By heat treatment, e.g. calcining (C10L9/08)
C10L9/08 By heat treatment, e.g. calcining(53)
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of separating lignin from lignin-containing medium, such as liquid made in the method of processing biomass, for example, from a black alkaline solution produced in the enterprise of recycling of pulp, and processing the separated lignin, includes: the precipitation of lignin from lignin-containing liquid medium, followed by exposure of lignin hydrothermal carbonization in the wet state and the removal of carbonaceous material derived from lignin as a result of the carbonization after the implementation of the hydrothermal carbonization, the method further includes: the regulation of the particle size of the carbonaceous material by bringing the pH value of lignin in the wet state before the hydrothermal carbonization to a value exceeding 7, preferably exceeding 8. The system, a carbon-containing product and the application of the product are also declared.EFFECT: obtaining a hydrocarbon product with a controlled particle size and increasing the profitability of the process.17 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for producing fuels from biomass in which the biomass is heat treated in a temperature range of 150 to 300°C, a reactor (11) with a pressure, increased steam, and air, in which the pressure is dropped upon completion of the treatment. The amount of steam and other gases increased from the collapse is temporarily accumulated in the container (14) with an adaptive volume, and steam and other gases are subjected to heat for at least one heat exchanger (13) so that condensed gases are condensed and the heat of condensation is released to at least one heat exchanger (13). A device for producing fuels from biomass is also disclosed.EFFECT: optimisation of production costs and reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere when receiving fuel from biomass.16 cl, 3 tbl, 1 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: electricity-producing industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the coal drying system, which dehydrates the coal that is used in the capacity of the fuel material for the thermal power station. There is a device for coal drying, which dries the coal by dint of the superheated steam spraying from the superheater with the boiling bed and of the secondarily superheated steam spraying, which is generated in the secondary superheater. The coal drying system, more specifically the coal drying system using secondarily superheated steam, comprises: a coal storage, a coal grading device, a transport conveyer for coal transporting from the coal storage, a transport conveyer for coal fuel and a transport conveyer for the dryable coal, a storage container for the coal fuel, a superheater with the boiling bed for the coal fuel, which is stored in the coal storage container, combusting in the boiling bed with the superheated steam formation at a specific temperature, a device for coal drying, which dries the coal by dint of the spraying the superheated steam, which is generated in the superheater with the boiling bed, and the secondarily superheated steam in the secondary gaseous combustion products superheater, which generates the secondarily superheated steam by virtue of the gaseous combustion products that are formed in the superheater with the boiling bed, and with the use of the off-gas, which is generated after the coal drying in the device for coal drying.EFFECT: invention should enhance the coal calorific capacitance with the upgrading of the fuel efficiency in the steam boiler furnace of the thermal power station and should decrease the fuel consumption.8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: timber conversional industry.SUBSTANCE: way of wood torrefaction comprises the wood warming-up to 200°C in the airtight drying chamber, the following wood warm-up at a temperature of 200-300°C in the airtight torrefaction chamber, the torrefacated wood cooling-down inside the airtight atmosphere. At first the wood is sawed before the warming-up and then is ripped into wood blocks, the wood warm-up lasts for not less than 2 hours, the further wood warm-up in the torrefaction chamber lasts for 2.3-2.8 hours.EFFECT: enhancement of process safety.4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of biomass torrefaction in torrefaction reactor to produce burnt biomass and gases of torrefaction, wherein an oxygen-containing gas is fed into the torrefaction reactor in the first reactor position so that the oxygen reacts with the components of torrefaction gases with the release of heat, and wherein the torrefaction gases are withdrawn from the torrefaction reactor in the second torrefaction reactor position, and wherein the first position is located downstream of the second position relative to the biomass movement direction in the torrefaction reactor so that the torrefaction gases move in the torrefaction reactor countercurrently to the biomass movement, and wherein the biomass has a temperature from 30°C to 230°C at the torrefaction reactor inlet. Version of biomass torrefaction method, sprayed burnt biomass use and system for biomass torrefaction are also disclosed.EFFECT: providing torrefaction process, which increases the energy yield during torrefaction process, increases the energy density in the burnt product and reduces requirement of energy necessary for crushing the burnt material into a fine powder.26 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a treated coal production device comprising: a reservoir to store the slurry comprising containing moisture coal and oil; a heater heating the slurry supplied from the reservoir through heat exchange with high-temperature steam, and dehydrating the coal; gas-liquid separator removing spray, followed by the steam formed from the slurry by heating; a vapor compressor. The gas-liquid separator comprises one or more mist eliminator node located so that steam sequentially passes through them, and a spraying device spraying liquid onto the first mist eliminator through which vapor passes firstly; and a gauze filter removing the solid, followed by steam with removed spray.EFFECT: trated coal production is in high performance of spray removing by the first mist eliminator, reduced cleaning frequency.3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a torrefication method of dried and heated biomass, comprising the step of cooling of the said biomass during the torrefication reaction in the torrefication area of the torrefication unit so that at least partially neutralize the increase of temperature in the torrefication area arising from the exothermic torrefication reactions in the torrefication area , where the said biomass is wood biomass from fir tree or eucalyptus. Also the torrefication unit is disclosed.EFFECT: invention provides precise control of the torrefication temperature, which is critical for thorough control of quality and properties of burnt material.16 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of refining pellets, pressed from biomass, including following steps: providing of pellets, pressed from biomass and performing heat treatment of pellets while heating to temperature between 210 °C and 390 °C for 1–30 minutes. Invention also describes a device, used to refine pellets pressed from biomass.EFFECT: pellets processed using said method are water-repellent and therefore can be stored in open air.15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: wood-working industry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for torrefaction of wood chips, comprising steps of: a) heating wood chips in at least one heating zone such that temperature of wood chips reaches a torrefaction temperature in range of 240-400 °C; and b) torrefying heated wood chips from step a) in a separate torrefaction zone by maintaining temperature within torrefaction temperature range, wherein heated wood chips from step a) are fed to torrefaction zone at its top, and torrefied material is withdrawn from torrefaction zone at its bottom, such that wood chips move downwards through torrefaction zone by means of gravity, wherein separate torrefaction zone is not externally heated; torrefaction temperature is controlled by measuring surface temperature of wood chips using a first infrared thermometer in upper part of torrefaction zone and a second infrared thermometer in lower part of torrefaction zone; and temperature is maintained within torrefaction temperature range by controlling amount of air or oxygen, fed into torrefaction zone. Also disclosed is a device for torrefaction of wood chips.EFFECT: technical result is developing an energy-efficient torrefaction process, in which torrefaction temperature control is performed by feeding a controlled amount of air or oxygen into torrefaction zone.12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: energy; biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of environmentally friendly energy through biomass combustion. Biomass processing includes loading of biomass in torrefication system, heating of biomass containing moisture till torrefication temperature. Torrefication system (1) comprises first processing device (3) and second processing device (18). In first device (3) biomass is heated up to 260-310 °C during first period of time and supplied to second processing device (18) at temperature of 230-280 °C during second period of time which is longer than first period of time. Herewith, temperature in second device (18) is kept lower than the highest temperature in first device (3). First period of time is preferably maximum 3 min, and second period of time is minimum 3 min.EFFECT: invention provides improved, energy-saving technology of processing biomass to produce fuel with especially useful properties - high calorific capacity and improved dispersibility.17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: coal industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of creating a temperature-dependent carbon film cladding by application of liquid phase on surface of coal, wherein liquid phase used is liquid sodium glass with silica modulus higher than 3.5, film is applied with thickness of not more than 250 mcm, after which light short-term heating of film is performed until its volume increases by not more than 30 %.EFFECT: method enables to avoid or sharply reduce problem of oxidation of coal fuel during storage on open warehouses and prolonged transportation, freezing during transportation and reloading, and corresponding complexity of unloading, and avoid spontaneous ignition and spontaneous heating of coal in storages near thermal power plants.4 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: annealing; measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method of biomass burning includes determination of surface temperature of the biomass in the device with the help of an infrared thermometer in presence of an inert, not active in the infrared region gas which is fed into a space between the lens of the infrared thermometer and the biomass, while the temperature of the inert purge gas at the outlet is above 150°C.
EFFECT: method and device for accurate monitoring and control of annealing temperature, which enables to accurately control quality and properties of annealed material.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass for getting of the product with high content of carbon that features hydrophobic properties. Proposed process comprises the steps that follow. First, fine biomass is produced to be fed into at least one heater for drying purposes. Said dried biomass is fed into at least one spinning reactor of low-temperature pyrolysis. Note here that said reactor is equipped with heating jacket and inner cooling pipes spaced apart in circle. Note here that said cooling pipes are arranged so that at least some of them get in contact at reactor spinning with biomass to cool it down.EFFECT: ruled out formation of sticky tarry matter on reactor inner surfaces.10 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.20 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation, pre-heating and tempering of source oil stock, at the same time moist oil stock is exposed to grinding to fraction of 0-25 mm, dried by internal smoke gases with rated speed of 60-90 m/sec and temperature of 350-400°C in the suspended layer with fountain-like circulation of coke particles to 0.5-2% of moisture content, exposed to cyclone separation with provision of trap ratio of more than 97% and with sifting of dust-like particles with fraction from 0 to less than 2 mm, which is treated with greasing agent with consumption of 0.5-1.0 wt %, per 1 one of coke, and stabilised hot coke with T-60-90°C of fraction more than 2-25 mm is tempered in a rotary drum furnace.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase productivity of tempering furnaces, to stabilise process mode of coke tempering, to improve quality of oil coke, to reduce specific power inputs, to produce commercial product, to reduce anthropogenic emissions into environment.1 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.
FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
The invention relates to a technology for coke raw material for the electrode industry, in particular for the manufacture of electrodes furnaces, as well as anodes used to produce aluminium by electrolysis of cryolite-alumina melts, and may find application in the manufacture of a wide range of products on the basis of structural graphites of different brands
The invention relates to a method of manufacturing coal agglomerates, in which fine coal aglomerados at high temperature
The invention relates to the production of electrode products, namely, the calcining of carbonaceous materials for the production of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces
The invention relates to a solid fuel of iron-rich pellets and can be used in thermal power plants and thermal power plants for the economic development of environmentally sound energy
The invention relates to ferrous metallurgy, in particular the production of calcined anthracite in the manufacture of carbon electrodes, blocks, pastes and other products, and can be used in metallurgy, oil processing and coking industry