Formation of filaments, threads, or the like (D01D5)

D01D5/02 - Starting the formation(2)
D01D5/04 - Dry spinning methods(114)
D01D5/06 - Wet spinning methods(152)
D01D5/08 - elt-spinning methods(171)
D01D5/084 - (3)
D01D5/088 - (36)
D01D5/092 - (2)
D01D5/096 - (6)
D01D5/098 - (10)
D01D5/11 - Flash-spinning(1)
D01D5/247 - (7)
D01D5/253 - (9)
ethod of manufacture of lignin-containing prediminary fiber, and also of carbon fibers // 2625306
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process for the production of lignin-containing precursor fibers for production of carbon fibers and/or activated carbon fibers, wherein: a) a solution containing at least one kind of lignin, as well as at least one fiber-forming polymer selected from the group consisting of cellulose or cellulose derivatives, at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of tertiary amine and/or ionic liquids b) transferred into a coagulation bath after extrusion of the solution spinning spinneret wet spinning method from a solution or spinning with an air gap, precipitating lignin precursor c) is stretched lignin precursor, at least 1.1 times, at a temperature of at least 60°C, wherein lignin thread is an economical starting material for the production of activated carbon and carbon fibers. The invention also relates to a method for manufacturing carbon fiber.EFFECT: increased productivity.15 cl, 4 ex

Improved fiber from polylactic acid // 2624303
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: multicomponent fiber includes an inner component surrounded by a distinct component of the shell. The inner component is formed of polylactic acid, and shell component is formed by polymer additive, which increases toughener. Configuration of fiber, which comprises an inner portion/shell attaches many different useful properties to obtained fibers. Introduction of polymeric additive, which increases toughness of fiber, increases energy absorption capability stresses, arising during fiber drawing, which increases the overall rigidity and strength of the fibers. Moreover, the presence in the shell of additive component, which increases toughness, increases the binding with other fibers, e.g., during the formation of nonwoven webs. Another advantageous effect of the invention is that the configuration of the inner part/shell can be obtained from the thermoplastic composition, in which polylactic acid and a polymer additive, that increases the impact strength, are mixed with each other.EFFECT: receiving fibers from polylactic acid having good parameters elongation and high strength.20 cl, 8 dwg, 10 tbl, 55 ex

ethod for obtaining fibrous material containing oxide nanoparticles from thermoplast melt // 2624189
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method, like the prototype, involves forming a fibrous material by laminating a melt of a thermoplastic polymer by the action of a gas stream containing solid particles. Particles penetrate into the surface layer of the softened material, and particle consolidation occurs, when the material passes into a solid aggregate state. New is that the formation of fibers occurs under the influence of an unheated gas stream containing oxide nanoparticles or small droplets of liquid, in which such nanoparticles having an ambient temperature are dispersed. Gas ejection is provided, in which an additional flow of unheated gas is generated around the jet of molten polymer fed. The particle size is less than 100 nm.EFFECT: production of fibrous material with oxide nanoparticles fixed on its surface with one or, at least, two kinds, with minimal energy costs and simplification of the technological process.2 dwg
Polysaccharide fibers for wound dressings // 2621114
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: fiber is a drawn fiber containing Alginate and psyllium seed shells polymers as the only structural components of fiber. Nntimicrobial silver saltmay can be included. The fiber can be produced by extrusion of alkali-solubilized psyllium seed shells aqueous mixture and sodium alginate into a bath of calcium chloride solution.EFFECT: creation of biologically produced materials with a unique combination of functional properties and environmentally friendly distinctive features.20 cl, 5 ex

ethod and device for manufacture of solid fibers or films, and use of the device for the method implementation // 2621101
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method is performed by solid material fibers or films manufacturing from a liquid material by extruding this liquid through one or more extrusion holes and curing the material in a receiving bath. The molded material between the extrusion holes and receiving bath is guided by a lateral gas flow. In this case, the gas flow is divided into a heated partial flow and a cooling partial flow. Moreover, the material, before it is introduced into the receiving bath, is brought into contact first with the heated partial flow, and then with the cooling partial flow.EFFECT: prevention of solid particles sedimentation and separation from the material, prevention of stickiness of the material before the receiving bath.29 cl, 8 dwg, 1 tbl, ex 4

Fibers from renewable low density polyesters // 2620415
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: fibers are obtained from a thermoplastic composition which comprises hard renewable polyester, has a porous structure and a low density. To obtain such a structure, a renewable polyester is mixed with a polymer additive that increases the impact strength, so that the additive can be dispersed as discrete physical domains in a continuous matrix of renewable polyester. Then, fibers are formed which is subjected to tension or stretching at a temperature below the glass transition temperature of the polyester, i.e. subjected to cold drawing. The deformation force and stress at elongation during stretching leads to disruption of adhesion in the renewable polyester matrixin the areas adjacent to the discrete domains. As a result a mesh structure is obtained of pores located near the discrete domains, which by their proximity may form bridges between the pore boundaries, acting as internal structural "hinges" that promote stabilization of the mesh structure and increase its ability to dissipate energy.EFFECT: obtaining of fibers from renewable polyester with low density and good mechanical properties.20 cl, 2 dwg, 8 tbl, 11 ex

ethod of moulded parts manufacturing // 2619968
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method and device for manufacturing of moulded parts from the base material, namely the pulp, proteins, polylactides or amylum or mixtures from these substances, which is mixed with a solvent to form the moulding solution, and then this solvent at least partially is to be removed from the mouling solution and the mouling solution is fed into the moulding device. According to the invention, the mouling solution is fed into a vertical cylindrical thin-layer evaporator and in a horizontal cylindrical thick-layer dissolver. The moulding solution is diluted in a thick-layer dissolver or at the subsequent unloading from it upto the viscosity required for moulding, achieving the original consistency. At that, the thin-layer evaporator and/or thick-layer dissolver is directly connected to each other through their product chamber.EFFECT: improved method.12 cl, 1 dwg

Fabric composition including elastic fibers // 2619647
FIELD: textile, paper.SUBSTANCE: provided product comprises a multi-directional fabric of the first reinforcing fiber tows extending in the first direction, and the second reinforcing fiber tows extending in the second direction. The filaments in the first fiber tows extend beyond the fabric borders, and are distributed. Strands are imbedded into resin.EFFECT: improved performance.19 cl, 13 dwg

Combination die for production of nanofibrous and microfibrous materials // 2614393
FIELD: manufacturing technology.SUBSTANCE: combined die for production of nanofibrous or microfibrous materials under the present invention comprises a thin-wall electrode and the first non-conducting body adjacent to the first wall of the said thin-wall electrode. Said first body has a wall facing the thin-wall electrode having multiple grooves, herewith the said grooves lead to the distal end of the combined die and have their own proximal ends connected to a source of the formed mixture. Thin-wall electrode, as well as the first non-conducting body, can have either a plate-like or a cylindrical shape. Combined die may additionally include the second non-conducting body adjacent to the second wall of the thin-wall electrode and guiding air from the proximal end to the distal end of the die. Combined die is easily disassembled and cleaned, since forming the fibre capillaries have the shape of grooves formed on surfaces of the first or the third non-conducting bodies.EFFECT: proposed is a composite die for production of nanofibrous or microfibrous materials.6 cl, 5 dwg, 3 ex

Device for fibrous materials production from molten thermoplastics // 2614087
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: device for fibrous materials production from molten thermoplastics comprises a housing consisting of upper and lower parts between which a pressurized chamber is formed with an opening for energy carrier supply, and an annular working nozzle communicating with the pressure cavity, wherein an axially symmetric funnel is formed on the top of the housing for molten thermoplastics reception, its outlet portion external surface forms one of the working nozzle walls. At that, the hosuing parts are mounted to provide linear displacement of the upper part relative to the lower along the axis by between 0.0014D and 0.4D, where D is the smallest diameter of funnel, and their fixation in this position. The device comprises means to change and fix geometrical dimensions of the working nozzle, which is a threaded connection of the housing parts, the upper part has four locking holes located circumferentially at angular coordinates 0°, 15°, 187.5° and 202.5°, the lower part has 12 threaded holes with an increment of 30° around the circumference of the same diameter, used for locking screw installation in one of the possible matches of the upper and lower housing holes, that allows to discretely adjust the annular working nozzle clearance in one of 48 positions.EFFECT: simplified design of the device for fibrous materials production from molten thermoplastics, higher fibers quality, in particular, reduced amount of non-fibrous inclusions, extended raw material range for fibrous materials production.3 cl, 2 dwg

Device and method of manufacturing nonwoven spun fabric of elementary fibres // 2613869
FIELD: manufacturing technology.SUBSTANCE: device for production of non-woven spun fabric of elementary fibres, including dies, cooling chamber with possibility to feed process air into it for cooling of elementary fibres located between dies and cooling chamber monomer device for forced air discharge, exhaust device and collector for laying of elementary fibers in nonwoven fabric. Cooling chamber consists of two sections of cooling chamber, while process air can be forced fed from first upper section of cooling chamber in monomer device for forced air discharge with volumetric flow rate VM. Process air escapes from first upper section with volumetric flow rate V1 in second lower section of cooling chamber. Ratio of volume flow rate of VM/V1 ranges from 0.1 to 0.3.EFFECT: device and method of making nonwoven spun fabric of elementary fibres are proposed.15 cl, 2 dwg

ethods of medical active agent delivery by injection of individual health articles containing filament // 2613316
FIELD: medicine, pharmacy.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to medicine and is represented by methods of medical active agent delivery to a mammal. The method includes a stage when the medical article comprising one or more filaments, consisting of: base material of 10-50% by weight, based on dry filament, selected from natural polymers, synthetic polymers, sugars and combinations thereof; medical active agent of 50% by weight, based on dry filament, and moisture less than 20% by weight based on filament, is injected to a mammal. Filaments are obtained by meltdown blowing or by forming liquid film fibers and constitute a nonwoven fabric with a surface density of 20-1000 g/m2. The medical active agent is able to be released from the nonwoven fabric when it is exposed to the conditions of target application.EFFECT: invention delivers higher levels of medical active agents to a mammal.12 cl, 4 dwg, 7 ex
High modulus high strength uhmwpe fiber and method for its production // 2612714
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to high modulus high strength fiber made of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and a method for its preparation. Methods are described for obtaining threads and multithread yarn from UHMW polyethylene (UHMWPE), as well as the yarn and products made thereof. Each method provides UHMWPE threads with strength of 45 to 60 grams/denier.EFFECT: invention provides an effective way to create yarn from ultrahigh molecular weight high strength polyethylene or with higher productivity on an industrial scale.10 cl, 6 ex

Formation of conjugated protein by electrospinning // 2603794
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing fibre from polysaccharide-conjugated milk whey protein by electro-spinning, which includes steps of preparing an aqueous solution, containing polysaccharide and milk whey protein, wherein said polysaccharide is present in concentration of 0.1 g/ml to about 5.0 g/ml, application to solution of voltage from 15 to 25 kV, collection of fibre on a composite plate.EFFECT: disclosed is a method of producing polysaccharide-conjugated milk whey protein by electro-spinning.23 cl, 29 dwg, 9 tbl

ethod of solid molded bodies or films producing // 2603364
FIELD: pulp and paper industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of solid cellulose molded bodies making, in particular films, from cellulose solution by extrusion, in particular, to polymer solutions or polymer liquids forming. Method of solid cellulose molded bodies producing from cellulose solution, NMMO (N-methyl-morpholine-N-oxide) and water by this solution extrusion through one or more extrusion holes under pressure and cellulose molded bodies curing in receiving bath, wherein solution is supplied between extrusion holes and receiving bath via air gap, is characterized by, that temperature of solution in extrusion holes is less than 105 °C and difference in pressure between pressure solution immediately before extrusion and after extrusion in air gap is 8-40 bar.EFFECT: method allows to improve spinning quality.34 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Device for producing nanofibres, method of producing nanofibres and structure made of nanofibres // 2600903
FIELD: nanotechnology.SUBSTANCE: device for production of nanofibres 10 comprises: device 11 for injection of spinning solution comprising current-conducting nozzle 13 for injection of stock of spinning solution for producing nanofibres; electrode 14 spaced from nozzle 13; means 101 for generating voltage between nozzle 13 and 14 electrode; means 15 for feeding air jet arranged to direct air jet between nozzle 13 and 14 electrode; and a means for collection of nanofibres. Means 101 for generating voltage generates voltage so that nozzle 13 serves as a positive terminal, and electrode 14 serves as negative terminal. Whole surface of electrode 14 facing nozzle 13 is coated with coating 17 with dielectric, open on surface.EFFECT: dielectric, open on surface, has thickness of 0 8/10 mm or more.18 cl, 9 tbl, 17 ex, 33 dwg

Devices and methods for producing fibres // 2598584
FIELD: textile and paper.SUBSTANCE: method of producing fibres includes the stages, in which a composition containing one or more fluoropolymers is placed into a case of a device for producing fibres and the device is brought into rotation with a speed sufficient to eject the material from the device for producing fibres to form fluoropolymer microfibres and/or nanofibres.EFFECT: proposed is a method of producing fibres.21 cl, 55 dwg

Copolymer and synthesis methods thereof // 2597591
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention concerns yarns comprising copolymer derived from copolymerisation of para-phenylenediamine, 5(6)-amino-2-(p-aminophenyl)benzimidazole; and terephthaloyl dichloride, where ratio of moles of 5(6)-amino-2-(p-aminophenyl)benzimidazole to moles of para-phenylenediamine is 30/70 to 85/15; yarn having a sulphur content greater than 0.1 %; and hydrolytic strength retention of yarn is greater than 60 %.EFFECT: invention discloses a yarn, containing copolymer, as well as methods of producing such types of yarn.21 cl, 2 tbl, 2 dwg

odified polylactic acid fibres // 2588235
FIELD: chemistry; technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical technology of producing biodegradable fibres and concerns modified polylactic acid fibres. Method of producing polylactic acid fibres involves mixing in a melt polylactic acid with polyepoxide modifier and a polymer reinforcing additive to form a thermoplastic composition, wherein reinforcing additive is dispersed in form of domains of discrete phase in a continuous polylactic acid phase; subsequent extrusion of thermoplastic composition at temperature higher than approximately 230 °C, which contributes to reaction of polyepoxide modifier with polylactic acid; and passing reacted composition through extrusion head to form fibre.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain fibre with good mechanical properties, appearing during and after spinning from melt.22 cl, 5 dwg, 10 tbl, 55 ex

Fibres, tapes and monofilaments based on copolymers of ethylene and alpha-olefins // 2586221
FIELD: textile industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to articles in form of fibre, tape or filament made from a polyethylene composition which includes a copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene obtained by polymerisation in presence of a metallocene catalyst system in a gaseous medium. Molar ratio of hexene/ethylene in copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene assumes following values: 0.0015, 0.0022, 0.0029 and 0.0045. EFFECT: fibres, tapes or filaments according to invention exhibit improved tensile properties, expressed as a balance between tenacity and elongation at break, and well suited for manufacture of articles such as artificial grass, woven and nonwoven fabrics, ropes, cordages, articles for making nets and flexible intermediate bulk containers.24 cl, 1 dwg, 7 tbl
ethod of introducing additives into polymer // 2585003
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to high molecular compounds. In the method of introducing additives into polymers, a polymer product of an oblong shape is drawn out of amorphous or semicrystalline oriented, non-oriented or partly oriented polymer in a direct aqueous emulsion of oil-in-water containing water in an extended phase and physically active liquid medium emulsified in water (the dispersed phase) which is not mixed with water at a temperature of drawing. Amount of physically active emulsified liquid medium must be not less than 2 %. Drawing is conducted at a deformation of not less than 2 %.EFFECT: invention simplifies the method of introducing additives into the polymers and broadens the scope of application by spreading to the admixtures which are water-soluble but poorly or not soluble in water-based organic solvents.7 cl, 3 ex
ethod of introducing additives into polymer // 2585001
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to high-molecular compounds and can be used in the textile industry, microelectronics, sensors optochemical as incombustible polymeric materials in the manufacture of special purpose products. Method of introduction of additives into polymers comprises drawing of elongated polymeric article of amorphous or semicrystalline oriented, non-oriented or partly oriented polymer in an aqueous emulsion of oil-in-water emulsion comprising water as the continuous phase and active liquid environment emulsified in water physically immiscible with water at a temperature of the drawing as a dispersion medium. Wherein the admixture is dissolved in the liquid medium is physically active. Amount of physical activity in the emulsified should be at least 2 vol.%.EFFECT: invention simplifies the known method and expands its scope by extending to the admixture, soluble in organic solvents, water-immiscible.7 cl, 5 ex

ethod and device for application of liquid polymer matrix on fibre-forming strings // 2584520
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and device for application of liquid polymer matrix to active fiber forming zone string fibre-forming element of fibre-forming electrode by means of causing agent making return motion along active zone fiber forming strings in device for production of nano-fibers by electrostatic process fiber forming of liquid polymer matrix in electric field created high-intensity between at least one fiber forming electrode and opposite precipitation electrode. Liquid polymer matrix is applied on string along its whole circumference without contact with gaseous medium in space fiber forming, in which spreading agent makes return motion, at that, when string of causing agent is limited by thickness of layer of liquid polymer matrix on string, and after its exit from causing agent instantly is launched process of electrostatic fiber forming of liquid polymer matrix, deposited on string.EFFECT: disclosed is method and device for application of liquid polymer matrix to active fiber forming zone string fibre-forming element of fibre-forming electrode.24 cl, 14 dwg

Gelated pre-oriented filaments and method for their manufacturing and fibre from ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene and method for its manufacturing // 2577768
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing gelated pre-oriented filaments is disclosed, and gelated pre-oriented filaments manufactured by the proposed method. The method comprises: feeding a spinning additive to the twin screw extruder for mixing and extruding it, to obtain a first spinning solution having a non-Newtonian index constituting 0.1-0.8, and the structural viscosity index constituting 10-50; feeding a first spinning solution to the spinning container and drawing-off in the die ensuring the degree of draft of 5-20 for obtaining the drawn material; carrying out rapid cooling and solidification of the drawn material for obtaining gelated pre-oriented filaments. Also the following was created: a method of manufacturing fibre from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene by using the method described above, and the fibre manufactured according to this method. The gelated pre-oriented filaments manufactured according to the method described above are used for the manufacture of fibre from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene in an amount of broken filaments per 10 km of the filaments, not exceeding 2 filaments, with drawing of 40-55. The fibre manufactured from ultra high molecular weight polyethylene has a linear density of less than 2.2 denier (2.44 dtex).EFFECT: improved mechanical properties.13 cl

Hollow-fibre membrane // 2569590
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of hollow fibre membrane with bearing ply and separation ply. Note here that this process comprises the steps that follow. (a) Extrusion of spinning composition including first polymer and solvent for said polymer through inner ring bore of the head for making of hollow fibre. (b) Co-extrusion of composition including organic nucleophilic reagent and the mix of solvent and non-solvent for first polymer. Here, this composition is either extruded through the head central ring bore to get hollow fibre or through the head external ring bore. (c) Hollow fibre is transferred through coagulation bath. Hollow fibre membrane can be used in gas separation processes and filtration of fluids.EFFECT: production of hollow fibre membrane with bearing and separation plies.13 cl, 5 dwg

Fabrication of barrier for substrate and substrate with said barrier // 2566787
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to packing materials, particularly, to making of barrier layer for fibre-based substrate surface. Said barrier layer is produced by deposition of nanofibres on the surface by electric spinning or melt spinning. Note here that the film is produced by postprocessing of substrate with deposited nanofibres after their deposition.EFFECT: barrier layer for fibre-based substrate surface with improved barrier properties.23 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

Device for spinning from melt, drawing and rolling of several complex threads // 2556473
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed invention relates to spinning complex threads from melt, their drawing and rolling. Proposed device comprises spinning device, cooling device, drawing device and winding device. Thread wetting device is arranged between cooling device and winding device. Thread wetting device is composed by two separate preparation sections arranged upstream and downstream of drawing device. Proposed device differs from known designs in that one of preparation sections can be controlled and/or connected for threading wetting adjustment. Note also that first preparation section is located upstream of drawing device and equipped with moving wetting means. The latter can be set to working position for contact with thread and to rest state without this contact. This allows a constant thread wetting related with appropriate operating conditions.EFFECT: perfected design.10 cl, 2 dwg

ultiple-component fibres for making of wound or implant dressing produced by rotary spinning // 2553011
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: this multiple-component comprises first component and second component to make the fibre body (11). Note here that first component consists of the fibre first stock material (1). Note here that second component consists of the fibre second stock material (3). For production of multiple-component fibre heat-sensitive green materials should be processed without damages. This process comprises rotary spinning whereat first vessel (2) is filled with first green component (1). Second vessel (4) is filled with second green material (3). Note here that both vessels (2, 4) are revolved. Note here that first green material (1) is released from first vessel (2). Note here that second green material (3) is released from first second vessel (4). Note that said green materials (1, 3) after exit from said vessels (2, 6) are combined. Both vessels (2, 4) are revolved about one axis (A).EFFECT: higher efficiency.12 cl, 6 dwg

ethod of polymer separation from solution in formation of pan-precursor for obtaining carbon fibres // 2549075
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology of obtaining fibres from polymers based on polyacrylonitrile-polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acrylonitrile (AN) copolymers, namely to a stage of a polymer separation from a solution, and can be applied in the production of materials for the textile industry and precursors for obtaining highly strong carbon fibre of a novel quality, applied in different fields of technology. The method of separating the polyacrylonitrile-based polymer from 15-22 vol% solution in the formation of a PAN-precursor for obtaining the carbon fibres includes the extraction of the polymer from its solution without the application of precipitators and the following removal of a solvent by the ventilation of the fibre by air jet. Separation of the polymer from the solution is realised under an influence of mechanical tensions at a temperature of 150°C lower than the temperature of the solvent boiling, with 8-12-time extraction until the freshly formed fibre, with a residual content of the solvent not more than 1%, is obtained.EFFECT: considerable acceleration of the fibre formation, sharp simplification and acceleration of the polymer separation process, exclusion of a necessity of a multi-stage extraction of the fibre, simplification of the solvent regeneration process.1 tbl, 3 ex, 2 dwg

ethod for production of milk protein fibres and goods produced thereof // 2547747
FIELD: food industry.SUBSTANCE: protein produced of milk is plasticised together with a plasticiser at a temperature of 60°C - 140°C under mechanical stress conditions; then fibres are moulded by means of a draw die. The plasticiser is chosen from the group including a polysaccharide water solution, glycerine, ethylene glycol or these substances mixture.EFFECT: produce fibres have significant tensile strength.13 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

Spinning fibre-forming electrode // 2547639
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of nanofibres by electrostatic process. Spinning fibre-forming electrode designed to carry polymer solution or melt in electric field for fibre forming in devices intended for fibre forming by electrostatic process from said solutions or melts. Said electrode features elongated shape and comprises two end parts arranged at carrier. Fibre-forming elements made of string or wire bar are laid between said two parts. In compliance with this invention said fibre forming electrodes are inclined to axis of spinning of said electrode.EFFECT: no sputter of polymer solution or melt.8 cl, 4 dwg

Device for production of 2d or 3d fibre materials from microfibres and nanofibres // 2547638
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: device for production of 2D or 3D fibre materials from microfibres or nanofibres comprises a set of metal spinning nozzles (3), connected with the first potential, a set of electrodes (6) of a collector facing the set of nozzles (3), arranged at regular intervals and connected with the second potential, and a collecting plate (7) or a collecting cylinder (14) for collection of microfibres or nanofibres laid between pairs of adjacent electrodes (6) of the collector. The substance of the invention consists in the following: a set of collector electrodes (6) comprises at least two electrodes (6) of the collector, arranged in one plane, and the collecting plate (7) on the line of its crossing or along the tangent to the collected cylinder (14), which is perpendicular to the line of contact with the plane of the collector electrodes (6), forming with the plane of the collector electrodes (6) an angle α in the range between 0° and 90°, at the same time the collecting plate (7) or the collecting cylinder (14) may move relative to the electrodes (6) of the collector in the direction in the plane that is perpendicular to the plane of collector electrodes (6), and where the axis of the electrode (6) lies in direction of movement of the collecting plate (7) or the collecting cylinder (14), forming with the axis of this electrode (6) the angle β, the value of which lies between 0° and 90°.EFFECT: device makes it possible to create large flat and volume objects from ordered nanofibres.9 cl, 14 dwg

ethod of obtaining polymer-containing fibres // 2545331
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of spinning fibre, containing polypeptide polymer, as well as to products, including said polymer fibre. Method of fibre spinning includes draft of fibre from dope solution, containing polymer, preferably silk polypeptide which can be introduced into water solution with concentration constituting at least 0.15 mg/ml, polyacrylamide (PAA), which increases longitudinal viscosity of dope solution, and solvent. Invention makes it possible to obtain fibres, including living and non-living biological material, which could perform function of framework material for fabric engineering and growing artificial organs.EFFECT: application of PAA in dope solution results in obtaining smooth and homogeneous fibres, non-biodegradable and long-lasting, in addition, application of very low concentrations of polymers and/or very low concentrations of improvers of PAA longitudinal viscosity facilitates spinning of fibres from dope solution.24 cl, 4 dwg, 7 ex

Trough of spinning bath // 2541284
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a trough of spinning bath containing a trough for receiving liquid of the spinning bath, at least one roller provided inside the trough for guiding the spun fibres, and a system for supplying and draining the liquid for the spinning bath. According to the invention, it is provided that the trough (SBW) of the spinning bath has a structure which is used for wet spinning through the spinning nozzle (SD) located inside the liquid (SBF) of the spinning bath, and for dry/wet spinning through the spinning nozzle (SD) located above the liquid (SBF) of the spinning bath.EFFECT: enhancement of the technological capabilities.4 cl, 4 dwg

ethod and device for forming of several synthetic threads from melt, as well as for stretching and winding them // 2534897
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of several synthetic threads to be stretched and wound and to device to this end. Note here that synthetic threads are formed parallel with each other, cooled and tightened by extrusion of thin bundles of filaments. Note also that said threads are stretched as a bundle of threads are wound on reels. To allow identical physical conditions, threads after extrusion and before stretching are pulled off independently by separate godet wheels. This allows identical conditions of extrusion, cooling and stretching of every thread. Proposed device comprises several separate godet wheels arranged side by side and ahead of stretching device relative to one of the threads. To pull off a definite thread, said godet wheels can actuate an appropriate drive.EFFECT: higher efficiency.12 cl, 4 dwg
ethod of obtaining ultrathin polymer fibres // 2527097
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of obtaining ultrathin polymer fibres by method of electrospinning and can be used for spinning non-woven porous fibrous materials, applied as separating partitions, for instance, for filtration of gases and liquids, for manufacturing diffusion partitions, separators of chemical sources of current, etc. Solution for spinning contains 2.5-4 wt.p. of phenolformaldehyde resin, 2.5-4 wt.p. of polyvinyl butyral, 92-95 wt.p. of ethyl alcohol and as modifying additives 0.02-0.2 wt.p. of tetrabutylammonium iodide or 0.01-0.1 wt.p. of lithium chloride.EFFECT: invention provides increase of solution electroconductivity, increased output of ultrathin fibres with diameter less than 0,1 mcm.1 tbl, 7 ex

Production line of fibre (reinforcement elements) from polymer mass // 2520113
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: production line of fibre from polymer mass in the process direction includes an extruder, an extrusion head for formation of a thread from polymer mass, which has a cross section of the specified shape, a thread cooling bath with cooling liquid, a withdrawal-roll set containing at least one upper roll and one lower roll with S-shaped threading, a thermal plastification chamber, the main tension set containing at least one upper roll and one lower roll with S-shaped threading between them, main thread drawing zone, a corrugating device and a cutting mechanism for thread cutting into equal pieces - fibre. The line includes an additional tension set containing at least one upper roll and one lower roll with S-shaped threading between them, which is installed after the main tension set, an additional thread drawing zone formed between the main tension set and the additional tension set, heaters for heating of the withdrawal-roll set, heaters for heating of the thermal plastification chamber, heaters for heating of the main tension set, as well as fans with outlet nozzles for removal of residual moisture from thread, which are installed in a zone between the withdrawal-roll set and the thermal plastification chamber.EFFECT: improving strength and quality of produced fibre.1 dwg
ethod of manufacturing multitude of highly strong, high-modulus threads from aromatic polyamide // 2516154
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes extrusion of, at least, 15 wt % acidic acid of aromatic polyamide through linearly located draw plate holes; passing thread the base through layer of non-coagulating flow medium into coagulating bath; passing thread cloth through spinning tube, injection of additional coagulating liquid near threads downward at angle from 15° to 75° with respect to threads at constant rate, constituting approximately 50-100% of the rate of threads, movement of supplied coagulating liquid down together with the base of threads through spinning tube into coagulating bath. Tube has elongated transverse section and contains, at least, two opposite sides, parallel to the base of threads, with the length of the sides being, at least, equal to the width of the base of threads. Coagulating liquid is injected through injector channel from any one side of spinning tube, parallel to the base of threads, where injector channel has, at least, the same width as the base of threads.EFFECT: invention relates to technology of production of synthetic fibres, in particular, to production of multitude of highly strong, high-modulus threads from aromatic polyamide.6 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
Composition for obtaining fibres by electrospinning // 2515842
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: water composition contains in wt % 15-40 solution of interpolymeric complex, 50-80 aqueous solution of thickening agent (concentration 8 - 14%) and acidity regulator 2H HCl to pH=2 - 4. Interpolymeric complex is obtained by mixing 1% solution of polyacrylacid and 10% solution of polyvinyl alcohol with component ratio 1:1. As thickening agent, applied is polyvinyl alcohol or polyethylenoxide. Viscosity of composition constitutes from 0.5 to 0.9 Pa·s.EFFECT: application of claimed spinning composition makes it possible to obtain fibres with diameter 200 - 400 nm with high indicators of hygroscopicity and steam-permeabilityat quite fast rate.1 tbl, 3 ex
Nylon staple fibres with high carrying capacity and mixed nylon yarns and materials made of them // 2514757
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the textile industry, and refers to nylon staple fibres with a high carrying capacity and mixed nylon yarns and materials made of them. The high strength nylon staple fibres are characterised by the denier per filament of 1.0 to 3.0, the strength of fibre T of at least about 6.0, and the carrying capacity T7 of more than 3.2. The tows of nylon filament yarns are manufactured, which are relatively uniformly moulded and hardened, by such tows stretching and annealing with the two-stage operation of stretching with annealing using relatively high degrees of stretching and subsequent stapling or other transformation of the stretched and annealed tows in the required high strength nylon staple fibres. The nylon staple fibres thus obtained may be mixed with other fibres such as cotton staple fibres, for production of nylon/cotton yarns (NYCO).EFFECT: invention provides obtaining of fibres for production of materials with a long service life under conditions of increased wear.27 cl, 4 tbl

ethod of producing polyamide imide-based hollow fibre based and hollow fibre // 2510435
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing a spinning solution containing, in an aprotic solvent, 20-25 wt % polyamide imide and 5-15 wt % organic compound selected from a group comprising benzotriazole, benzoimidazole and imidazole. A dry-and-wet method is used to form hollow fibre from said solution. The fibre is washed and dried. Subsequent heat treatment is carried out at temperature not higher than 360°C.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain hollow fibre based on polyamide imide, having improved strength properties and selectivity with respect to separated gases - nitrogen and oxygen.3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex

ethod of producing high-molecular weight polyethylene fibres // 2502835
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves applying a force on a polyethylene strip in the direction of the thickness of the strip on the entire width of the strip. The strip has weight-average molecular weight of at least 500000 g/mol, the ratio Mw/Mn of at most 6 and unidirectional orientation parameter 200/110 of at least 3. The polyethylene fibre for the strip has Mw of at least 500000 g/mol, the ratio Mw/Mn of at most 6 and unidirectional orientation value 020 of at most 55°. The fibres are used in ballistic applications, ropes, cables, nets, textiles and protective articles.EFFECT: fibres have high breaking strength and high energy of rapture.15 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex

ethod and apparatus for producing fine fibres // 2497983
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method and apparatus for producing fine fibres via fibre electrospinning by applying an electric field between a primary electrode and a counter electrode lying at a distance from the primary electrode and often parallel thereto. The working surface of the primary electrode is coated with a polymer solution. An electric field is created between the primary electrode and the counter electrode having sufficient strength to cause formation of fine fibres in the space between the electrodes. The working surface of the primary electrode coated with a polymer solution consists of corresponding parts of surfaces of a plurality of elements that are semi-submerged in the working state and are freely lying (not connected to anything), said elements resting at the bottom of a bath or tray or some other supporting structure(s). A tool is used, which enables to apply the polymer solution on the surface of the freely lying elements protruding from the solution via rotation thereof in the polymer solution, such that their surface is coated with a thin layer of the polymer solution.EFFECT: method and apparatus according to the present invention enable to perform spinning with high efficiency while eliminating problems encountered in the previous technological level.12 cl, 8 dwg

ethod of producing ultra-high molecular weight polyamide fibres // 2493299
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: described is a method of producing ultra-high molecular weight polyamide fibres, particularly nylon, where the fibres have very high relative viscosity. The method involves a melt-phase polymerisation procedure which is optionally carried out in combination with a solid-phase polymerisation procedure. The procedures are carried out while observing selected controlled conditions, which enable to obtain polyamide fibres with denier from about 2 to about 100 (from about 2.2 dtex to about 111 dtex), having relative viscosity greater than about 200.EFFECT: producing high molecular weight fibres having breaking and wear strength, and chemical resistance for industrial use.18 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

Artificial dura mater and method of its production // 2491961
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical-pharmaceutical industry and represents artificial dura mater, produced from electrospinning layers by technology of electorspinning, with electrospinning layer, consisting of, at least, hydrophobic electrospining layer, which is produced from one or several hydrophobic polymers, selected from polylatic acid and polycaprolactone.EFFECT: invention ensures creation of artificial dura mater, which has good tissue compatibility, anti-adhesiveness and possibility of introducing medications, preventing cerebrospinal fluid outflow during regeneration of person's own dura mater.30 cl, 7 ex, 11 dwg

ethod and apparatus for forming fibre from polymer matrix in electrostatic field // 2489535
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: electrostatic field is formed in fibre-forming space between the fibre-forming element of a fibre-forming electrode, which is connected to one terminal of a high-voltage source and is located in a fibre-forming position, and a precipitation electrode connected to the second terminal of the high-voltage source to which a polymer matrix is fed from a reservoir with the matrix in an electrostatic field for forming fibre on the surface of the fibre-forming element of the fibre-forming electrode, wherein temperature of the fibre-forming elements of the fibre-forming electrode is raised higher than ambient temperature by direct contact heating of the fibre-forming elements.EFFECT: more technologically effective method, and simple and efficient design of the apparatus.8 cl, 2 dwg

Polyethylene compositions, method for production thereof, fibres made therefrom and method of producing fibre // 2486214
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fibre made from a polyethylene composition, a method of making said fibre, fabric made from said fibres and a method of making said fabric. The fibre is made from a polyethylene composition which contains at least 80 wt % of a (co)polymer, which contains at most 100 wt % links obtained from ethylene and less than 20 wt % links of one or more α-olefin comonomers. The composition has density of 0.920-0.970 g/cm3, molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn) of 1.70-3.5, flow melt index (I2) of 0.2-1000 g/10 min, molecular weight distribution (Mz/Mw) of less than 2.5 and vinyl unsaturation level of less than 0.1 vinyl groups per thousand carbon atoms present in the backbone chain of said composition. The disclosed fibre can have denier value per filament less than 50 g/9000 m, breaking strength of 0.1-15 g/denier and relative elongation less than 1500%.EFFECT: fabric made from said fibre, both woven and nonwoven, have high tearing strength, improved softness and drapeability.10 cl, 4 dwg, 10 tbl

Device for plant for forming fibrous mats // 2466222
FIELD: textiles and paper.SUBSTANCE: device (6) for a plant for forming fibrous mats which fibers are formed of a material suitable for extension by method of internal centrifugation using a gas stream, comprises a guide channel for directing fibers having a longitudinal axis (X), as well as the first part (61) which forms the channel input through which the fibers are introduced into the channel, the second part, or the central part (62), and the third part (63) forming a channel output. The device also comprises hinged means made with the ability of mechanical impact on the third part (63) of the channel providing a change in its size and/or location of the at least one of its parts, relating to the said longitudinal axis (X).EFFECT: provision of opportunity to obtain uniform mats with desired surface density, insulating property or insulating effect.20 cl, 6 dwg

Hollow fiber, spinning solution composition for obtaining hollow fiber, and method of producing hollow fiber with its application // 2465380
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hollow fiber comprising a cavity located in the center of the hollow fiber, macropores located near the cavity, and mesopores and picopores located near macropores, and picopores are connected to each other in three dimensional space to form a three-dimensional net structure, and hollow fiber comprises polymer derived from polyimide, and polyimide comprises repeating structural unit derived from aromatic diamine comprising at least one functional group comprising OH, SH or NH2, which is in the ortho position in relation to the amino group, and dianhydride. Also the spinning solution composition for obtaining the above mentioned hollow fiber and method of producing the hollow fiber is described.EFFECT: creation of hollow fibers having improved gas permeability and selectivity in relation to gases, creation of new membranes for separation of gases based on these materials.48 cl, 18 ex, 1 tbl, 9 dwg

Hollow fiber, composition of spin dope moulding hollow fiber and method for producing hollow fiber using this composition // 2461671
FIELD: textiles, paper.SUBSTANCE: hollow fiber comprises a polymer derived from a polyimide precursor, moulded from a spin dope containing polyamine acid, and the hollow fiber has a cavity located in the center of the hollow fiber; macropores located around the cavity, and the mesopores and pikopores located around macropores where the pikopores are three-dimensionally interconnected to form a three-dimensional network structure. Polyamine acid contains a repeating unit derived from an aromatic diamine, comprising at least one functional group, which is in the ortho position with respect to the amino group and the dianhydride.EFFECT: obtaining of hollow fiber with high permeability and good selectivity for the manufacture of membranes for gas separation.44 cl, 1 tbl, 8 dwg, 17 ex
 
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