Treating solid fuels to improve their combustion (C10L9)

ethod for producing moulded solid fuel // 2628523
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing moulded solid fuel, comprising: a pulverization stage for pulverizing low-grade coal; a stirring stage for mixing the pulverized low-grade coal and the oil solvent to form a slurry; a dewatering stage for heating and dewatering the slurry to form an anhydrous slurry; a stage for separating solid and liquid phases to separate the oil solvent from the dehydrated slurry to form a precipitate; a drying stage for heating the precipitate to further separate the oil solvent from the precipitate to produce powdered coal of enhanced quality; and a moulding stage for compression moulding the powdered coal of improved quality by means of a moulding device without adding and/or mixing with a bonding material, in which at the stage of forming the moulding device on the surface, a cooling substance is pulverized to cool the surface and thus the surface temperature of the moulding device is maintained at 100°C or below.EFFECT: producing moulded solid fuel from low-grade coal, having high strength.6 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

anufacture method of moulded solid fuel // 2628522
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: manufacture method of the briquetted solid fuel includes the following steps: spraying of the low quality coal to produce the pulverized low quality coal; mixing with the oil solvent to form the dewatered suspension; heating and thereby dewatering of the suspension to form the dewatered suspension; separation of the oil solvent from the dewatered suspension by liquid-solid body separation to obtain the cake; heating and thereby drying the cake, so to separate additionally the oil solvent from the cake and to obtain the refined coal in the powder form; mixing of the refined coal with the coal to control the properties in the powder form, in order to control the properties of the refined coal and thereby to obtain the feedstock for briquetting, containing the coal to adjust the properties in the amount from 5 to 70% wt %, based on the total weight of the briquetted feedstock, the mentioned carbon to control the properties, having the free bulk density 0.6 kg/l or more and the natural repose angle of 40° or less, and the feedstock briquetting for the briquetting under the pressure to produce the briquetted solid fuel in the form of briquettes.EFFECT: production of briquetted solid fuel from low-quality coal with high strength.4 cl, 1 dwg, 9 ex, 2 tbl
Way of wood torrefaction // 2626852
FIELD: timber conversional industry.SUBSTANCE: way of wood torrefaction comprises the wood warming-up to 200°C in the airtight drying chamber, the following wood warm-up at a temperature of 200-300°C in the airtight torrefaction chamber, the torrefacated wood cooling-down inside the airtight atmosphere. At first the wood is sawed before the warming-up and then is ripped into wood blocks, the wood warm-up lasts for not less than 2 hours, the further wood warm-up in the torrefaction chamber lasts for 2.3-2.8 hours.EFFECT: enhancement of process safety.4 dwg, 1 tbl

Storage method of refined coal and coal with variable particle size // 2624445
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention describes the method of storing the refined coal, where the method includes the briquettes forming step from the refined coal, the briquette crushing step and the granular coal stacking step, containing the refined coal in which the ground product produced during the milling step is used as at least a portion of the granular coal. The granular coal contains the particles, having a diameter not exceeding 10 mm, in the amount of 50 wt % or more, wherein the granular coal contains particles, having the diameter not exceeding 1 mm, in the amount of 25 wt % or more, and particles, having the diameter, not exceeding 0.15 mm, in the amount of 7 wt % or more.EFFECT: development of the refined coal storage method, which is cost effective and due to which the prevention of stacks spontaneous combustion becomes possible.2 cl, 8 dwg, 8 ex, 2 tbl

Countercurrent oxygen-enhanced torrefaction // 2623225
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of biomass torrefaction in torrefaction reactor to produce burnt biomass and gases of torrefaction, wherein an oxygen-containing gas is fed into the torrefaction reactor in the first reactor position so that the oxygen reacts with the components of torrefaction gases with the release of heat, and wherein the torrefaction gases are withdrawn from the torrefaction reactor in the second torrefaction reactor position, and wherein the first position is located downstream of the second position relative to the biomass movement direction in the torrefaction reactor so that the torrefaction gases move in the torrefaction reactor countercurrently to the biomass movement, and wherein the biomass has a temperature from 30°C to 230°C at the torrefaction reactor inlet. Version of biomass torrefaction method, sprayed burnt biomass use and system for biomass torrefaction are also disclosed.EFFECT: providing torrefaction process, which increases the energy yield during torrefaction process, increases the energy density in the burnt product and reduces requirement of energy necessary for crushing the burnt material into a fine powder.26 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

Treated coal production method and device // 2617690
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a treated coal production device comprising: a reservoir to store the slurry comprising containing moisture coal and oil; a heater heating the slurry supplied from the reservoir through heat exchange with high-temperature steam, and dehydrating the coal; gas-liquid separator removing spray, followed by the steam formed from the slurry by heating; a vapor compressor. The gas-liquid separator comprises one or more mist eliminator node located so that steam sequentially passes through them, and a spraying device spraying liquid onto the first mist eliminator through which vapor passes firstly; and a gauze filter removing the solid, followed by steam with removed spray.EFFECT: trated coal production is in high performance of spray removing by the first mist eliminator, reduced cleaning frequency.3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of biomass torrefication including cooling step of torrefication reaction // 2615169
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a torrefication method of dried and heated biomass, comprising the step of cooling of the said biomass during the torrefication reaction in the torrefication area of the torrefication unit so that at least partially neutralize the increase of temperature in the torrefication area arising from the exothermic torrefication reactions in the torrefication area , where the said biomass is wood biomass from fir tree or eucalyptus. Also the torrefication unit is disclosed.EFFECT: invention provides precise control of the torrefication temperature, which is critical for thorough control of quality and properties of burnt material.16 cl, 3 dwg

ethod and device for refining pellets // 2613327
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of refining pellets, pressed from biomass, including following steps: providing of pellets, pressed from biomass and performing heat treatment of pellets while heating to temperature between 210 °C and 390 °C for 1–30 minutes. Invention also describes a device, used to refine pellets pressed from biomass.EFFECT: pellets processed using said method are water-repellent and therefore can be stored in open air.15 cl, 5 dwg

ethod and arrangement for efficient torrefaction of biomass // 2605416
FIELD: wood-working industry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for torrefaction of wood chips, comprising steps of: a) heating wood chips in at least one heating zone such that temperature of wood chips reaches a torrefaction temperature in range of 240-400 °C; and b) torrefying heated wood chips from step a) in a separate torrefaction zone by maintaining temperature within torrefaction temperature range, wherein heated wood chips from step a) are fed to torrefaction zone at its top, and torrefied material is withdrawn from torrefaction zone at its bottom, such that wood chips move downwards through torrefaction zone by means of gravity, wherein separate torrefaction zone is not externally heated; torrefaction temperature is controlled by measuring surface temperature of wood chips using a first infrared thermometer in upper part of torrefaction zone and a second infrared thermometer in lower part of torrefaction zone; and temperature is maintained within torrefaction temperature range by controlling amount of air or oxygen, fed into torrefaction zone. Also disclosed is a device for torrefaction of wood chips.EFFECT: technical result is developing an energy-efficient torrefaction process, in which torrefaction temperature control is performed by feeding a controlled amount of air or oxygen into torrefaction zone.12 cl, 4 dwg

ethod and device for processing biomass // 2596743
FIELD: energy; biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of environmentally friendly energy through biomass combustion. Biomass processing includes loading of biomass in torrefication system, heating of biomass containing moisture till torrefication temperature. Torrefication system (1) comprises first processing device (3) and second processing device (18). In first device (3) biomass is heated up to 260-310 °C during first period of time and supplied to second processing device (18) at temperature of 230-280 °C during second period of time which is longer than first period of time. Herewith, temperature in second device (18) is kept lower than the highest temperature in first device (3). First period of time is preferably maximum 3 min, and second period of time is minimum 3 min.EFFECT: invention provides improved, energy-saving technology of processing biomass to produce fuel with especially useful properties - high calorific capacity and improved dispersibility.17 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of creating temperature-dependent carbon film cladding // 2595344
FIELD: coal industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of creating a temperature-dependent carbon film cladding by application of liquid phase on surface of coal, wherein liquid phase used is liquid sodium glass with silica modulus higher than 3.5, film is applied with thickness of not more than 250 mcm, after which light short-term heating of film is performed until its volume increases by not more than 30 %.EFFECT: method enables to avoid or sharply reduce problem of oxidation of coal fuel during storage on open warehouses and prolonged transportation, freezing during transportation and reloading, and corresponding complexity of unloading, and avoid spontaneous ignition and spontaneous heating of coal in storages near thermal power plants.4 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex

ethod of monitoring and controlling annealing temperature // 2593988
FIELD: annealing; measurement equipment. SUBSTANCE: method of biomass burning includes determination of surface temperature of the biomass in the device with the help of an infrared thermometer in presence of an inert, not active in the infrared region gas which is fed into a space between the lens of the infrared thermometer and the biomass, while the temperature of the inert purge gas at the outlet is above 150°C. EFFECT: method and device for accurate monitoring and control of annealing temperature, which enables to accurately control quality and properties of annealed material. 13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl

Lignite complex processing line and method // 2569013
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used in lignite and high ash coal processing. Lignite processing line comprises super high frequency heating reactor 2 connected by its gaseous product outlet with the cooler 4, dispersing device 9 and pump 8. Super high frequency heating reactor 2 is composed by a coal distillation device and connected by the solids outlet with water tank 7 being communicated, in its turn, with the said dispersing device 9 connected with at least one settling-separating column 11. Processing line implements the method of lignite processing including a crushed lignite distillation with recovery of combustible gas. Coal distillation is executed at super high frequency heating reactor 2. Combustible gas recovery is performed after its separation from the sublimates at the cooler 4. Said sublimates are settled at the cooler 4 and used as the metal concentrate. After coal distillation, the coal is mixed with water and dispersed for dispersed mix to be separated to live coal and mineral fraction.EFFECT: higher yield of lignite with gas and sublimate extraction and dressing of live coal.7 cl, 1 dwg

ethods and devices for improvement of solid fuel quality // 2561102
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: inventions relate to chemical and fuel fields of industry, as well as to the environment protection. First, data about initial solid fuel sample are compared with one or more required characteristics after processing. On the basis of said comparison index of difference in solid fuel composition is formed, and at least one working parameter of processing is determined. Index of polluting substances, separated from solid fuel in the process of its processing, is registered. At least, one parameter of processing is regulated, if registered index of polluting substances indicates that one or more required characteristics has not been achieved. At least, one working parameter is sent to controller and control device and one or more final characteristics of solid fuel, which are compared with required characteristics, is determined, and feedback information, characterising one or more final characteristics, is transmitted to device for solid fuel processing.EFFECT: inventions provide reduction of harmful emissions.16 cl, 13 dwg

ethod and device for biomass low-temperature pyrolysis // 2559491
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass for getting of the product with high content of carbon that features hydrophobic properties. Proposed process comprises the steps that follow. First, fine biomass is produced to be fed into at least one heater for drying purposes. Said dried biomass is fed into at least one spinning reactor of low-temperature pyrolysis. Note here that said reactor is equipped with heating jacket and inner cooling pipes spaced apart in circle. Note here that said cooling pipes are arranged so that at least some of them get in contact at reactor spinning with biomass to cool it down.EFFECT: ruled out formation of sticky tarry matter on reactor inner surfaces.10 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl
Fuel composition // 2547902
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel composition, which consists of sodium caboxylate and a carbon-containing compound, where as the carbon-containing compound applied is carbon powder, with the following component ratio, wt %: sodium carboxylate 40-50; carbon powder - the remaining part.EFFECT: increase of the fuel composition stability, reduction of sulphur and ashes content, extension of the boiler fuel assortment.1 tbl, 6 ex

ethod of obtaining high-quality coke // 2539186
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of obtaining high-quality coke by application of borate on red-hot coke after discharge from coke furnaces with temperature 1050±50°C, with its extinguishing being carried out with water solution of borates with content of borates 3-10 g/dm3 in form of solution or pulp in quencher car under quenching tower for 90-120 sec, with tetraborate sodium pentahydrate, borax decahydrate, disodium octaborate tetrahydrate being used as borates.EFFECT: increased quality of blast furnace coke by parameter of hot strength after reaction with CO2 and reduction of its reaction ability.1 dwg, 3 tbl

Preparation of free-burning coal // 2537151
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparation of free-burning coal with the content of volatile substances not exceeding 16% whereat the said coal is heated to 200-395°C to destruct heat-sensitive coal lumps to be cooled and classified thereafter. Anthracite and/or hard coal are used as the free-burning coal. Heated coal is cooled at an ambient temperature.EFFECT: stabilised grain size, simplified process, higher calorific value.5 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 4 ex

Production procedure of petroleum coke with low content of sulphur oxides in combustion gases // 2535473
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the production procedure of petroleum coke with a low content of sulphur oxides in combustion gases, which is based on usage of substances binding sulphur. High-sulphur petroleum coke is saturated with an aqueous dispersion of shale-based substance binding sulphur, stirred up thoroughly to a paste-like state, water is evaporated at a temperature of 120-150°C up to the permanent weight and then cooled down.EFFECT: reducing the sulphur oxide content in combustion gases.6 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex

Lignocellulosic material roasting method and unit // 2534085
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.20 cl, 1 dwg

Coal with improved combustion or related // 2531619
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of a salt of iron and an organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms and sulphonic acids to reduce carbon content in fly ash obtained when burning coal. Described is coal treated with said salt of iron and an organic acid. The invention also describes methods of treating and burning coal by adding a salt of iron and an organic acid before or during combustion of coal in a furnace.EFFECT: reduced content of carbon in fly ash obtained when burning coal in a furnace.18 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
odifier of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning // 2515988
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modifier of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning, in particular, wood, natural gas, coal, mazut and other hydrocarbons in power boilers, in closed or open chambers, characterised by the fact that said modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt % of water, from 20 to 80 wt % of at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt % of carbamide or its derivatives, selected from alkyl urea of type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2, where R1, R2 are similar or different and represent C1-C6 alkyl groups, and from 5 to 15 wt % of monoacetylferrocene. Object of invention also includes method of modifying process of burning said types of fuel and application of fuel burning modifier. Modifier can also be applied as catalyst in power boilers, for afterburning of soot, furnace gases and other admixtures, present in combustion chamber.EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to increase output of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning.10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
icrowave-gradient activation of coal fuel with help of protective film // 2514826
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microwave-gradient activation of coal fuel with the help of protective coat. This is performed by bringing microwave effects to coal fuel to activate coal particle. Note here that coal lump surface is coated with protective film to arrest the escape of volatiles during the microwave activation. Note here that pressure inside coal lump is over 10 atm and does not factures nor crack in the film. Protective film availability allows arresting the escape of volatiles and to sustain temperature approximating to 700°C without film fracture and crack formation.EFFECT: higher completeness of combustion, lower rate of boiler inner surface slagging.3 ex
ethod of modifying carbon surface // 2502715
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing a carbon suspension in aqueous copper acetate solution in weight ratio C : H2O : Cu(CHCOO)2-H2O = 1 : 10…15 : 0.25…0.30, heating to 90...100°C, adding aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to the carbon suspension with weight ratio of copper acetate to sodium hydroxide Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O : NaOH = 1 : 1.05…1.2 for 20…30 minutes, adding aqueous solution of a surfactant - octyl phenyl ether of polyethylene oxide to carbon of 0.005…0.02 : 1. The mixture is then held while stirring for 10…15 minutes and then cooled to 25…30°C, followed by filtration, washing with water and drying at temperature of 90…100°C to constant weight.EFFECT: invention enables to modify the surface of carbon with copper oxide with maximum output.1 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of fuel enrichment and fuel improving agent // 2500793
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: average size of particles of fuel improving agent is within range of 1-100 mcm. Invention is related to method of pozzolana production by heating of the target fossil fuels in furnace of fuel improving agent.EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency and decreasing carbon content in ash and in consequence in result of combustion useful material is obtained instead of waste.16 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

ethod of activating coal particles in vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber // 2499035
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.1 cl, 6 dwg

ethod for oil coke tempering // 2492211
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation, pre-heating and tempering of source oil stock, at the same time moist oil stock is exposed to grinding to fraction of 0-25 mm, dried by internal smoke gases with rated speed of 60-90 m/sec and temperature of 350-400°C in the suspended layer with fountain-like circulation of coke particles to 0.5-2% of moisture content, exposed to cyclone separation with provision of trap ratio of more than 97% and with sifting of dust-like particles with fraction from 0 to less than 2 mm, which is treated with greasing agent with consumption of 0.5-1.0 wt %, per 1 one of coke, and stabilised hot coke with T-60-90°C of fraction more than 2-25 mm is tempered in a rotary drum furnace.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase productivity of tempering furnaces, to stabilise process mode of coke tempering, to improve quality of oil coke, to reduce specific power inputs, to produce commercial product, to reduce anthropogenic emissions into environment.1 dwg

ethod for reduction of hazardous emissions from burners with flame combustion // 2490318
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for reduction of hazardous emissions from burners with flame combustion that includes supply of absorbent to burner and collection of used absorbent; the method is distinguished by absorbent delivery into flue gases formed in the post-flame area in quantity of 5-7% of fuel consumption.EFFECT: reduction of hazardous emissions into atmosphere, in particular sulphur oxides, and improvement of operating economy and reliability of a boiler unit.1 cl, 1 ex

Fuel additive and fuel containing said additive // 2486229
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel additive based on aliphatic alcohols, carbamide (urea) and water, characterised by that it further contains boric acid, with the following ratio of components, wt %: C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols 10-97.99; carbamide (urea) 1-30; boric acid 0.01-3; water 1-85. The invention also relates to a fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with addition of said additive in amount of 0.0001-0.1 wt %.EFFECT: additive improves the fuel combustion process, has high solubility in any type of fuel and high catalytic capabilities; due to its high efficiency, the additive can be added to fuel in a concentration which is several times lower than that of similar additives.4 cl, 4 tbl

ethod for obtaining briquetted solid fuel using porous coal as raw material // 2482167
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for obtaining briquetted solid fuel, which can reduce the cost of briquetting at maintaining the strength of briquetted product. Mixed oil that contains heavy oil and oil-solvent, and porous coal having moisture content of 30 to 70 wt %, is mixed so that a suspension is obtained. Suspension is dehydrated by heating so that dehydrated suspension is obtained. Oil-solvent is extracted from dehydrated suspension so that the residue is obtained. The residue is heated, and oil-solvent is extracted in addition from the residue so that modified coal is obtained. Moisture is introduced to modified coal so that wet modified coal with moisture content of 3-10 wt % is obtained. At the stage of moisture introduction, crushed porous coal with moisture content of 30 to 70 wt % is mixed with modified coal. Then, wet modified coal is briquetted under pressure.EFFECT: reduction of briquetting cost at maintaining the briquette strength.2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
Active pellets // 2477305
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling wood-plant wastes and peat and can be used in producing ecologically clean biofuels in form of active briquettes and granules (pellets) for industrial and domestic needs. The solid biofuel based on wood-plant components and/or peat additionally contains a combustion catalyst, with the following ratio of components, wt %: combustion catalyst 0.001-10; crushed wood-plant component and/or peat 100. The wood-plant components used are wood shavings, wood chips, bark, straw, chaff, seed husks, mill cake, stalks and leaves, waste paper, and the combustion catalyst is in form of inorganic derivatives of group I-II and VI-VIII metals.EFFECT: obtaining ecologically clean biofuel.3 cl, 2 tbl
ethod to produce coal briquettes // 2473671
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for production of coal briquettes from coal slurry and coal fines with a binder - an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte - a flocculant on the basis of a polyacrylamide (PAA). As an intensifying additive to increase adhesion as a charge is compressed in process of pressing, the initial solution of PAA is complemented with water-soluble surfactants from the class of polyethers based on propylene glycol. Coal briquettes are used for communal-domestic and technological purposes.EFFECT: higher efficiency of application.

ethod of increasing rate and completeness of fuel oxidation in combustion systems // 2471858
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of intensifying fuel oxidation in combustion systems involves increasing the rate of oxidation, raising oxidation temperature and/or increasing the rate of increase of oxidation temperature. The method involves adding a catalytic additive to an oxidant and/or fuel before or during the fuel oxidation process, where the catalytic additive is a solid substance, its solution or suspension, or a liquid substance or its emulsion, in form of a separate catalytic substance or a catalytic mixture of substances. The catalytic substance or at least one of the substances in the catalytic mixture contains at least one functional carbonyl group and has in the infrared spectrum at least one intense absorption band in the region from 1550 to 1850 cm-1. Said catalytic substance or at least one substance in the catalytic mixture is selected from: monocarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; carboxylic acid salts; dicarboxylic acid salts; carboxylic acid amides; dicarboxylic acid amides; carboxylic acid anilides; dicarboxylic acid anilides; carboxylic acid esters; dicarboxylic acid monoesters or diesters; carboxylic acid imides; dicarboxylic acid imides; carbonic acid diamide; acyclic and cyclic carbonic acid esters; urethanes; aminocarboxylic acids whose molecules contain amino groups (NH2 groups) and carboxyl groups (COOH group); peptides and proteins whose molecules are built from a-amino acid residues linked by peptide (amide) bonds C(O)NH. The catalytic additive is added in amount of 0.0000001-01 wt %. The fuel used is solid, gaseous or liquid fuel selected from AI-92 petrol, diesel or masout.EFFECT: faster fuel oxidation, high oxidation temperature, higher rate of increase of oxidation temperature, higher enthalpy of combustion products, more complete fuel combustion, fewer solid deposits on engine parts, reduced harmful emissions with exhaust gases, reduced fuel combustion.5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex
ixed fuel // 2460762
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: mixed fuel includes lignin and hydrogen in the weight ratio of lignin to hydrogen of 9:1 to 1:9, mainly of 2:1 to 1:3.EFFECT: more complete combustion of lignin; reduction of ash content of fuel.1 cl

ethods and apparatus for enhancing quality of solid fuel // 2458975
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: apparatus for cleaning solid fuel, for example coal, has: an input apparatus for obtaining data on the initial sample of solid fuel associated with one or more characteristics thereof; an apparatus for comparing said data with the required characteristic of the solid fuel and determining the difference; at least one sensor for monitoring pollutants released when processing solid fuel; an apparatus for controlling processing in accordance with a feedback signal received from at least one sensor; a multilayer conveyor belt for moving the solid fuel which is configured to transmit the main part of microwave energy. The first layer of the belt is wear-resistant and the second layer has high heat-resistance. Characteristics of the solid fuel are: moisture, ash and sulphur content or the type of the solid fuel. Pollutants are water, hydrogen, hydrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide gas, liquid sulphur, ash.EFFECT: controlling solid fuel processing.21 cl, 13 dwg

ethod for microwave gradient activation of coal // 2458107
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method consists in microwave gradient activation of coal in high-gradient microwave field in velocity control mode of microwave field rise. Boundaries of coal lump are arranged in zones of zero or close-to-zero intensities of microwave field. Activation is performed till deep cracks appear in coal lump, which do not lead to its complete destruction. End of activation process stage is appearance of persistent flame of activation volatile hydrocarbons.EFFECT: quick and effective heating of coals; improving energy use efficiency for coal heating; processing of compound hydrocarbons to easier and more volatile hydrocarbons deep in coal lump prior to the combustion beginning; possibility of controlling the modes of power pumping to various forms of activated volumes of coal, which allows implementing various modes of action on coal.2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl, 8 dwg
Fuel briquette // 2447135
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of producing solid organic fuel, particularly fuel briquettes, and can be used to heat houses, in field conditions, on transportation and in industry. The fuel briquette is made with longitudinal holes and contains organic binder in form of polypropylene production wastes in amount of 2.0-10.0 wt %, oxidising agent - potassium nitrate 2.0-5.0 wt %, catalyst - MnO2+Fe2O3 mixture with weight ratio thereof ranging from 4:1 to 1:6 in amount of 0.1-1.5 wt % and sawdust - the rest.EFFECT: high calorific value of the briquette and reduced smoking.1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl

ethod for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke // 2445348
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke is implemented by spraying at temperature of not less than 20°C onto blast-furnace coke lumps of 2-20% water solution of sodium, potassium or calcium pentaborate, which contains 0.1-0.2 wt % of non-ionic surface active substance in the form of mono- and/or dialkyl ethers of polyethylene glycol in the quantity providing the content of surface active substance in coke of 0.0035-0.0070 wt %; at that, content of dry pentaborate of one of the above metals in coke is 0.09-0.68 wt %.EFFECT: improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke owing to decreasing reactivity index and increasing its strength value.1 cl, 25 ex, 2 tbl

ethod for intensifying combustion process of tpp solid low-reactive fuel // 2437028
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method for intensifying the combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition; pulverised-coal mixture is subject to ultrasonic treatment immediately prior to supply to burners, and then to ignition and burning in the boiler. As nanoadditions there used are astralines - multi-layer fulleroide nanoparticles or Taunit - carbon nanomaterial. Nanoadditions are introduced to pulverised-coal mixture in the form of homoeopathic doses as per weight of solid fuel of 0.01 - 0.02%. The method results in increase of response rate of ignition and combustion of fuel mixture; besides, at combined burning of low-reactivity coal and fuel oil in the steam boiler furnace the method leads to reduction of unburnt carbon, nitrogen and sulphur oxides emissions, and therefore, to reduction of corrosion of heating surface and to improvement of reliability of power equipment; increase in combustion efficiency of pulverised-fuel mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition owing to avoiding the agglomeration of components. The effect is achieved due to intensification method of combustion process of TPP solid low-reactivity fuel, which involves preparation of pulverised-coal mixture of low-reactivity fuel with air and nanoaddition, ultrasonic treatment, ignition and its burning in the boiler.EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency of low-reactivity solid fuel.4 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of producing mixed solid fuel // 2429282
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves preparation of a fuel mixture via successive mechanical mixing of oxidising agent with fuel-binder. The oxidising agent used is either ammonium perchlorate (APC) or ammonium nitrate (AN) or octogen (HMX) or a mixture of APC/AN, APC/HMX, AN/HMX, components being in ratio 1/1 for each mixture. The fuel-binder used is inert rubber (SKDM-80) or active rubber - polyurethane which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The mixture additionally contains tin chloride powder with particle size (100-150) mcm, which is premixed for not less than 30 minutes with ultrafine aluminium powder with particle size less than 0.1 mcm, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ultrafine aluminium powder 87.5, tin chloride powder - 12.5. A hardener is added to the obtained mixture and the fuel composition is stirred for not less than 30 minutes.EFFECT: rate of combustion of the mixed solid fuel increases depending on compositions of the oxidising agent and fuel-binder used in the fuel.2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of producing metallised solid fuel // 2415906
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical mixture of an oxidising agent, fuel binder and metallic fuel. The oxidising agent used is ammonium perchlorate with particle size not greater than 50 mcm and ammonium nitrate with particle size (165-315) mcm. The fuel binder used is butadiene rubber which is plasticised with transformer oil or polyurethane rubber which is plasticised with nitroglycerine. The metal fuel used is aluminium micropowder or aluminium nanopowder or mixtures thereof. Further, silicon dioxide with average particle size not greater than 50 mcm is added to the fuel in amount of 1-2 wt % over 100% of the fuel mass. The mixture is further mixed and evacuated. The obtained fuel mass is moulded into fluoroplastic units, polymerised and plated on the lateral surface with a solution of linoleum in acetone.EFFECT: high rate of combustion and low content of solid condensed combustion products.5 tbl, 2 ex

Composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion // 2406753
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.2 tbl
ethod to process coal with high content of sulfur // 2405026
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises coal crushing and damping. Crushed and damped coal is heated to sulfur melting point to deposit sulfur on steel electrodes arranged in coal and receiving direct current. Voltage effect on damped coal in air-water medium at sulfur melting point (119.4°C) time sufficient for sulfur that features polar electronegativity to get transferred onto anode steel electrode.EFFECT: simplified process, high degree of extraction of sulfur and sulfur-containing compounds.6 cl, 2 ex
ethod for using of fuel additives being nanosized alloys for non-transparency flame decreasing, scorification, contamination, corrosion and release into atmosphere // 2366690
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for performance improvement of incinerators includes the following stages: burning of the hydrocarbon fuel in incinerator, determination of the given incinerator burning conditions which can be improved by adding of the special additive which conditions are determined on the base of measuring and calculations including hydrodynamical ones; determination of special points location whereat the additives are added to the incinerator; providing on the base of the said stages of the mode of special additive adding to the incinerator in the determine points. The using of the said mode allows to achieve one or more effect selected from the group including: decrease of the flame non-transparency, burning intensification, scorification decrease, reducing of limiting oxygen index, decrease of unburned coal amount, corrosion decrease and improvement of the electrostatic precipitator performance. In the said method the special additive contains the alloy of following general formula (Aa)n(Bb)n(Cc)n(Dd)n(…)n whereat every capital letter and (…) means metal with A being burning modificator, B meaning modificator of deposits, C meaning corrosion inhibitor, D meaning comodificator of burning/intensificator of electrostatic precipitator perfomance whereat each subindex means the stoichiometric index of the composition with n being not less than zero, sum of all n is more than zero; alloys includes two different metals; if metal is cerium the stoichiometric index is less than approximately 0.7.EFFECT: non-transparency decrease of the flame released into atmosphere by large-scale incinerators used in for power production and waste burning industry and community facilities.30 cl

ethodology of dry concentration before combustion and systems for improvement of solid fuel characteristics // 2366689
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: ordinary solid fuel for concentration is obtained; one or several characteristics of ordinary solid fuel selected from following: moisture content (BTU/pound), ash content (%,) total sulphur content (%), content of different sulphur forms (%), content of volatile materials (%), content of bound carbon (%), Hardgrove grindabillity index, mass content of trace minerals and reaction of fuel and its components to electromagnetic radiation are measured; the characteristics of the fuel expectable from solid fuel after its concentration are determined. Relying on desired moisture content in solid fuel at least one working parametre of the system and one configuration parametre leading to obtaining of solid concentrated fuel with desired moisture content are selected; the solid fuel is concentrated by the way of its electromagnetic radiation in accordance with at least one aforementioned parametre; the selected parametre is modified in response to data of moisture content in solid fuel during concentration.EFFECT: obtaining of new family of solid-fuel custom coals being absent in nature.17 cl, 16 dwg
Safe additives improving burning and methods of its receiving // 2353647
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to safety metal-bearing additives improving burning for usage in communal and industry furnaces. Additive contains: complex of metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and dissolvent for transfer of complex catalyst/ligands where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F. Method of additive receiving, by which: it is chosen metal-bearing catalyst containing manganese for usage in furnaces of general-purpose and/or industrial furnaces, it is formed complex of current metal-bearing catalyst, containing manganese with ligands and it is added dissolvent in order to transfer this complex catalyst/ligands, where steam pressure of additive is less than preliminary 200×10-5 Torr at 100°F.EFFECT: receiving of additives safety for inhalation.13 cl, 3 tbl

Demineralisation method of coal // 2337945
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention concerns method of coal demineralisation. Method includes stages of coal particles suspension receiving in alkaline solution, suspension holding at the temperature from 150 till 250°C at pressure which is enough for boiling avoidance, suspension separation for alkalified coal and spent alkaline leaching agent, receiving of acidified suspension of alkalified coal, acidified suspension is of pH 0.5-1.5, separation of acidified suspension for fraction, containing coal, and essentially liquid fraction, implementation for fraction containing coal washing stage, during which fraction containing coal is mixed with water and polar organic vehicle or with water and organic acid, with mixture formation. Received mixture is heated till temperature from 150 till 280°C at pressure enough for boiling avoidance. Then it is implemented coal extraction from mixture.EFFECT: demineralised coal allows reduced content of ashes - till 0.01-0.2% wt, and can be used as fuel for gas turbine.50 cl, 5 dwg
Furnace coke processing method // 2336297
FIELD: oil and gas production industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to coke-chemical and blast-furnace operations area. Furnace coke processing method that consists of processing pieces of furnace coke unloaded from coke furnace, slaked and sorted at temperature 20-50°C and placed in shipment hoppers by spraying with 2-20% water solution of borate selection from the range: sodium pyroborate, potassium pyroborate, calcium pyroborate. Water solution of pyroborate of concentration required for coke processing is prepared by simple mixing in process vessel of calculated weight of pyroborate and water. The volume of finished solution used for processing shall ensure that amount of dry pyroborate in coke corresponds 0.05-0.5% (weight) in terms of coke. Calculated volume of solution to surface of coke pieces is applied by spraying through nozzles with use of pump.EFFECT: improved strength of coke after reaction and reduced reactivity.2 tbl, 14 ex

Plant (versions), method of procession of carbon-containing materials and processed coal // 2333939
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex

Granulated fuel for pyrolysis // 2330876
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to compositions for producing a granulated fuel for pyrolysis on the base of peat with modified additives and can be used in minor energetics and housing and communal services. The invention facilitates efficiency of the granulated fuel for pyrolysis. The assigned task and the said technical result are achieved by means of the fuel containing peat as an organic filling material and aluminium silicate material as a modifying additive at a following composition of elements, mas.%: aluminium silicate material 2-30% and peat 70-98. Granules can be made from 5 to 30 mm size by the method of balling on various types of granulators. A betonite clay, clay marl, Cambrian clay, kaolin clay, synthetic zeolite H-Beta-25 or synthetic zeolite H-MORD can be used as an aluminium silicate material.EFFECT: increased combustion value of the fuel facilitating its efficient implementation at low temperature pyrolisis.9 cl, 9 ex, 2 dwg, 10 tbl