etallurgy of iron (C21)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C21            etallurgy of iron(23203)

System and method for reducing powder iron ore in fluidized bed // 2642252
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention provides high-speed gas treatment which makes it possible to increase the rate of iron ore reduction and increase gas treatment efficiency of a single effective cross-section of the boiling layer. The coefficient of iron ore reduction is increased due to oxidizing processes. By means of parallel lines through which the reducing coke gas passes, the volume of gas passing through each individual boiling layer is reduced.EFFECT: invention enables highly efficient reduction of powdered iron ore in the boiling layer at near atmospheric pressure.8 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for preparing metal iron nanoparticles // 2642220
FIELD: nanotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the preparing of metal iron nanoparticles from aqueous sol based on ferrihydrite nanoparticles and can be used in medicine. Aqueous sol based on ferrihydrite nanoparticles obtained as a result of cultivation of Klebsiella oxytoca bacteria isolated from the sapropel of Lake Borovoe of the Krasnoyarsk Territory is treated in cavitation mode for 4-24 min on an apparatus of the Volna series UZTA-0.4/22-OM with ultrasonic treatment intensity >10 W/cm2 and a frequency of 22 kHz. The metal is reduced as a precipitate of metal nanoparticles of iron, which are then separated and dried.EFFECT: ferromagnetic iron nanoparticles have a volume-centred cubic package.2 dwg,1 tbl
ethod of steelmaking in basic oxygen converter // 2641587
FIELD: metallurgical engineering.SUBSTANCE: method includes loading of scrap metal and iron-containing product for the processing of waste slag, consisting of metal and slag constituents, loading of lime and magnesian flux, casting of cast iron, purging the bath with a gaseous oxidant. In the process of loading lime and magnesia flux, carbon-containing material is additionally introduced at the ratio of the masses of the carbon-containing material and the iron-containing product of the waste slag processing equal to 1:(5-10), and after casting of the cast iron, the melt is mixed with a mixture of neutral gas and oxygen in the ratio 1:(0.3-1.0).EFFECT: increase in the yield of the usable metal due to the reduction of iron from the slag component of the iron-containing product of slag waste processing.1 cl
ethod of contact butt welding of rails // 2641586
FIELD: transportation.SUBSTANCE: after preliminary machining, heating the rail ends to be welded and settling are carried out. After settling, an exposure of 5÷15 seconds is carried out, then alternating electric current 2÷4 is passed through the welded joint in pulses with the duration of 0.5÷220 seconds at the intervals of 10÷40 seconds at the current density of 2÷40 A/mm2.EFFECT: required microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joint without additional heat treatment, excluding the defects in the weld seam and the weld zone, reducing the duration of the rail joining process.1 tbl
ethod of increasing metal-bearing capacity of slag due to modification of slag-forming mixtures // 2641442
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: slag-forming mixture is ground to a fraction of less than 0.001 mm, and the present refractory carbonates are removed by adding concentrated hydrochloric acid. Then pre-ground siderite (FeCO3) is added to the dried mixture in amount equal to the number of removed carbonates, the mixture is stirred, and the produced mixture is granulated. The replacement of refractory carbonates with iron carbonate in the composition prevents foaming of slag, which results in elimination of additional oxidation and carbonisation of steel and improvement of cast blank quality.EFFECT: increased amount of siderite in slag creates conditions for secondary processing of slag with extraction of iron from it.1 ex

ethod of recovering vanadium from natural-alloyed vanadium cast iron // 2641436
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: at the first stage of duplex process involving pouring of vanadium liquid cast iron into a converter, blowing with oxygen and introducing into converter coolers in the form of iron-containing iron briquette for devanadation of cast iron in amount of 20-100 kg/t of cast iron. The briquette for devanadation of cast iron is made by method of cold briquetting of iron-containing gas cleaning waste-slimes of blast-furnaces or converters 20-40%, oil scale of secondary settlers 5-30%, roll scale 30-60% and contains sodium liquid glass as a binder, wherein the total content of iron in the briquette should be 65%, and the content of CaO is not more than 1.5%.EFFECT: disposing metallurgical production waste, preparation of vanadium slag conditioned by chemical composition and provision of deep extraction of vanadium from pig iron into commercial vanadium slag with required chemical composition.3 tbl

ethod to increase strength of stable austenitic steel // 2641429
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: stable austenitic steel 02X17H14M3 is subject to austenite tempering, then rolling with cooling in liquid nitrogen at -196°C in several passes to form microtwin structures and subsequent deformation in the temperature range of 20-700°C in several passes to provide propagation of deformation localization bands in the microtwin structure and the substructural hardening by the high density of dislocations. After deformation, final annealing is carried out in the range of 600-800°C with duration from 200 s to 1 h.EFFECT: improved strength properties of steel while preserving plasticity due to production of structure with and submicro-and nano-sized fragments.3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
ethod for producing alloyed cast iron for wear-resistant parts // 2641204
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: metal melt with content of Ni≥1.0% is produced in furnace and overheated by its DC electric arc up to 1480-1580 °C, slag is tapped and aluminium is introduced onto the metal melt mirror in amount 0.5÷3.5 wt % of liquid metal in furnace for electrolytic deoxidation of melt, heat is kept for 1-7 min, melt crystallization is carried out by intensive cooling at 60-100 °C/min rate to temperature, which is within 100 °C range below and above the resistance temperature of pearlite, then the casting is removed from the mould and cooled to room temperature at 30-60 °C/h rate and the working surface of the casting is machined and then subjected to heat treatment by high-frequency currents.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce cast iron with high crack resistance and operational characteristics.1 tbl
ethod of electric arc surfacing of wear-resistant coating on harox 400 steel // 2641200
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes the electric arc surfacing of the wear-resistant coating on the harox 400 steel by fusion welding using EnDOtec DO*30, or EnDOtec DO*33, or SK A 70-G diameter 1.6 mm in the protective gas medium of the composition: Ar 82%, CO2 18%, welding current of 250-300 A, voltage on arc of 30-35 V and subsequent pulse-periodic electron-beam processing. Said treatment is carried out at pressure in vacuum chamber 1⋅10-2 Pa with induction 0.02-0.03 T, with beam diameter from 40 to 10 mm, pulse duration from 25 to 30 μs, and an energy density of 15-20 J/cm2.EFFECT: production of wear-resistant coatings on carbon and low alloy steels operating under abrasive wear conditions.4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
ethod of deformation-thermal treatment of austenitic corrosion-resistant steels // 2640702
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: blank is preliminary subjected to homogenization annealing followed by cooling at rate providing preservation of supersaturated solution of alloying elements in austenite, and then followed by intensive plastic deformation by twisting under high hydrostatic pressure in two stages. According to the first version, intensive plastic deformation is carried out at the first stage with gradual decrease of temperature from 723 K to 573 K with true degree of deformation from 4.5 to 7.5, and at the second stage cold plastic deformation at temperature up to 293 K with true degree of deformation 2.25 and higher is conducted. According to the second version at the first stage cold intensive plastic deformation is carried out by twisting at temperature up to 293 K with true degree of deformation not less than 3.5, and at the second stage warm plastic deformation at 723 K with true degree of deformation above 3.5 is conducted.EFFECT: improved strength properties of steel at deformation temperatures below the recrystallization temperature while maintaining a homogeneous austenite structure.2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
anufacture method of steel sheet for pipes with increased deformation capacity // 2640685
FIELD: metallurgical engineering.SUBSTANCE: steel sheet 15-40 mm in thickness with a yield strength of more than 480 MPa, used in the production of electrically welded pipes, a slab of steel containing, wt %: carbon 0.04-0.08, silicon 0.10-0.30, manganese 1.60-1.85, chromium no more than 0.30, nickel 0.20-0.40, molybdenum 0.10- 0.25, copper not more than 0.30, aluminium not more than 0.05, niobium 0.03-0.06, titanium 0.010-0.020, vanadium not more than 0.01, sulfur no more than 0.003, phosphorus not more than 0.013, iron and the inevitable impurities - the rest, are heated to 1100-1200°C, are subjected to rough rolling at 950÷1050°C, then finishing rolling at 700÷820°C with a total reduction of 75÷85%, after which the resulting sheet is cooled at a rate of 20÷35°S/s to 300÷500°C, and then in air to a temperature of not more than 150°C. The sheet has a microstructure consisting of bainite, polygonal ferrite, and also "second phases" in the form of a martensite-austenite component and degenerate perlite.EFFECT: increased deformation capacity of steel sheet.2 tbl

ethod of hollow metal blank laser hardening // 2640516
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: by means of local remelting, mechanical and chemical treatment, the blank of required dimensions is prepared in the range (the length×radius×thickness) from 100×10×2 mm up to 1000×1000×12 from pearlite, bainite or martensite hardening steels of 30XHCA, 35XHCA grades and etc. The blank is fixed in a rotator. The blank local area is remelted along the perimeter or along the blank over the entire wall thickness. The remelting modes are set depending on desired depth of the layer to be strengthened, the thickness of the blank and desired microstructure. The main parameters of the local remelting modes are the linear or angular velocity of the remelting and the power of the laser radiation. The processing is carried out with laser beam movement rate at of 15-40 mm/s, the laser beam power is 1-15 kW. After local remelting, time is maintained for natural cooling of the blank or forced cooling by water or air flow is used.EFFECT: increased strength and rigidity of the blank.5 cl, 2 dwg

ethod for generation of electric power using heat of exhaust converter gases // 2640514
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method involves diverting of gases from the converter through the gas discharge path, a blower, and a flow switching station, by means of which the converter gas is supplied to gas holder or released depending on CO concentration therein, and gas is supplied to the gas-raising station and steam boiler. During 55-70% of steam boiler total operating time, converter gas with CO concentration higher than 30% is supplied, then the mixture of converter gas with reduced CO concentration up to 30% and natural gas is fed for 10-20% of total time, and then natural gas is supplied in the converter interpurging period of the 15-25% of the steam boiler total operating time.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase economic efficiency of the converter gas system utilisation.4 cl, 1 dwg

Reduction of iron oxide to metallic iron with application of coke gas and gas from steel- melting furnace with oxygen supply // 2640511
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for reducing iron oxide to metallic iron at a plant with full metallurgical cycle of production, where there is a coke furnace and/or a steel-melting furnace with oxygen supply. More specifically, the present invention relates to methods for reducing iron oxide to metallic iron using COG coke gas or COG and gas from main steel-melting furnace with BOFG oxygen supply.EFFECT: invention is aimed at maximization of iron amount of direct DRI reduction, hot iron of direct reduction of HDRI or hot briquetted iron HBI, which can be produced from a predetermined amount of COG or BOFG, while minimizing the equipment.41 cl, 7 dwg

ethod of direct reduction of iron oxides // 2640371
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes reduction of ground iron ore in hydrogen medium in flow mode followed by removal of formed gases by continuous flow of hydrogen. In this case, the ore is loaded in the reactor in the form of a quartz tube enclosed with protective thermal insulation casing. Hydrogen is used as a reducing gas that is fed through the tube passing through the upper part of the heat-insulating jacket providing heating of hydrogen to the temperature at the reactor inlet 80-110°C to intensify the process of oxides reduction and obtain uniform reduction of ore. The reactor is purged with hydrogen, and air oxygen is removed, the reactor is heated to 900-1000°C, holding is carried out in the iron oxides reduction mode, cooling of the reactor and reduced iron ore with subsequent unloading is performed.EFFECT: increased rate of reaction.6 dwg, 2 tbl
ethod of pyrometallurgical processing of oxide materials // 2640110
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding the charge consisting of feedstock being processed, fluxes and carbonaceous material into the melting zone of the two-zone bubble-tube furnace into pre-molten material and flux. The melt is transferred to a reducing zone, into which the carbonaceous material, oxygen-containing blast is supplied, discharge of molten products is carried out. In this case, the carbonaceous material and an oxygen-containing blast are supplied to the furnace smelting zone in amount that ensure combustion of carbon to form gases consisting of CO oxide and dioxide CO2, H2 and vapours H2O, the ratio of gases is maintained within CO/CO2 0.01-0.5, and H2/H2O 0.01-0.4. The carbonaceous material, oxygen-containing raw material in amount ensuring reduction of oxides of extracted metals into metal phase and compensation of thermal costs are supplied to the reduction zone. The ratio of gases in the reduction zone is maintained within CO/CO2 0.2-1.5, and H2/H2O 0.1-0.9.EFFECT: minimisation of flow rates of carbonaceous and oxygen-containing materials per unit of finished product and thereby increase of technical and economic efficiency of the process.1 cl
ethod of producing tube steel // 2640108
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, in particular, production of carbon and low-alloy tube grades of steel deoxidized by aluminium. The method includes melting a half-product in an arc steel-melting furnace, discharging the half-product into a steel-teeming ladle with a simultaneous addition of deoxidizing agents, and alloying and part of slag-forming materials, doping of metal by chemical composition and temperature, and final deoxidation and calcium modification in furnace-ladle plant, vacuum treatment with subsequent blowing of metal with argon and pouring metal in continuous casting machine. Tapping of metal melt into steel-teeming ladle is carried out at oxidation of not more than 800 ppm, metal modification is carried out containing not more than 0.004% of sulphur, calcium is introduced in the amount of 15-20 ppm, after final deoxidation of metal to aluminium content of 0.025-0.03% followed by vacuum treatment and blowing of metal with argon no more than 30 s after vacuum removal.EFFECT: improved quality of steel due to reduced content of non-metallic inclusions, reduced cost of steel due to reduced consumption of deoxidizing agents and modifiers.2 tbl, 3 dwg
ethod of producing low-alloyed corrosion-resistant steel for producing rolled stock // 2639754
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of rolled stock of low-alloyed stainless steels for bridge construction, unpainted structural contact network of electrified railways, viaduct roads and other structures. The method includes steel smelting in a steelmaking unit, steel production in a steel ladle, alloying, out-of-furnace processing and casting of steel, austenization. Steel with the following chemical composition is obtained, wt %: carbon 0.08-0.25, manganese 0.5-1.3, silicon 0.05-0.8, chrome 0.3-1.3, nickel 0.2-1.0, copper 0.2-1.0, aluminium 0.01-0.09, sulphur not more than 0.02, phosphorus not more than 0.02, nitrogen not more than 0.012, one or more components selected from the group: molybdenum 0.0005-0.05, vanadium 0.0005-0.05, niobium 0.0005-0.05, zirconium 0.0001-0.015, iron and unavoidable impurities - the rest. Release of steel from the steelmaking unit into the steel ladle is carried out for 3-8 minutes, and the steel is cast at a temperature of 1505-1560°C with a rate of 0.4-6 m/min.EFFECT: invention allows to expand the scope of proposed steel grade with ensuring its high resistance to atmospheric corrosion, improve the quality and mechanical properties of rolled products.9 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl
ethod of double doping and nanophase modification of steel by atomic nitrogen // 2639749
FIELD: metallurgical engineering.SUBSTANCE: doping of a steel melt is performed to ensure the process of self-propagating synthesis of nitride nanophases of the doping elements, and the steel melt processing with atomic nitrogen is carried out by introducing a carbamide (NH2)2CO at a melt temperature of 1650 °C with a consumption of the carbamide of 0.4-1.8 kg/t of steel and a rate of its supply to the melt of 5.0-8.0 kg per minute, the carbamide is introduced into the melt in the form of a filler of a flux-cored wire with simultaneous feeding of an aluminium wire rod at a rate of 1.2 kg/t of steel. Reducing the metal intensity of building structures to 20-25% and guaranteed operation in climatic conditions to -65 °C, as well as saving up to 50-60% of expensive doping elements.EFFECT: increased strength, ductility and cold resistance of steels for the construction industry.3 tbl
ethod to produce calcium-containing wire for treating metal melts // 2639742
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes formation of a metal shell of U-shaped profile, filling of U-shaped profile of metal shell with filler and squeezing of movable metal shell with filler. Pure calcium melt is used as filler flowing out of crucible at temperature of 900-1000°C, which fills the metal shell, after the filling the longitudinal edges of U-shaped profile of tubular metal shell are squeezed overlapped with subsequent cooling, at that the filling with melt, formation of squeezing and cooling of tubular shell is carried out under inert atmosphere of argon.EFFECT: high content of active calcium in solid monolithic state without oxygen and increased filling factor, reduced consumption of wire required for treatment of specified amount of metal.2 cl

Device for introducing gas into heavy liquid metal // 2639721
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device consists of an electric motor (12), a magnetic clutch (6), a shaft (1), intake and working parts of the device, a body (5) with holes (9), lower rotating (2) and upper fixed (7) disk, a casing (4), a flow agitator (10) of heavy liquid metal, a shaft bearing unit (8) with at least one channel (3). The electric motor (12) is mounted above the level of heavy liquid metal, fixed on a flange (11) and connected to the shaft (1) by means of magnetic clutch (6). The intake and working parts of the device are arranged, respectively, above and below the level of heavy liquid metal. The part of the body (5) corresponding to the intake part of the device has holes (9). The working part of the device consists of a lower rotating disk (2) fixed on the shaft (1) and a fixed disk (7) arranged on the body (5). The upper fixed disk (7) and the lower rotating disk (2) are mounted with a gap inside the casing (4). The heavy liquid metal flow agitator (10) is arranged with a gap inside the casing (4) and is fixed on the lower part of the shaft (1). The bearing unit (8) has at least one channel (3).EFFECT: increased recovery volume of heavy liquid metal.3 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for pyrometallurgical processing of oxidized nickel ore // 2639396
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method involves charging oxidized nickel ore together with fluxing additives and carbonaceous material, taken in amount of 1.0-1.1 of stoichiometric amount required for partial metallisation of nickel and reduction of iron to bivalent state into the metallization furnace, heating the charge to the temperature 50° C lower than the temperature of its softening beginning due to the gases heat generated in waste heat boiler, feeding the heated charge to a three-zone furnace where melting of metallized charge takes place in the melting zone due to the heat comes from combustion of natural gas in oxygen with oxidant consumption factor α=0.8-0.9. Obtained melt is fed into bubbling zone for treatment by purging through tuyeres of gas-reducer heated by plasma to temperature ensuring melt temperature of 1500-1600°C and chemical composition, corresponding to the composition of the combustion products of natural gas in oxygen with the ratio of oxidant flow rate α=0.5-0.6, with separation of obtained ferronickel and slag, then the slag melt is reduced by carbonaceous reducing agent in production zone of metal-semi-product by melting in liquid bath, in this case, afterburning of the exhaust gases of the bubbling zone and the production zone of the metal semi-product is carried out in the melting zone, and cooling them to temperatures required in metallisation furnace, in waste-heat boiler.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce ferro-nickel containing more than 70 percent of nickel and a metal semi-product for the production of steel.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod for producing synthetic flux for steel-making production // 2639199
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes mixing initial charge components based on secondary aluminium production wastes and a binder, subsequent moulding of the mixture. When mixing, sodium aluminate is used as a binder, and a reinforcing component in the form of borosilicate glass fibre is additionally introduced in the amount of 0.3-3.6 wt %. The produced mixture is briquetted, the ready briquettes are placed in a sealed container with a gas-discharge path, and consumption of the binder depends on specific surface of the secondary aluminium production wastes and determined according to empirical equation.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce a complex steel melting flux with low energy consumption and high strength properties of briquettes with simultaneous stabilisation of refining slags.2 cl, 6 tbl, 1 dwg
Pseudo-master alloy // 2639186
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: modifying briquette for cast iron contains sludge of salt baths of quench tanks and aluminium in the form of chips with the following ratio of components, wt %: aluminium in the form of chips 40-30, salt baths sludge of quench tanks 60-70. The sludge contains barium carbonate in the amount of 36-38%, potassium chloride, sodium chloride and magnesium chloride of 10% and magnesium oxide in amount of 0.5%.EFFECT: increased physico-mechanical properties of metal, expanded possibility of man-made waste disposal.1 tbl

ethod of alloying metals and alloys // 2639176
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes introduction of alloying metals by installation of high-voltage electrode-rod above metal melt, the electrode-rod is made of alloying metals and pointed to melt by sharp end, and formation of electric spark discharges between melt and said rod with uniform distribution of alloying metals on melt surface in the form of spiral vortex structures, formed by ionized microdrops from electric spark discharges.EFFECT: invention provides uniform distribution of alloying elements on surface of metal melt.1 dwg
ulti-chamber furnace for vacuum cementation and hardening of gears, shafts, rings and similar treated workpieces // 2639103
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the multi-chamber furnace for vacuum cementation and hardening of separate workpieces, such as gears, shafts and rings. The furnace has three technological chambers made in the form of a heating chamber, a cementation chamber and a diffusion chamber which are placed one above the other with formation of vertical arrangement. Said technological chambers are located between two transportation chambers with built-in mechanisms for loading/unloading of workpieces to be processed into/from the separate technological chambers. Each technological chamber is equipped with graphite heating system with thermal insulation and mechanism of step feed.EFFECT: strength and compactness of structure.5 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of laser or laser-arc welding of pipes // 2639086
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: after laser or laser-arc welding of pipes, the welded area of pipes is cooled by laser radiation until they are completely melted. The cooling of welded seam is performed in the temperature interval Ms, where Ms is the starting temperature of martensite formation, and to a temperature not lower than Mf, where Mf is the temperature of the martensite formation completion. Then it is reheated to a temperature of Ms (+100…300)°C with further final cooling. In this case, cooling is carried out in the air, or by water, or by a water-air mixture. Reheating is performed by an induction method or laser.EFFECT: improved micro-structure of the welded seam.3 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of thermal processing of moulded parts from low-carbon alloyed steels // 2639082
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the thermal treatment of moulded parts of railway rolling stock in the form of side frames of freight wagon carriages made of 20GL, 20GFL, 20GTL steels. To increase the fatigue strength of the part, reduce the formation of cracks and increase the durability, the cast piece is heated in the temperature range from Ac3 before Ac3+100°C, hold for 60-90 minutes, then move the part in the thermos into the quenching device, in which cooling is carried out in two stages. First, the surface of the part is intensively cooled from the temperature Ac3 for 0.5 s at a speed of 890-1180°C/s to the temperature of the martensitic transformation (Mk) end by volumetric strangulation with a dispersed water-air mixture, and then with jets of water to a temperature of not more than 200°C for 8-10 minutes.EFFECT: reduction of the cooling rate of the most loaded portions of the parts in operation 8-10 times compared with other parts of the product.1 ex
ethod of steel production // 2639080
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method involves smelting a metal with a carbon content of more than 0.03 wt %, melt release into the ladle with slag separation, adding slag-forming and alloying materials, vacuum treatment of the melt in the ladle, deoxidation, adding alloying materials and casting. During metal smelting in course of vacuum processing and before casting, the content of hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen activity in molten metal and slag on oxidation degree of iron oxide is determined, and melt is discharged into the ladle when hydrogen content reaches ≤5 ppm, sulphur ≤0.005 wt %, oxygen activity is 200-500 ppm in melt, and slag oxidation degree on iron oxide is 3-20%, deoxidation is carries out after hydrogen content reaches ≤1.5 ppm, sulphur ≤0.005 wt %, oxygen activity ≤100 ppm in the melt and slag oxidation degree on iron oxide is ≤0.2-0.8%, and the casting is conducted lead after hydrogen content is ≤1.2 ppm, sulphur ≤0.005 wt %, oxygen activity ≤5 ppm in the melt and the slag oxidation degree on iron oxide is ≤0.2%.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the purity of the metal with regard to non-metallic inclusions, and reduce the propensity of the steel to flock formation.1 cl

ethod for melting metal material in melting unit and melting plant // 2639078
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: at the loading stage, the first sub-operation is carried out, on which said metal material is loaded in an amount from 25 to 45% of total amount of molten material which is contained inside the furnace before the tapping stage and subjected to tapping after completion of the melting stage, the second charging and melting operation, at which the rate of metal material supply is reduced by means of a control device, to maintain the amount of solid mass of said metal material in gradually formed liquid metal bath, the third sub-operation, in which the feed rate is further reduced until stopping of loading process to ensure complete melting of all metal material in the melting furnace. The tapping stage is performed when the entire mass of solid metallic material is melted. The melting furnace comprises a roof covering the body and made separate from the latter, and a panel arranged between the body and the roof. There is a hole in the panel for installing said supply means there through. Said body has depth D and the lower edge of said opening is distanced in height from the lower edge of the panel by distance from 0.3 to 3D.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce heat losses from the bath of molten metal, reduce wear of heat-resistant coating of the furnace walls, and reduce maintenance time.14 cl, 5 dwg
artensitic steel resistant to delayed fracture and method of manufacture // 2638611
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: steel contains, wt %: 0.30≤C≤0.5, 0.2≤Mn≤1.5, 0.5≤Si≤3.0, 0.02≤Ti≤0.05, 0.001≤N≤0.008, 0.0010≤AT≤0.0030, 0.01≤Nb≤0.1, 0.2≤Cr≤2.0, P≤0.02, S≤0.005, Al≤1, Mo≤1, Ni≤0.5, the rest is iron and unavoidable impurities formed when melting. The microstructure of sheet is 100% of martensite with size of preceding austenite grain below 20 mcm, and the delayed fracture resistance is at least 24 hours in the U-bend test by immersion in acid.EFFECT: manufactured sheets have high strength, mouldability and delayed fracture resistance.23 cl, 2 dwg, 5 tbl

ethod for manufacturing agglomerates and reduced iron // 2638487
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method for manufacturing agglomerates comprises the stage of heat treatment of a powder containing iron oxide having 50% of particles with a diametre of 2 mcm or less at a heating temperature of 900-1200 °C to obtain a heat-treated powder, 50% of the particles of which has a diametre of 4 mcm or more, and the stage of granulating the resulting heat-treated powder to form agglomerates. The granulation is carried out by rolling granulation. The heat treatment is carried out for a heating period of 30 minutes or more preferably when rolling a powder containing iron oxide. It is possible to use an enrichment rejects which represent a precipitate remaining after the recovery of Ni from the nickel-containing ore as a powder containing iron oxide.EFFECT: obtaining agglomerate with high physical properties.6 cl, 5 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
Hot-rolled sheet of low-alloy steel with thickness from 15 to 165 mm and method of its production // 2638479
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of hot-rolled sheets of low alloy steel with a thickness from 15 to 165 mm, for example, production of shut-off fittings of oil and gas pipelines, as well as structures operating at low temperatures up to -60°C. The steel has the following chemical composition, wt %: carbon 0.07-0.13, silicon 0.40-0.75, manganese 1.40-1.80, aluminium not more than 0.06, sulfur not more than 0.01, phosphorus not more than 0.018, total content of chromium, nickel and copper not more than 0.60, titanium not more than 0.03, vanadium not more than 0.08, niobium not more than 0.05, molybdenum not more than 0.05, nitrogen not more than 0.008, the rest is iron and impurities. The metallographic structure of the sheet includes from 10% to 15% of pearlite, the rest is ferrite. The points of non-metallic inclusions are not more than 2.5 by average, not more than 3 by maximum, the points of grain is not more than 8, the banding is not more than 2 points, and carbon equivalent Ceq is not more than 0.43%.EFFECT: sheets to be manufactured have yield strength at least 265 MPa, ultimate strength at least 430 MPa, and KCV impact strength at minus 60 degrees.4 cl, 2 tbl
ethod for producing cold-rolled product for automotive engineering // 2638477
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes steel melting, casting, hot rolling, cooling with water, winding of strips into rolls, cold rolling, recrystallisation annealing in a bell furnace and temper rolling. Melted steel contains, wt %: carbon 0.06-0.12, silicon not less than 0.40, manganese - 1.10-1.50, chromium not less than 0.10, the rest are iron and unavoidable impurities, recrystallisation annealing is carried out to final temperature T=-1.1239×ε+665.42, where 1.1239 is the empirical factor, ε the degree of compression during cold rolling, %, 665.42 is the empirical factor. After that it is kept under a heating bell with switched odd burners for not more than 4 hours, then at a temperature of at least 580°C, the accelerated cooling is carried out under the muffle at 25-35°C/hr rate. In addition, the unpacking of the charge is carried out at temperature not exceeding 90°C, and temper rolling is carried out with reduction of 0.8-1.6%.EFFECT: increased strength properties while maintaining stamping formability and producing physical-mechanical properties uniform along the length and cross-section of the strip.3 cl, 3 tbl
Deoxidiser for steel // 2638470
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: deoxidizer for steel contains, wt %: calcium carbide 40-55, calcium oxide 20-38, aluminium oxide 12-25 and impurity compounds 3-10 at concentration ratio of calcium oxide to the concentration of aluminium oxide 1-2.5 and is homogeneous alloy of calcium carbide CaC2 with a low-melting flux system CaO*Al2O3.EFFECT: invention allows to increase the degree of deoxidiser assimilation with steel oxygen with simultaneous development of processes of desulphurisation and removal of nonmetallic inclusions formed by free-running liquid of lime-alumina slag.2 tbl

Forging in the open stamp with separate passages of difficult for forging and sensitive to the trajectory of deformation of alloys based on titanium and based on nickel // 2638139
FIELD: metallurgical engineering.SUBSTANCE: forging is performed by the heated blank on the press in an open stamp in the first forging direction to the plasticity limit of the blank material. This forging is then repeated until a total degree is obtained sufficient to initiate grinding of the microstructure. Then the blank is rotated through an angle and forged in the second forging direction until the overall degree of deformation in the second forging direction is sufficient to initiate the grinding of the microstructure. The step of turning and the forging step in the third and, optionally, one or more additional forging directions are repeated. Repetition is carried out until total degree of deformation will be obtained in the entire volume of the blank, sufficient to initiate the grinding of the microstructure. The blank is not rotated until a general degree of deformation sufficient to initiate grinding of the microstructure is obtained in the third direction and any one or more additional directions.EFFECT: increase of efficiency of initiation of the mechanism of grinding of microstructure.22 cl, 3 dwg

ethod for producing high-permeability anisotropic electrical steel // 2637848
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: smelting of steel containing copper from 0.4 to 0.6 wt % of copper, casting, hot rolling, etching, two-fold cold rolling with intermediate decarburizing annealing, application of magnesia coating to the strip, high-temperature and straightening annealing. Before the decarburization stage of the strip in the intermediate thickness, it is heated to 700-980°C at a rate of not less than 100°C/s in oxidizing atmosphere and cooling in oxidizing atmosphere to 600-840°C at a rate of not less than 60°C/sec immediately after reaching the maximum temperature at the heating stage.EFFECT: provide high magnetic permeability of steel and uniformity of magnetic properties.1 dwg, 2 tbl, 2 ex

ethod for producing cast iron by duplex-process of romelt (versions) // 2637840
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of liquid iron from poor iron ores, containing 35-52% of total iron with Fe2O3/FeO ratio higher than 1.5 in two bubbling-type furnaces connected to each other by a chute. Iron ore, coal and fluxes are continuously charged into slag bath of the first furnace. The resulting melt with partially reduced iron oxide flows into the second furnace for performing iron reduction and iron production. The gases leaving the slag bath are burnt in the above-slag space with oxygen supplied through tuyeres for afterburning. For implementation of the first version of the invention, the flue gases of the first and second furnaces are removed in separate flue ducts into waste-heat boilers for steam production. For implementation of the second version of the invention, the flue gases after the afterburning in the second furnace are supplied in gas flow to the first furnace, where they are burned in the above-slag space by oxygen supplied to the tuyeres additionally installed for afterburning. After mixing with gases of the first furnace, flue gases are removed into waste-heat boiler for steam production through the flue duct of the first furnace.EFFECT: increased iron oxide reduction rate, reduced loss of iron with slag by value less than 5 percent when melting highly oxidized materials.6 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
Steel-melting "ecoslag" flux and method of its production and application // 2637839
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: steel-melting flux contains, wt %: calcium oxide base; aluminium oxide 5-25; silicon dioxide, 5-20; magnesium oxide, 4-15; iron oxides0.1-2 which is fed to slag crystallisation unit for thermal stabilisation by accelerated cooling in the temperature range 1600→600°C at a rate of 30-100°C/s providing crystallisation of dicalcium silicate (C2S) in metastable phase βL and producing conditioned product of lump shape with 5-70 mm fraction and cut-off fraction less than 5 mm.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce flux with low melting temperature and high reactivity, provides formation of primary slag saturated with oxides of calcium and iron, reduction of negative effect on the environment due to elimination of waste formation and emissions of fluorine-containing substances, accumulation and storage of slag in dumps.4 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl

ethod for producing low-carbon boiling steel // 2637735
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes preparing thermite mixture containing scale, aluminium crumbles as a reducer and modifiers, and performing reduction reaction in a crucible with a discharge opening to form liquid steel and slag and holding steel before casting. In this case, aluminium crumb is used that provides the content of active aluminium in thermite mixture 17-21 by wt %.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce energy costs in the production of low-carbon boiling steel and reduce the time of the technological cycle.1 dwg
ethod to produce thick-sheet strip of low-alloy steel // 2637544
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: to obtain strip of 365 Mpa strength class and higher with a guarantee of toughness at temperatures to -60°C and of viscous component ration in fracture of samples determined by falling weight test in temperature range to -20°C is at least 60% at minimum cost for alloying, continuous cast blank of steel is obtained with the following ratio of elements, wt %: Σ (C+Si)=0.54-0.82, Mn (1.894÷3.24)×(C+Si), Σ (Cr+Ni+Cu) not more than 0.15, Σ (V+Nb+Ti) no more than 0.02, N no more than 0.008, Al 0.02-0.05, S not more than 0.010, P is not more than 0.018, iron and unavoidable impurities are the rest, Ce= 0.37-0.43%, blank is subjected to rough rolling with relative reductions of at least 8% per pass, except for passes of achieving width and up to thickness of rolled piece not less than 3 thicknesses of finished sheet, to cooling and finish rolling of rolled piece at start temperature of 810-850°C and completion of 720-760°C with production of ferrite-pearlite structure with grain size not more than 9 points, which is deformed in rolling direction in ratio of at least 2:1 with respect to direction of rolled stock thickness and strip roughness of not more than 3 points. The ratio of volume fraction of ferrite to pearlite fraction is not less than 4:1.EFFECT: production of thick sheet steel strip of low alloy steel thickness from 10 to 15 mm.3 cl, 3 tbl

Non-oriented electrical steel sheet with high magnetic flux density and motor // 2637449
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of metallurgy, namely to the non-oriented electrical steel sheet of 0.10-0.50 mm thickness which is used as a material for the core of the drive motor and an electric generator. The sheet is made of steel of the following chemical composition, wt %: C not more than 0.010, Si 1.0-7.0, Mn 0.001-3.0, solution of Al 0.0001-3.5, P 0.01-0.2, S not more than 0.010, N not more than 0.010, the rest is Fe and unavoidable impurities. The ratio (P120/ Fe700) of the peak height P120 P at electron energy of 120 eV to the height of Fe700 peak Fe with electron energy of 700 eV in the differential spectrum of Auger electrons produced by analysing the broken surface of the grain boundary by Auger spectroscopy is not less than 0.1.EFFECT: high magnetic flux density and excellent iron loss in the high frequency region.9 cl, 5 dwg, 3 tbl

ethod for converter gases utilisation for hydrogen production // 2637439
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes withdrawal of converter gas formed during metal blowing in converter, its cooling, purification and separation of hydrogen by means of short-cycle adsorption. Cooling and purification of converter gases is carried out by energy-chemical accumulation of natural gas in a reactor with the return of the metal-containing fly-off to the converter process. Gas after energy-chemical accumulation is mixed with water steam, sent to steam-water conversion reactor of carbon oxide, repeatedly cooled, process condensate is separated, hydrogen is recovered and hydrogen-containing gas obtained by steam-water conversion of natural gas is used in reactor during the absence of converter gases discharge.EFFECT: elimination of sludge formation process at reduction of metal and heat losses.1 dwg,1 ex

Regenerative soaking pit // 2637200
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: regenerative soaking pit consists of a chamber made in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped bounded by lined walls and a movable cover, and blocks of regenerators. The chamber in upper part is additionally equipped with five burners arranged on one of the side walls on a common horizontal axis at a distance from the cover and equal to 0.25-0.30 of wall height.EFFECT: reduced the residence time of the ingots in the furnace, increased performance, reduced fuel consumption due to uniform heating of the metal ingots in the pit.3 dwg

Recuperative soaking pit // 2637199
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: recuperative soaking pit comprises a chamber in the form of rectangular parallelepiped bounded by lined walls, a hearth and a movable cover, a burner located in the upper part of the chamber front wall. The chamber in the lower part is provided with burners located on a common horizontal axis on one of the side walls at a distance from the hearth and equal to 0.25-0.30 of the wall height.EFFECT: reduced heating time for ingots in furnace, increased performance, reduced fuel consumption due to uniform heating of metal ingots in the pit.2 dwg

ethod and system for heat treatment of rails // 2637197
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes active cooling phase where the rail is rapidly cooled from austenite temperature and then smoothly cooled to maintain the target conversion temperature between the specified values of the cooling treatment performed by a plurality of cooling modules (12.n) each cooling module comprises a plurality of means for spraying the cooling medium on the rail, the method is characterized in that during the active cooling phase, each cooling means is driven to control the cooling rate of the rail so that amount of converted austenite in rail is not less than 50% on rail surface and not less than 20% in the rail head core.EFFECT: production of desired microstructure, improved mechanical properties.22 cl, 11 dwg
ethod of ladle treatment of alloyed steels // 2637194
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of grades of alloyed of steels with the content of carbon from 0.2 to 0.7 wt % including with increased sulfur concentration of 0.01-0.04 wt %. The method of ladle treatment of alloyed steels includes stepped introduction of deoxidizing agents and alloying components at outlet of semi-product into a steel-ladle with the subsequent supply of metal to continuous casting. The temperature and the active oxygen content of the semi-product at the outlet are 1600-1700°C and 0.030-0.075% respectively, primary deoxidation is performed with carbon-containing material preliminarily added to the bottom of steel-ladle, when the steel-ladle is filled with 1/6-1/5 of height, aluminium is added in amount of up to 3 kg/ton, when the steel-ladle is filled 1/2-2/3 of the height, the silicomanganese is added together with the second additive of the carbon-containing material, the alloying components are supplied in the form of master alloys and ferroalloys on the middle of the grade content of the components from the calculation of their total assimilation, and the calcium-containing materials are added to ladle prior to feeding metal for continuous casting.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain low contamination level of metal with non-metallic inclusions, including sulfide, silicate and spinel types due to optimisation of deoxidation processes, alloying of metal and modification with calcium-containing materials, and reduction of steel-melting defects due to increased stability of continuous casting.2 cl,1 tbl,1 ex

System and method for reducing powder iron ore in fluidized bed // 2637043
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention provides high-speed gas treatment which makes it possible to increase the rate of iron ore reduction and increase gas treatment efficiency of a single effective cross-section of the boiling layer. By means of parallel lines through which the reducing coke gas passes, the volume of gas passing through each individual boiling layer is reduced. The treatment with successive and parallel movement of the reducing coke gas increases the utilisation factor of the coke gas.EFFECT: invention enables highly efficient reduction of powdered iron ore in the boiling layer at near atmospheric pressure.8 cl, 1 dwg
ethod for heat treatment of railway wheels // 2636777
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: railway wheel is heated to the austenitizing temperature, immersed in the quench tank to a depth up to the starting point of rim transition into the disc, and cooled while the railway wheel is rotated simultaneously, then tempering is carried out at 450-550°C. The hardening medium temperature in the tank is 15-30°C, hardening process lasts for 100-250 seconds, and the wheel is rotated with frequency of 90-150 rev/min.EFFECT: improved mechanical and performance properties.5 cl, 2 dwg
ethod for producing round rolled stock of boron-containing steel with increased ductility // 2636542
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: when producing fasteners with cold upsetting, steel is melted containing, wt %: carbon 0.07-0.11, silicon 0.15-0.40, manganese 0.30-0.55, aluminium 0.02-0.05, sulfur 0.005-0.025, phosphorus 0.005-0.025, chromium 0.02-0.15, nickel 0.02-0.30, copper 0.03-0.18, titanium 0.002-0.03, boron 0.001-0.003, molybdenum 0.002-0.03, nitrogen 0.005-0.010, tin 0.001-0.015, lead 0.001-0.010, zinc 0.001-0.018, calcium 0.001-0.003, iron and impurities are the rest, continuous casting of steel is carried out to produce a blank with 150×150 mm section with macrostructure segregation level not more than 2 points, austenization of the blank, rolling on intermediate square cross section 106×106 mm size, continuous cleaning and polishing, heating, rolling the blank into a round profile and cooling in two stages, wherein at first, accelerated cooling by high-pressure water to 850-930°C, and then air cooling with round rolled stock movement rate of 0.4-1.0 m/s and with the possibility for adjusting the cooling intensity depending on the diameter of the rolled bars and the temperature of the surrounding medium. The round rolled product has elongation at least 34% and relative contraction not less than 72%.EFFECT: increased elastic properties of rolled product makes it possible to ensure the degree of deformation of rolled product at the level of 66 percent.1 cl
 
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