for domestic and industrial premises heating.7 cl, 4 dwg

High efficiency heat exchanger with direct media contact // 2602949
FIELD: heat exchange.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in open-type heat exchangers. Heat exchanger with direct contact of media includes evaporator jacket and internal element. Inner element is arranged in evaporator jacket. Passage formed by jacket is created between evaporator jacket and internal element. Passage formed by jacket is made with possibility of fluid flow passage. Casing has internal discharge chamber connected for hot gas passage. Internal element further has multiple outlet passages, enabling input of some part of hot gas, passing through inner outlet chamber, into fluid flow in passage formed by jacket.EFFECT: increase of efficiency.24 cl, 3 dwg

Direct-flow steam boiler on solid fuel with inverted combustion chamber for steam-turbine power unit of ultra-supercritical steam parameters // 2601783
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: field of use: heat power industry. Direct-flow steam boiler on solid fuel for steam-turbine power unit of ultra-supercritical steam parameters contains invert furnace chamber 10, screened with airtight steam-generating tube panels, top and bottom radiation parts, lifting and lowering convection gas ducts 70 and 90, horizontal connecting gas duct 60 between furnace chamber 10 and lifting convective gas duct 70, rotary chamber 80 between said lifting and lowering convective gas ducts 70 and 90 in their upper part. Output collectors of pipe panels of first pass of lower radiation part of shielding of furnace chamber 10 are connected by bypass pipes with inlet collectors of corresponding pipe panels of second pass to provide descending movement of working medium, under horizontal connecting gas duct 60 there is a separate screening ash removal funnel 63.EFFECT: invention shall ensure reduced thermal strains in steam generating pipe panels of second pass of lower radiation part; elimination of hydrodynamic instability of working medium in pre-launch modes of boiler, preventing drift of ash of horizontal connection gas duct, providing minimum length of hot steam lines.1 cl, 5 dwg

Evaporation vessel with automatic addition of water // 2600481
FIELD: personal use and household items.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to evaporation vessel with automatic water addition. It includes vessel housing (1), heating element (2) mounted on vessel housing (1), water pump connected to vessel housing (1), control circuit for water pump, first board (3) for determination of temperature and temperature and lack of water sensor (5), installed on first circuit board (3) for determination of temperature. One edge of first board for determining temperature is connected either with heating component (2) or with vessel housing (1) zone, located in close proximity to heating component (2). Other parts of first board (3) for determination of temperature are spaced from vessel housing (1). Temperature and lack of water sensor (5) is mounted in area spaced from first vessel board (3) for determination of temperature. Temperature and lack of water sensor (5) is connected to control circuit.EFFECT: invention shall provide simple design and low cost.15 cl, 13 dwg

Heater of liquid and gaseous media // 2600194
FIELD: heat engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used for heating of liquid and gaseous products. Heater of liquid and gaseous media includes a housing filled with liquid intermediate heat carrier, flame tube located on body axis and composed of three cylindrical shells, installed coaxially and forming annular cavities for passage of combustion products, at that in inlet part of a flame tube there is a burner device, which is a circular manifold, on which uniformly along the circumference atmospheric burners with ignition device are located, and in outlet part of the flame tube there is a chimney, heat exchanger made in the form of a coil consisting of two consequently connected sections, pipes of which are parallel to axis of the housing, at that one section of the coil is placed into the inner cavity of the flame tube, and the second is in the annular cavity formed by housing inner surface and outer surface of the flame tube.EFFECT: heating of liquid and gaseous products.1 cl, 2 dwg

Heat exchanger with fluidised bed // 2599888
FIELD: heat engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in fluidized bed boilers. Proposed is heat exchanger (10) with a fluidized bed of fluidized bed boiler (12), herewith the heat exchanger comprises front wall (16) adjacent to the fluidized bed boiler, rear wall (18) opposite to the front wall, and two side walls (60, 60′), herewith the walls are formed as water-pipe panels, inlet hole (24) located in the first section of the upper part of the heat exchanger for supply of hot particles from the fluidized bed boiler into the heat exchanger, heat transfer surfaces (34) for heat extraction from the particles and outlet hole (36) located in the second section of the upper part of the heat exchanger for return of cooled particles as an overflow from the heat exchanger back into the fluidized bed boiler, where the heat exchanger includes partition wall (26) between first (38) and second (40) sections of the upper part of the heat exchanger, herewith the partition wall runs from the front wall to the middle section of the heat exchanger, and the partition wall is formed by bending the boiling pipes at least from one side wall (60, 60′) of the heat exchanger.EFFECT: technical result is reduction of the heat exchanger dimensions.11 cl, 2 dwg

Thermal deaerator // 2599887
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, particularly to thermal deaerators intended for corrosion-aggressive gases removal from feed water, and can be used in heat energy plants and boiler rooms. Disclosed is thermal deaerator, including deaerating column with low-pressure water distribution device installed on deaerating tank - jet nozzle equipped with water supply union and water outlet holes, wherein nozzle upper part is made in form of annular chamber with perforation on its side wall and with additional water supply union installed on it, and circular partition installed concentrically with nozzle and annular chamber inside deaeration column at the bottom.EFFECT: described deaerator makes it possible to condense inside deaeration column maximum amount of steam, excluding the need for external vented steam cooler and thus utilizing heat and vented steam condensate, increase deaerator operation efficiency and reliability.1 cl, 2 dwg

Heat exchange reactor for producing hydrogen using built-in steam generator beam // 2598435
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for implementation of steam reforming reactions and can be used in chemical industry. Heat exchange reactor comprises multiple bayonet pipes (4), suspended from upper hood (2), extending to level of lower bottom (3) and enclosed in casing (1), having inlet (E) and outlet (S) pipes for flue gases. Heat exchange reactor comprises buttle of pipes of steam generator, formed by multiple vertical pipes (5), suspended from upper hood (2) and enclosed into peripheral space between inner partition (Bi) and vertical wall of casing (1). Inner partition (Bi) comprises a hole (Oi) for passage of flue gases from middle of reactor to peripheral space. Vertical pipes (5) are fed with water from lower distributor (9). Water-steam mixture coming out of vertical pipes (5), is collected in upper collector (7) located above upper hood (2). Lower line (14) connects liquid phase of separation reservoir (6) with upper collector (7). Upper line (13) connects upper collector (7) with steam phase of separation reservoir (6). Steam reforming is carried out at a rate of flue gases in peripheral space from 20 m/s to 80 m/s. Flue gases are fed into heat exchange reactor at temperature close to 1,200 °C, and exit it at temperature below 400 °C.EFFECT: invention improves heat efficiency of heat exchange reactor.7 cl, 2 dwg

Fire-tube multiple pass boiler // 2597355
FIELD: heat engineering.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to heat engineering, namely to devices intended for water heating. Multiple pass fire-tube boiler includes housing with cover at the inlet and discharge branch pipe of exhaust gases at the outlet. Boiler comprizes fire furnace pipe and fire pipes of combustion products, covering the fire furnace pipe. On the housing wall there are inlet and outlet water branch pipes. Fire pipes from the side of branch pipe for discharge gases are included in a pipe wall and are connected by this wall with the body in front of said branch pipe, on the other side they are connected to the other pipe wall with flange and fixed in the housing. On the side of flange attachment of fire pipes with the body, fire furnace pipe is connected with front cover with possibility of disconnection. Cover is manufactured as water-cooled together with fire furnace pipe to make therewith a single water-cooled structure. This structure is fixed in the boiler housing with possibility of independent extraction of the fire pipes, fixed in the housing of the boiler independently of the fire furnace pipe. Cover is connected with the flange of the boiler housing through a heat-resistant sealing gasket, providing for temperature changes of the fire furnace pipe and fire pipes in independent parts of the boiler.EFFECT: when using the invention design simplification and reliability in operation is provided, as well as comfort at work in cleaning and repairs as fire furnace pipe as well as fire pipes.1 cl, 2 dwg

Poly-generating energy system // 2591075
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering, particularly to poly-generating energy system, producing in a single energy cycle heat, electric power and synthesis gas, used for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Poly-generating energy system comprises an allothermal gas generator, in which steam simultaneously acts as heat carrier and gasifying agent, gasifier uses steam superheated to 1,200-1,400 °C, there is a possibility of producing synthesis gas for production of synthetic liquid fuel, production of electric energy is carried out in a steam turbine, steam for which is obtained in Fischer-Tropsch installation in production of synthetic liquid fuel. According to invention poly-generating energy system includes raw material briquetting apparatus, steam-air dual-zone gas generator, pyrolysis apparatus in thermochemical conversion of initial fuel with formation of pyrolysis gas and coke residue, a unit for preparation of coke residue of initial carbon-containing material, steam generator, in which gasified material is coke residue of initial material, which consists mainly of carbon and ash, condenser-separator, synthesis gas treatment unit, a unit for production of cold, steam turbine, used as a source of steam, which then is used to produce superheated steam at temperature of 1,200-1,400 °C, gas-piston power station.EFFECT: technical result is increased efficiency of poly-generating energy system.1 cl, 1 dwg

Device for generation of steam // 2589410
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to an apparatus for generating steam comprising a water heating chamber in which water is heated to generate steam. Apparatus also includes a cavity having an inlet communicating with water heating chamber so that water in water heating chamber is received in cavity and a sealable outlet. Cavity is configured to limit flow of convection currents in water received in cavity so that scales and/or solid particles suspended in water accumulate in cavity. Alternatively, a guide member is disposed at inlet to cavity which is configured to guide scales and/or solid particles suspended in water into cavity.EFFECT: generation of steam.13 cl, 11 dwg

Device for steam boilers bleed water heat recovery // 2588897
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used for heat recovery of bleed water nozzles for spraying of viscous combustible liquids in steam boilers, operating on liquid fuels. Device contains fuel injector, ash collector, condensation surface fuel heater, drip pan and condensate collector. Fuel injector operates on atomizing agent, bleed water. Surface fuel heater receives heat and latent heat of condensation of water vapours from combustion products.EFFECT: technical result consists in design simplification; fuel saving due to replacement of steam as spraying agent on blow-off water, using whole heat and combustion products by means of condensation fuel heater and returning the formed condensate on power boiler; reduction of emissions of sulphur and nitrogen oxides by neutralising them substances escaping from boiler bleed water.1 cl, 3 dwg

ethod and device for cleaning and passivation of inner surfaces of steam power plant water steam path // 2588887
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used for cleaning and passivation (creation of protective film) inner surfaces of water steam path (WSP) of steam power plant (SPP) of thermal power plants (TPP) prior to start said plants and their output to mode of preservation. Cleaning and passivation of reagent is performed with mixture of oxygen with WSP working medium, wherein said reagent mixture is obtained by dosing of oxygen in at least one section of WSP. Difference: part of oxygen flow directed to feeding is taken off, passed through at least once through high-voltage electric discharge chamber (EDC), then returned to said stream.EFFECT: technical result is possibility of adjustable increase oxidative activity of reagent solution without considerable increase of concentration of oxygen in it.3 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

ethod and configuration for reduction of fatigue in steam drums // 2587025
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in heat recovery steam generators, having a plurality of steam drums, operating at same pressure. Heat recovery steam generator comprises multiple generating tubes containing water for steam generation, an ascending pipe, communicated with multiple generating pipes, first steam drum to receive collected water and steam from ascending pipe; second steam drum directly communicated with first steam drum, steam separator located in second steam drum, steam flow outlet located in second steam drum, outlet of steam flow is designed to discharge separated steam from second steam drum. According to second version, steam generator comprises first and second ascending pipes, connected with multiple generating tubes to collect steam and water passing through a plurality of pipes, wherein first ascending pipe provides first part of collected steam and water in first steam drum, and second ascending pipe provides second part of collected steam and water in second steam drum for generation of second steam flow.EFFECT: use of several steam drum, which operate at same pressure, allows to reduce wall thickness of drum, thus maintaining pressure and volume.20 cl, 4 dwg

Steam boiler // 2585344
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in boiler plants. Steam boiler includes screens and pipes of ceiling superheater installed in the boiler furnace, bottom burners fitted with the flame divergence adjuster connected with temperature sensors installed on the lower part of pipe ceiling superheater located above bottom burners and faced to furnace.EFFECT: invention allows to avoid overheating of the ceiling superheater pipes located above the bottom burners, thus increasing boiler reliability.1 cl, 1 dwg

High-temperature steam power plant for subcritical pressure and high-temperature flow boiler for subcritical pressure operating at variable pressure // 2584745
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering. High-temperature steam power plant of precritical pressure comprises system of combustion boiler, generator of steam turbine system and system of condensate and feed water, wherein parameters of steam generated in boiler and fed into generator system of steam turbine, are their subcritical pressure and high temperature-temperature at turbine inlet 593 °C or higher. Also disclosed is operating at variable pressure high-temperature flow boiler precritical pressure for use in heat energy plant.EFFECT: invention allows to improve efficiency of heat energy plant.8 cl, 7 dwg

System for steam generation from electrolyte solution (versions) // 2584627
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used in systems for steam generation by means of current passing through an electrolyte solution. System for steam generation includes boiler for steam generation, device for supply of electrolyte solution, device for measuring electric current and controller. Boiler for steam generation includes first and second electrodes, which are located so as to contact electrolyte solution, when electrolyte solution is present in boiler for steam generation. Electric current passes between first and second electrodes through electrolyte solution and heats electrolyte solution for steam generation. Controller is connected with device for supply of electrolyte solution and provides supply and termination of ingress of electrolyte solution in said boiler for steam generation operating on current, device for measuring electric current.EFFECT: system provides fast formation of steam in a predetermined amount in case of intermittent and in case of continuous steam generation.17 cl, 9 dwg

Steam attemperator with suppression of vorticity // 2584102
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to steam attemperators with a vorticity suppression function. The claimed steam attemperator comprises a portion of a housing with a channel for cooling water feed to a working fluid pipeline channel. Note here that the said portion comprises the fluid flow channel between the housing first end and at least one hole located nearby the housing second end. Besides, it has a recess located nearby the housing second end and at least one hole located at the housing portion with the said recess. A vorticity suppression device is located nearby the second end, in the fluid flow channel for the attenuation or suppression of the vortex shade or oscillations developed by the flow. The said oscillations are transferred to the steam attemperator via the working fluid flow in the channel. The said vorticity suppression device extends around the housing outer surface in an interrupted configuration, the said configuration being interrupted by the housing portion with the said recess.EFFECT: suppression of vorticity, hence, decreased vibrations caused by turbulence, longer life.18 cl, 4 dwg

Desuperheater // 2584055
FIELD: heat-and-power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in maintenance of vehicles in process lines for production of products from oil. Desuperheater includes cylindrical housing along its axis of tubular channel with a sprinkler. Sprayer is configured to generate streams of water drops in form of a cone, base to outlet part of housing in direction of steam flow with axis of cone along body axis and with cone apex angle of 120°. Tubular channel is made with inclined and horizontal parts. Inclined part is made from wall of housing to housing axis with angle of inclination to body axis 60°, facing inlet part of housing in direction of steam flow.EFFECT: such design of desuperheater provides complete mixing of steam and water and increases effect of heat emission.1 cl, 2 dwg

ethod and system for efficient combined-cycle cogeneration based on gasification and methanation of biomass // 2583785
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention provides a system and method of steam-gas conversion. Method of combined-cycle cogeneration based on gasification and methanation of biomass involves: 1) gasification of biomass by mixing oxygen and water vapor derived from air separation plant, with the biomass, transportation of the resulting mixture through a nozzle into gasifier, gasification of biomass at temperature of 1500-1800 °C and pressure of 1-3 MPa to obtain a crude gasified gas and transporting the superheated steamunder pressure of 5-6 MPa, resulting from heat recovery to the steam turbine; 2) conversion and purification: in accordance with the methanation reaction the ratio of hydrogen/carbon crude gasified gas generated in step 1) is corrected up to 3:1 using the conversion reaction; recovery at a low temperature of crude gasified gas using methanol to desulfurization and decarbonization, thereby obtaining a purified syngas; 3) methanation: supply of purified syngas obtained at step 2) into methanation section, consisting of a primary and secondary sections, herewith the methanation section comprises a first primary methanation reactor and second primary methanation reactor coupled in series; allowing the portion of the process gas supplied from the second primary reactor to flow back to the input of first primary reactor for mixing with fresh feed gas and further opportunities to enter the first primary reactor, so that the concentration of reagents at the inlet of first reactor reduces and temperature of the catalyst bed is regulated by process gas; supplying the syngas to secondary methanation section comprising a first secondary methanation reactor and a second secondary methanation reactor coupled in series, where a small amount of unreacted CO and a lot of CO2 converted to CH4 , transporting the superheated intermediate pressure steam generated in the methanation section to steam turbine; and 4) concentration of methane in natural gas containing trace amounts of nitrogen and water vapor obtained in step 3), concentration of methane by adsorption under alternating pressure, so that the molar concentration of methane reaches 96 % and the calorific value of synthetic gas reaches 8,256 kcal/Nm3.EFFECT: technical result consists in biomass power converted to pure and easy in use natural gas with high calorific capacity, a large amount of heat resulting from reactions of gasification and methanation of biomass, effectively recycling to form high-quality superheated steam.10 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

Horizontal steam generator for reactor plant with water-cooled power reactor and reactor plant with said steam generator // 2583324
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the horizontal steam generators for nuclear power plants with Water-Water Energetic Reactor (WWER) and to reactor plant with WWER and horizontal steam generator. Reactor plant with WWER and horizontal steam generator includes nuclear reactor with four circulation loops, each of which includes a steam generator with horizontal bundle of heat exchange tubes divided into packets by intertube corridors and connected to collectors of heat carrier of the first circuit inside the cylindrical casing with elliptical bottoms, main circulation pump, as well as the main circulation pipeline of heat carrier of the first circuit. Inner diameter DCorp., distance S between axes of collectors of heat carrier of the first circuit in transverse direction and steam generator length Lk along the inner surfaces of elliptical bottoms are selected based on specified ratios. Angle α of heat exchange tube bending and distance Δ are selected from ranges: 90°≤α≤150° and 300 mm≤Δ≤1000 mm.EFFECT: higher intensity of heat transfer, reliability and durability of steam generator.11 cl, 10 dwg

Steam generator with horizontal beam of heat exchange pipes and assembly method thereof // 2583321
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: steam generator with horizontal beam heat exchange tubes containing welded cylindrical housing made from steel rings with, at least, feed water supply branch pipe and steam discharge branch pipe, as well as two elliptical bottoms, intra-shell devices, inlet and outlet manifolds, connected with a bundle of heat exchange tubes to make heat exchange surface of steam generator, the inner diameter of the housing of the steam generator is selected according to given ratio. Housing of the steam generator is filled with pipes of heat exchange beam from below upwards on the height of not more than three quarters of its inner diameter, with possibility of using the remaining space of housing top part of steam generator for steam drying.EFFECT: technical result consists in creation of steam generator with low metal consumption at drying of the exhausted steam in one housing with heat exchange surface.13 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Boiler plant // 2580852
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used at steam boilers to increase efficiency of their operation due to more efficient cooling water continuous blowdown and return of its heat in cycle of boiler house. Boiler plant includes steam boiler with drum separator is connected to undergoing continuous blowdown, connected to separator bleed water cooler as to cooling medium in source water pipeline before deaerator. In the pipeline of cooled separated bleed water after coolant bleed water surface heat exchanger connected as to cooling medium in the gas line before the boiler burners.EFFECT: such design will allow to increase efficiency of thermal power plant due to more efficient cooling water continuous blowdown.1 cl, 1 dwg

Steam boiler // 2580845
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in boilers. This invention consists in the fact that in boiler containing shield pipe installed in boiler furnace and burner with flame opening angle regulator, the opening angle of torch is connected with temperature pickup arranged on outer side of heating surfaces of screen pipes located opposite burners and faced to furnace.EFFECT: higher reliability of the steam boiler by excluding overheating of screen pipes located opposite the boiler burners.1 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for operation of heat-generating plant // 2580844
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: method of heat-generating unit, through which steam is generated in a make-up water is prepared in a vacuum deaerator, initial water is fed and heating agent, represented by superheated relative to vacuum in the deaerator water, initial water before feeding into the vacuum deaerator is heated in surface heat exchanger as heating medium in the heat exchanger for heating of primary water blow-off water is used, which after that, heat exchanger is fed into vacuum deaerator as heating agent. Invention relates to heat supply and can be used in heat-generating plants, connected to closed heat supply systems to increase efficiency of boiler plant by excluding costs of steam on deaeration.EFFECT: higher efficiency of boiler plant by excluding costs of steam on deaeration.1 cl, 1 dwg

Heat integration at co2 capture // 2575519
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the power generation methods. The method of power generation by burning of carbon containing fuels and capture of CO2 where the recirculated cooling water from the direct contact cooler in the recirculation pipe (16) is cooled in the heat exchanger (17) which is located in the recirculation pipe (16). Into the pipe (16) the cooling water is supplied and is taken away respectively through the water recirculation pipes (70, 70') connected to the heat exchanger (17). The water which is taken away from the heat exchanger (17) through the recirculation line (70') is throttled through the throttling valve (73) and the expansion tank (74). From the expansion tank (74) water is taken away through the line (78) for recirculation of water as washing water into the direct contact cooler of the stripping column (66). Steam in the stripping tank is injected as additional stripping evaporation steam into the stripping column through the line (77) for steam connected to the expansion tank (74).EFFECT: providing the maximum heat removal.2 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl

Control over variable temperatures of drum // 2575518
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power engineering and can be used in steam generators for control over the drum variable temperatures. Claimed process comprises the steps whereat the pressure variable gradient at actuation of the evaporator system. Note here that the latter comprises the evaporator, drum and pump. Note here that the evaporator, drum and pump are intercommunicated. The pump forces fluid from the evaporator into the drum before said fluid reaches the preset temperature. Said fluid circulates in said evaporator are reaching the boiling point therein. Besides, in compliance with the second version, claimed process comprises the step whereat fluid is forced by the pump from the evaporator in the drum unless said fluid reaches the preset temperature. Said fluid circulates in said evaporator are reaching the boiling point therein, i.e. temporary pressure gradient is developed at the evaporator system starting.EFFECT: lower rate of temperature variation in the drum.23 cl, 3 dwg

Plasma boiler plant // 2572472
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cutting water heaters. Plasma boiler plant consists of plasma steam power plant and water heater boilers integrated into sets in compliance with their application. Claimed plant comprises the steam turbine, electric generator, fast-operation steam generators, plasma water-steam burners and their supply units. Water is heated in boilers by water-steam burners with their supply units connected to steam power plant electric generator while steam for burners is generated by the plant steam generators. Natural gas is fed to the burners while air is forced in combustion chambers of steam generators and boilers.EFFECT: higher efficiency of water heating.1 dwg

Horizontal steam generator for nuclear power plant and method of its assembly // 2570992
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention claims horizontal steam generator for nuclear power plant that comprises a cylindrical body, two ellipsoid bottoms, at least one tube for water feed and steam discharge, inlet manifold and outlet manifold as well as bundle of heat-exchanger pipes connected to the above manifolds, at that quantity Nhep of heat-exchanger pipes in the bundle is selected from the claimed dependency of outer diameter of this pipe dhep, moreover value of the gap between neighbouring heat-exchanger pipes in vertical direction does not exceed value of vertical pitch between heat-exchanger pipes in the bundle.EFFECT: improved efficiency of heat transfer in the volume of steam generator with simultaneous limitation of quantity and length of heat-exchanger pipes thus allowing usage of pipes produced by the industry on commercial basis.11 cl, 6 dwg

Heating medium header of steam generator with u-shape pipes of horizontal heat exchange bunch, and method of its producing // 2570964
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in the horizontal steam generators of nuclear power plant (NPP) with water-cooled power reactor (WCPR). The first circuit heating medium header with U-shape pipes of the horizontal heat exchange bunch is specified, it is made in form of welded thick wall vessel having the perforated middle cylindrical part, made with possibility of installation and securing in it of U-shape heat exchange pipes bunch, the pipes are arranged in packages and are separated in the bunch by vertical annular corridors, bottom cylindrical part made with possibility of welded connection with the branch pipe of the steam generator casing, and top cylindrical part with cone transition to the flanged connection of the hatch with lid. Outside diameter Dheader of the first circuit header in middle part is selected based on the set ratio of spacing between the heat exchange tubes, corridor width of heat exchange bunch, outside diameter of the heat exchange tubes, tubes number in the horizontal row, minimum radius of tubes bend in the heat exchange bunch. Wherein the holes for the heat exchange tubes securing are located on middle cylindrical part of the header using the staggered layout.EFFECT: assurance of strength of header wall jumpers between the holes for the heat exchange tubes securing and tightness of joint between the heat exchange tubes and header, wherein the outside surface of the perforated part of the header is used more effective for tubes insertion in it.14 cl, 8 dwg

Electric steam-generating equipment // 2569783
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention suggests high-pressure boiler for steam-generating equipment comprised of an evaporation chamber, electric heater in good thermal contact with a wall of the evaporation chamber, water inlet in the evaporation chamber cover, which is made separately from the above wall, and a pump coupled to the water inlet and intended to supply water to the evaporation chamber through the water inlet. The device comprises thermoresistant sealing facility placed between sealing surfaces at the heated up wall and in cover of the evaporation chamber and, in essence, in parallel to direction whereat the cover is installed onto the evaporation chamber. In other versions the device comprises a nozzle protruding from the cover to the evaporation chamber and a pump coupled to the nozzle and intended for water supply through the nozzle to the evaporation chamber, the evaporation chamber wall comprises a ledge opposite the water inlet, the boiler is designed to ensure during its operating temperature gradient between the electric heater and heated up surface of the evaporation chamber equal to at least 60°C/mm.EFFECT: suggested versions of the boiler may be installed to any steam-generating equipment.83 cl, 4 dwg

Steam generator with automatic water supply due to steam pressure use // 2569472
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: steam generator with automatic water supply due to steam pressure use comprising a condensate water gathering tank, water discharge tank connected with condensate water gathering tank via feed water pipe. Besides the above steam generator contains steam supply pipe under pressure, water supply pipe, feed water control valve, supply pressure control valve, water supply control valve, air channel as branch pipe of feed water pipe with possibility to adjust vacuum inside the water discharge tank and having vacuum control valve. Also options of steam generator implementation are described.EFFECT: assurance of the optimal vacuum due to inlet of the required air volume.10 cl, 11 dwg

oisture trap configuration // 2568761
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: claimed moisture trap (10) is meant for separation of water drops from steam in the flow (20) containing the mix of steam and water drops and flowing through moisture trap (10) for said separation. Said trap comprises multiple plates (11) directed along the flow. Note here that said multiple plates (11) make the channels (30) for flow (20). Note also that cross-section of said channels (30) gradually varies along the flow (20) for gradual collection of water drops separated from steam in said flow (20).EFFECT: higher efficiency.9 cl, 3 dwg

Klushin's method of thermal plant spent gas heat recovery and device for its realisation // 2568244
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of thermal devices, machines, may be used in heat generation systems, in ventilation systems, in different devices for high temperature combustion, for example, oil residues, and also garbage (for combustion, for example, of dioxine, furane, carbon monoxide) etc. The invention makes it possible to theoretically almost by ten times reduce energy emissions with smoke gases, considerably reduces thermal, dust, noise and other pollution of the environment. In the ventilation system (for example, on a vessel) instead of heating of 600 cubic metres of air per day per one person (according to SNiP norms) it will be sufficient to provide for supply of 0.3-0.4 cubic metres of oxygen from air into the system.EFFECT: increased efficiency, environmental safety and expansion of functional capabilities.8 cl, 3 dwg

Steam generating plant // 2568032
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: steam generating plant contains the nuclear reactor, the water heating unit, the pump, the vortex steam generator, the turbine, the electric generator, the condenser, the condensate pump, the circulation pump, the make-up water supply unit, the additional steam generators, the booster pumps, the steam line, the biological protective element, note that all vortex steam generators are identical by design and comprise the cylindrical inlet chamber with the inlet tangential channel, the central cavity, the diffuser, the throttle and the outlet chamber. Note that each booster pump is installed upstream each additional vortex steam generator and connects the outlet of the upstream vortex steam generator with the inlet of the downstream one, and all vortex steam generators are interconnected in series and have identical design, while the outlet of the last additional vortex steam generator is connected to the inlet of the circulation pump.EFFECT: increased efficiency ratio.1 dwg

ixing heater of regeneration systems of steam turbines // 2568027
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: mixing heater of regeneration systems of steam turbines is offered which comprises the heating compartment located in the housing, the steam chamber with steam supply branch pipes with the steam check valves installed on their ends and the central steam channel with the lower punched plate, the water chamber with the condensate supply branch pipe inside and the top punched plate, the condensate collector separated by the partition with expansion pipes, this condensate collector has the emergency overflow pipe and the fairing above it, and also the condensate removal branch pipe; the ends of steam supply branch pipes are made with bevels, the partition has the funnel for condensate drain into the condensate collector the axis of which coincides with the heater axis, and in the top part of the heater the combined steam-air mix collector is located, and the water chamber is installed in the heater housing with the ring gap, the water chamber, the central steam channel and the lower punched plate are connected in the single block, besides, the condensate collector contains the deaerating device of bubbling type with the steam supply collector.EFFECT: invention allows to improve reliability and overall performance of the power unit in general.1 dwg

Shell-and-tube capillary condenser // 2567922
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: in shell-and-tube capillary condenser under the top cover the tube grid is located into the holes of which the vertical punched pipes are inserted which are plugged from below with caps forming steam chambers the interpipe space between which forms the residual condensation chamber which is interconnected with a cavity of the lower cover forming the condensate collecting chamber, and the vertical punched pipes of steam chambers are covered from outside with the layer of hydrophilic material or made of it, the perforation in them is implemented in the form of horizontal conic capillaries, located in such a way that big holes of conic capillaries are facing towards the steam chamber, and small holes in the cavity of the residual condensation chamber, the hydrophilic coating of external surface of pipes is designed as needle-like, the step between needles is equal to the average diameter of capillaries, and along the perimeter of external hydrophilic surface along the whole height of pipes the vertical transporting grooves are arranged.EFFECT: design simplification and improvement of operating efficiency of shell-and-tube capillary condenser.7 dwg

Boiler plant operation mode // 2565948
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: mode of boiler plant operation consists in that the main flow of the water vapour generated in the boiler is supplied into the shell-and-tube heat exchanger for heating of network water up to 110-120°C, the water vapour condensate which is formed there is withdrawn into the combined condensate tank, a part of the water vapour generated in the boiler is supplied into the deaerator for degassing of additional water and condensate, products of combustion of natural gas after the boiler are cooled in the water economiser down to 140-160°C and through the main gas flue are pumped into the condensation surface heat exchanger utiliser of combustion product heat where their deep cooling down to 35-40°C is performed with condensation of the part of water vapour contained in gases. To avoid condensation in external gas flues and in the funnel of water vapour remained in exhaust combustion products after their deep cooling the heating of remained combustion products up to 65-70°C is performed by water vapour generated in the boiler, in the surface steam-gas heat exchanger installed downstream the condensation heat exchanger utiliser upstream the smoke exhauster.EFFECT: increase of efficient performance of boiler plant by increase of heating capacity.1 dwg

Deaerator (versions) // 2565650
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: device includes a tank with an output branch pipe and a source of steam, the deaerating column with a cover and branch pipes located on it for water supply and vented steam bleeding containing the upper and lower deaeration stages. Each stage includes the pressure head and distributive plates installed with formation of a jet chamber in space between them and nozzles with the unordered elements. Deaeration stages are separated by the hydraulic lock formed by the board of the pressure head plate of the top stage and the ledge attached to the cover of the deaerating column. Water supply and vented steam bleeding branch pipes are located inside the hydraulic lock ledge in the ledge of which the holes are made. The lower edges of holes are located above the top edge of the hydraulic lock board by the value exceeding the heat carrier overfilling height sum over the hydraulic lock board and hydraulic resistance of the hydraulic lock channel. Total section of holes is determined from the condition of equality of vapour pressure in the bleeding branch pipe and in the space inside the hydraulic lock ledge.EFFECT: invention improves reliability of deaerator operation.3 cl, 5 dwg

Power system for utilisation of heat of exhaust gases of gas-distributing station // 2564195
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: heat recovery steam generating unit is the unit based on Rankine organic cycle with the electric generator, and the intermediate loop for utilisation of heat of exhaust gases of the gas turbine is the closed loop with diathermic oil which incorporates two heat exchangers and the circulation pump; through one heat exchanger the line of removal of exhaust gases of the gas turbine passes, and through the second heat exchanger - the line of the unit based on Rankine organic cycle; the internal consumers of electric energy of the gas-distributing station are connected to the electric generator unit based on Rankine organic cycle.EFFECT: invention allows to increase efficiency of combustion in natural gas at the main gas-distributing stations due to obtaining of additional electric energy by conversion of heat of exhaust gases in the unit based on Rankine organic cycle and decrease of material costs for supply by electric power of internal consumers of gas-distributing stations.1 dwg

ethod of heat recovery and smoke gas drying and device for its realisation // 2561812
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: device of smoke gas heat recovery comprises a system of gas water surface heat exchangers made from ribbed corrosion-resistant bimetallic pipes, at the same time one heat exchanger of the device is external. Heating coolants are water, water-containing non-freezing liquid, ambient cold air of supply ventilation. The external heat exchanger is installed at the inlet (along the air flow) of the heater of the supply ventilation of premises, and along the circuit of circulation of water-containing non-freezing liquid is operates in the pair with the last heat exchanger of the device, under these conditions the last heat exchanger of the device operates as a condenser of water vapours of smoke gases. After passage of heat exchanger the gas flow is separated into two flows, large and small. In the small flow for the purposes of increasing its dynamic head there is a discharge fan installed, after passage of which two flows of gases are mixed in a slot ejector, in which dynamic head of the large flow also increases, as a result aerodynamic losses of the heat regenerator are compensated.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of using low-potential heat of condensation of water vapours contained in smoke gases.7 cl, 2 dwg

Plant containing power plant component and plant containing component of heat recovery steam generating plant // 2561263
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: combined cycle power plant (2) contains the component (66) with the internal volume (68) intended for placement of condensate of steam or exhaust gas (22) of a gas turbine. Around the external surface of the component (66) of the combined cycle power station the material (72) with phase transition is located. The plant also contains the limiting structure (70) enclosing the component (66) with formation of external volume (71) between the component (66) and the named structure (70). The material (72) with phase transition is located in the named external volume (71) and implemented with a possibility of absorption of heat from internal volume (68) during operation of the combined cycle plant and heat release with a possibility of maintaining of high temperature of internal volume (68) after shutdown of the gas turbine.EFFECT: decrease of supply of heat necessary for the plant restart is achieved.8 cl, 3 dwg

Centrifugal separator // 2560106
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: centrifugal separator comprises casing with lid and bottom, steam-water mixture supply nozzle, and steam and water removal nozzles. The steam-water mixture supply nozzle is made vertical inside the casing with several holes and plug in top part, in holes zone between the nozzle and casing there is ring, inside it there are blades having arc-like form with each blade start near the nozzle and each blade end at the ring, start and end of each two blades are located at one ring diameter, most projecting points of the arc at each two arc-like blades are also located at one diameter, angle between the diameter, on which start and end of the blades are located, and adjacent diameter, on which the most projecting points of the blades arc are located, is 15 degrees, hole rows of the steam-water mixture supply nozzle are located between starts of blades, below ring between the nozzle and casing the cone with slots in bottom part is installed.EFFECT: invention excludes steam removal during steam-water mixture separation.2 dwg
 
2551363.
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