Solid fuels (C10L5)
C10L5 Solid fuels (produced by solidifying fluid fuels c10l0007000000; peat briquettes c10f0007060000)(547)
FIELD: mining engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for controlling the volumetric flow rate of a coal-kerosene suspension in which, during the separation of the solid and liquid phases by feeding the dehydrated coal-kerosene suspension to a centrifugal separator of the decanter type and separating the coal-kerosene suspension into a solid fraction and a liquid fraction, the target electric current fed to the engine to rotate it and drive the screw conveyor of the centrifugal separator of the decanter type is determined such that the liquid level In the tank for a coal-kerosene suspension fed to a centrifugal separator of the decanter type, it can take a constant value; the target opening degree value is determined based on the difference between the target electric current value and the actually measured value of the electric current supplied to the motor; and the degree of opening of the flow control valve, which is located in the middle of the feed line for introducing the coal-kerosene slurry into the centrifugal separator of the decanter type, is adjusted depending on the target degree of opening. Also, the options for ways to regulate the volume flow coal-oil suspensions and devices to perform these techniques are described.EFFECT: ability to effectively prevent overloads and mechanical damages of a centrifugal separator of the decanter type or to reduce the quality of separation of the solid and liquid phases, the ability to stabilise the process of obtaining upgraded brown coal.6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for producing moulded solid fuel, comprising: a pulverization stage for pulverizing low-grade coal; a stirring stage for mixing the pulverized low-grade coal and the oil solvent to form a slurry; a dewatering stage for heating and dewatering the slurry to form an anhydrous slurry; a stage for separating solid and liquid phases to separate the oil solvent from the dehydrated slurry to form a precipitate; a drying stage for heating the precipitate to further separate the oil solvent from the precipitate to produce powdered coal of enhanced quality; and a moulding stage for compression moulding the powdered coal of improved quality by means of a moulding device without adding and/or mixing with a bonding material, in which at the stage of forming the moulding device on the surface, a cooling substance is pulverized to cool the surface and thus the surface temperature of the moulding device is maintained at 100°C or below.EFFECT: producing moulded solid fuel from low-grade coal, having high strength.6 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: manufacture method of the briquetted solid fuel includes the following steps: spraying of the low quality coal to produce the pulverized low quality coal; mixing with the oil solvent to form the dewatered suspension; heating and thereby dewatering of the suspension to form the dewatered suspension; separation of the oil solvent from the dewatered suspension by liquid-solid body separation to obtain the cake; heating and thereby drying the cake, so to separate additionally the oil solvent from the cake and to obtain the refined coal in the powder form; mixing of the refined coal with the coal to control the properties in the powder form, in order to control the properties of the refined coal and thereby to obtain the feedstock for briquetting, containing the coal to adjust the properties in the amount from 5 to 70% wt %, based on the total weight of the briquetted feedstock, the mentioned carbon to control the properties, having the free bulk density 0.6 kg/l or more and the natural repose angle of 40° or less, and the feedstock briquetting for the briquetting under the pressure to produce the briquetted solid fuel in the form of briquettes.EFFECT: production of briquetted solid fuel from low-quality coal with high strength.4 cl, 1 dwg, 9 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: versions of the method for plant biomass processing into the recycled one, suitable for use as fuel, are proposed. Biomass includes parts of plants selected from parts of trees, leaves and roots, and microorganisms found in natural biomass. The method involves suspension preparation by biomass dispersing in an aqueous liquid, suspension maintaining under conditions suitable for aerobic decomposition by microorganisms, processed biomass isolation, washing and drying, and biomass extract recovery. A method is proposed for biomass extract separation into aqueous effluent and aqueous concentrate. A method for recycled biomass combustion is proposed.EFFECT: group of inventions allows to obtain biomass with fewer undesirable components.15 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: mining engineering.SUBSTANCE: antipyrogenic reagent for storage and transportation of coal contains chloroparaffin "ХП-470" 20.0-30.0 wt %, dust suppressor of potassium salts as a mixture of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, pentaglycols and monoethyl ethers of tri- and tetraethylene glycols - the balance is up to 100%.EFFECT: reagent ensures lowering of fire hazard, increasing the frequency of use, lowering the freezing point.1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: in the technological complex on peat based fuel production, containing the interconnected by the conveying devices the receiving unit and the peat raw material separating unit, the chemical solution preparation unit, peat binder preparation unit, the peat binder mixing and homogenization with the main carbon bearing fuel component unit, fuel moulding unit, fuel drying and packing unit, the peat binder preparation unit contains the raw material mechanical and/or ultrasonic treatment device, thermal energy supply device and the chemical reagents solution dosed supply device.EFFECT: simplification of the peat binder preparation process, reduction of the specific energy costs per production unit, increase of reaction properties and burnout rate of the produced fuel.1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for reducing coal humidity during its benefication involves heating the coal mixture, moved by the scraper conveyor by direct contact with the surface of this conveyor, while simultaneously forcing the evaporated moisture out of the heating zone. Only a grade of coal with a particle size from 0.5 to 13 mm is exposed to heating, the surface temperature is controlled in the range from 150 to 250°C, and the speed of moving the working branches of the scraper conveyor is from 0.3 to 1.0 m/s, depending on the percentage of coal of different grades in the initial coal mixture, as well as on the actual humidity parameters of at least two coal grades with a particle size up to 0.5 mm and from 0.5 to 13 mm after their benefication.EFFECT: method allows to efficiently and safely bring the final moisture content of the coal concentrate to the conditioned without the organization of a separate technological process.2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of biomass torrefaction in torrefaction reactor to produce burnt biomass and gases of torrefaction, wherein an oxygen-containing gas is fed into the torrefaction reactor in the first reactor position so that the oxygen reacts with the components of torrefaction gases with the release of heat, and wherein the torrefaction gases are withdrawn from the torrefaction reactor in the second torrefaction reactor position, and wherein the first position is located downstream of the second position relative to the biomass movement direction in the torrefaction reactor so that the torrefaction gases move in the torrefaction reactor countercurrently to the biomass movement, and wherein the biomass has a temperature from 30°C to 230°C at the torrefaction reactor inlet. Version of biomass torrefaction method, sprayed burnt biomass use and system for biomass torrefaction are also disclosed.EFFECT: providing torrefaction process, which increases the energy yield during torrefaction process, increases the energy density in the burnt product and reduces requirement of energy necessary for crushing the burnt material into a fine powder.26 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a torrefication method of dried and heated biomass, comprising the step of cooling of the said biomass during the torrefication reaction in the torrefication area of the torrefication unit so that at least partially neutralize the increase of temperature in the torrefication area arising from the exothermic torrefication reactions in the torrefication area , where the said biomass is wood biomass from fir tree or eucalyptus. Also the torrefication unit is disclosed.EFFECT: invention provides precise control of the torrefication temperature, which is critical for thorough control of quality and properties of burnt material.16 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of producing coal fuel briquettes from oxidised coal, including screenings of coal furnace burden from large fines, its mixing with the binder – aqueous solution of polyacrylamide with admixture of propylene glycol surfactant and “Biogum” humic preparation, briquetting, drying and packing the obtained briquettes.EFFECT: technical result is obtaining coal briquettes with higher efficiency of recultivation and mined-land reclamation.1 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: packaging industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of refining pellets, pressed from biomass, including following steps: providing of pellets, pressed from biomass and performing heat treatment of pellets while heating to temperature between 210 °C and 390 °C for 1–30 minutes. Invention also describes a device, used to refine pellets pressed from biomass.EFFECT: pellets processed using said method are water-repellent and therefore can be stored in open air.15 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention describes fuel briquette based on carbon residue of pyrolysis of tires, including solid residue of pyrolysis of vehicle tires, preliminary enriched by oil agglomeration, wherein as enrichment reagent waste engine oil is used in amount of 4.0–6.0 % to weight of water, used for enrichment, and as binder carbamide is used in amount of 8.0–10 % to weight of enriched concentrate in following proportions, wt%: carbon granules 90–92, carbamide 8.0–10.EFFECT: technical result is production of molded fuel with low ash content and sulfur content, made of concentrate of carbon residue of pyrolysis of tires, that enables more complete recycling of waste tires and improvement of ecological situation in regions.1 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: materials.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses product from wastes obtaining method, including: a) providing wastes; b) effect of low-frequency macro wave radiation with wavelength in range from 700 nm to 1 mm on wastes, with achievement of temperature from 205 °C to 900 °C and pressure from 1.0 bar to 19.0 bar, to form coal therefore; wherein said wastes are subjected to radiation in reaction vessel with double metal wall, providing said reaction vessel outer metal wall heating by means of primary radiation source, heated to at least of 700 °C, as a result of which, said outer wall prevents heat energy transfer by conductivity and convection and as a result of which, external metal wall is secondary radiation source for said material contained within said internal metal wall; and wherein said wastes contain carbon in amount from 9 to 85 %, hydrogen in amount from 1 to 15 % and oxygen in amount from 0 to 65 % expressed as material dry mass. Invention also discloses version of product from wastes obtaining method and products obtained using said methods.EFFECT: technical result consists in obtaining useful products from solid organic and inorganic wastes, which are produced by highly effective and energy-saving method, in which power, transmitted by radiation, exponentially increases with temperature of radiating heat source.32 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex, 9 tbl
FIELD: wood-working industry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for torrefaction of wood chips, comprising steps of: a) heating wood chips in at least one heating zone such that temperature of wood chips reaches a torrefaction temperature in range of 240-400 °C; and b) torrefying heated wood chips from step a) in a separate torrefaction zone by maintaining temperature within torrefaction temperature range, wherein heated wood chips from step a) are fed to torrefaction zone at its top, and torrefied material is withdrawn from torrefaction zone at its bottom, such that wood chips move downwards through torrefaction zone by means of gravity, wherein separate torrefaction zone is not externally heated; torrefaction temperature is controlled by measuring surface temperature of wood chips using a first infrared thermometer in upper part of torrefaction zone and a second infrared thermometer in lower part of torrefaction zone; and temperature is maintained within torrefaction temperature range by controlling amount of air or oxygen, fed into torrefaction zone. Also disclosed is a device for torrefaction of wood chips.EFFECT: technical result is developing an energy-efficient torrefaction process, in which torrefaction temperature control is performed by feeding a controlled amount of air or oxygen into torrefaction zone.12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for production of a dried combustible material, including: the stage of mixing when mixing multiple particles made from a combustible moisture-containing material and a dehydrogenating fluid made of an emulsion containing synthetic resin to form a mixture, wherein the particles surfaces come into contact with the dehydrogenating fluid; as well as the stage of drying with formation of a coating from synthetic resin made from the dehydrogenating liquid, dried on the particles surfaces with evaporation of moisture from the particles in order to generate coated particles including the particles with low percentage of moisture content and a coating from synthetic resin, which covers the particles surfaces, herewith the synthetic resin contained in the dehydrogenating fluid represents an acrylic resin, an urethane resin or a polyvinyl acetate resin, at that, a dried combustible material is obtained formed from the coated particles.EFFECT: technical result is production of a dried combustible material with low moisture content.18 cl, 6 dwg, 5 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to method and device for indirect heat drying of disperse material, method and device for producing clean coal. Method and apparatus for indirect heat drying of disperse material uses two dryers for indirect heat drying. Method involves: step (A), in which dispersed material is dried in a first dryer for indirect heat drying; and step (B), in which dispersed material is further dried in a second dryer for indirect heat drying, to obtain dried disperse material. Method for indirect heat drying of disperse material is characterised by that it additionally includes a step (C), which comprises extracting first microparticles contained in gas-carrier taken from first dryer for indirect heat drying, and mixing with disperse material fed into stage (B); and a step (D), which comprises extracting second microparticles contained in gas-carrier taken fro second dryer for indirect heat drying, and mixing with dried disperse material obtained at step (B). Method of producing clean coal includes a step (α), which comprises mixing dispersed porous coal with oil to form a suspension of raw material, step (β), where suspension of raw material is heated to form a dehydrated suspension, step (γ), which comprises separating dehydrated suspension into porous cleaned coal and oil, and step (δ), where separated porous cleaned coal is dried, wherein step (δ) employs a method for indirect heat drying of disperse material according to claim 1 or 2 or 3. Device for producing clean coal comprises a mixer, heating device, device for solid phase-liquid separation and drying device, which is a device according to claim 5.EFFECT: invention shall provide stability of balance between pressure of carrier gas.6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to applied chemistry, specifically to solid fuel for ramjet engines of rocket projectiles. Solid fuel contains organic combustible binder, ultrafine powder of high-energy metal and carborane and/or phenyl carborane. Combustible binder in solid fuel is a mixture of epoxy resin, dibutylphthalate, curing agent and diamine diaoleate in certain ratio of components.EFFECT: composition of solid fuel ensures preservation of integrity of gas-generating elements made therefrom under conditions of high overloads of rocket projectiles during shooting from gun and its operation by improving mechanical properties of solid fuel with simultaneous high power and other characteristics.4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method of producing fuel briquettes, involving mixing carbon-containing materials and their moulding, wherein method includes mixing wood processing wastes, products of dust separation in wood processing and shale processing.EFFECT: technical result is production of high-calorific, solid fuel briquettes.4 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for production of briquettes, which includes dehydration of sludge and its further pressing at pressure of 30-35 MPa, characterised by using dried oily carbonate sludge of makeup demineraliser of thermal power plants with moisture content of not more than 4 %, ash content of not more than 31.5 % and low combustion heat at least 5,480.4 kcal/kg.EFFECT: technical result consists in producing fuel briquettes with high value of low combustion heat, which enables to use briquette as fuel.1 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method of processing poultry manure into fuel briquettes involving preliminary preparation of components of the initial raw material, dosing of each component, initial raw material milling, mixing in a forced-type mixer to produce a homogeneous mass, the prepared mass is fed into a loading hopper of a piston press, where the mass sealing and moulding the shape and length of briquettes are performed, further drying of the briquettes, herewith the initial raw material milling is performed after its mixing in the mixer, before feeding for briquetting, moisture content of the produced after milling mass is measured and depending on its value pressure of moulding the briquettes is selected from the range of 0.2-1.0 MPa, drying of the briquettes is performed within the temperature range of 50-100 °C in three stages with different exposure time at each stage, herewith at the first stage at the temperature of 50-60 °C during 20-40 minutes, at the second stage at the temperature of 75-85 °C during 3-4 hours, and at the third stage at the temperature of 80-100 °C during 50-70 minutes, then the briquettes are cooled to 40-30 °C naturally or in the forced manner.EFFECT: technical task of the invention is obtaining fuel briquettes with high calorific value.4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses solid fuel manufacturing apparatus (10; 110; 210; 310), including: mixture producing means (10A; 210A; 310A) configured to produce mixture (3) by kneading combustible waste (1), containing moisture and dehydrating agent (2) acting to accelerate removal of moisture from combustible waste; mixture containing means (30; 130; 230) configured to be cylindrical and rotatable and contain (3) mixture in internal space (30S; 130S, 230S); intake means (33) configured to introduce outside air into mixture containing means; exhaust means (41; 241) configured to discharge exhaust air out of mixture containing means; drive means (51, 151, 251) configured to rotate mixture containing means; control means (60, 160; 260) configured to control operations of drive means; and breaking means (72, 272) configured to break up mixture (3) contained in mixture containing means, wherein dehydrating agent is a treatment agent made of an emulsion containing synthetic resin; and breaking means is placed along an inner peripheral wall (31, 231) of mixture containing means and configured to scoop mixture (3) upward in internal space and allow mixture (3) to freely fall from above in internal space by rotation of mixture containing means. Also disclosed is a method for production of solid fuel, including drying and milling of combustible wastes for production of granulated solid fuel (4), performed using apparatus for production of solid fuel.EFFECT: technical result is production of granulated solid fuel from wastes, which has high energy value.7 cl, 33 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: energy; biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of environmentally friendly energy through biomass combustion. Biomass processing includes loading of biomass in torrefication system, heating of biomass containing moisture till torrefication temperature. Torrefication system (1) comprises first processing device (3) and second processing device (18). In first device (3) biomass is heated up to 260-310 °C during first period of time and supplied to second processing device (18) at temperature of 230-280 °C during second period of time which is longer than first period of time. Herewith, temperature in second device (18) is kept lower than the highest temperature in first device (3). First period of time is preferably maximum 3 min, and second period of time is minimum 3 min.EFFECT: invention provides improved, energy-saving technology of processing biomass to produce fuel with especially useful properties - high calorific capacity and improved dispersibility.17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: annealing; measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method of biomass burning includes determination of surface temperature of the biomass in the device with the help of an infrared thermometer in presence of an inert, not active in the infrared region gas which is fed into a space between the lens of the infrared thermometer and the biomass, while the temperature of the inert purge gas at the outlet is above 150°C.
EFFECT: method and device for accurate monitoring and control of annealing temperature, which enables to accurately control quality and properties of annealed material.
13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: coal industry.
SUBSTANCE: device for production of high-quality coal products includes a housing located inside heat conducting mechanism equipped with heat-conducting medium inlet near end to discharge material and discharge heat-conducting medium near end for loading material. Conductive mechanism comprises a plurality of groups of heat-conducting units arranged spaced from each other, each of which comprises multiple heat-conducting tubes (45), having connection with heat-conducting medium inlet and outlet heat-conducting medium. Multiple ribs (46), having inclined downwards relative to vertical direction, arranged in lengthwise direction between adjacent heat-conducting tubes (45) near the exhaust channel with inclined from exhaust channel bottom end to block the exhaust hole located on wall face of exhaust channel. Invention also proposes a system for making high-quality coal products comprising a device for feeding material, said device for production of high-quality coal products, device for supply of heat-conducting medium and recycling device. Ribs (46) are located in space of incidence of material between heat-conducting tubes (45) and provide rotation of material, timely outlet of gases and fast transfer of heat, which enables production of high-quality coal products.
EFFECT: device and system for making high-quality coal products are disclosed.
105 cl, 29 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a fuel briquette that includes coke dust with particle size less than 1 mm, binding coking coal tar wastes in amount of 8.0-10 % to weight of coke dust and additionally contains coal dust with particle size less than 1 mm, wherein mixture of coal and coke dust is pre-enriched by oil agglomeration, briquette has following ratio of components, wt%: binder (coking sludge) - 8-10 %, concentrate from coke and coal dust - 90-92 %.
EFFECT: obtaining fuel briquettes with high strength with low ash content and sulphur content.
1 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a solid fuel, which consists exclusively of vegetable components, wherein fuel contains a composition, in which at least 70% by weight in terms of dry substance are seeds of fruits or cake of seeds of fruits of any of following plants: a) Ricinus communis, b) Triadica sebifera, c) Jatropha curcas, d) Brassica rapa L. var. nippo-oleifera, e) Palmae, f) Zea mays, g) Prosopis glandulosa; wherein remaining mass of fuel is rubber of vegetable origin or vegetable starch, and pieces of solid fuel are produced by hot press moulding.EFFECT: proposed solid fuel is suitable for generation of heat energy, has high degree of preservation of shape, no harmful gases at combustion and reduces production of carbon dioxide.17 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
FIELD: fuel energy.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to clean and highly efficient method of producing solid fuel with the help of organic wastes with high water content, which includes: (a) step of waste mixing, when organic wastes with high content of water and solid domestic wastes are fed into Fe-based reactor and mixed; (b) step where the hydrolysis reactor on Fe-based high-temperature steam is fed for hydrolysis of the mixture; (c) a step of pressure reduction when steam from reactor is discharged and pressure inside the reactor is quickly to provide low-molecular weight organic wastes after step (b) or to increase the specific surface area of domestic wastes after step (b); (d) step of vacuum or differential pressure to remove water; and (e) step of producing solid fuel when reaction product after step (d) is subject to natural drying and compression pressing to produce solid fuel with water content from 10 to 20 %. Method also describes a combined system for production of electricity from fuel prepared as described above.EFFECT: technical result consists in production of ecologically safe fuel.9 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method implementations for forming gas hydrate granules in apparatus for forming gas hydrate, which includes generator, whereto initial gaseous material and water are fed, and enabled to ensure reaction of starting gaseous material with water at high pressure in order to produce gas hydrate suspension, and to remove water from gas hydrate suspension, which is performed in order to form gas hydrate suspension into gas hydrate granules of required size. At that said method includes following steps on which in one version, gas hydrate suspension is fed cylindrical compression chamber equipped with compression plunger able to move to and fro in cylindrical compression chamber in axial direction of compression chamber, and compression plunger is moved for applying compression for extrusion of water from gas hydrate suspension and forming gas hydrate granules; speed of compression plunger is minimised while water is forced out from gas hydrate suspension so that connection between gas hydrate particles strengthens and formed gas hydrate granules have high shear resistance.EFFECT: produced gas hydrate granules have high shear resistance, which is convenient for handling during transportation and storage.2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes the method of manufacturing moulded articles comprising coal particles, in which the coal particles are mixed with a water-containing binder system, and the resulting mixture is processed by moulding to obtain the moulded articles, characterised in that before mixing with the water-containing binder system a partial amount of the coal particles are subjected to the impregnation stage at which the particles are impregnated with a substance. The said substance is added in the form of a liquid or using the liquid for impregnation, where the said substance is selected from the group consisting of water-insoluble and/or water repellent substances, aqueous colloidal suspension of a solid material. The solid material has water-repellent properties, and the lower limit of the amount of the said substance added at the stage of impregnation is 0.3 wt % relative to the weight of the coal particles of the material to be reprocessed into the moulding articles. Also the moulded article and its use in the process of iron smelting are disclosed.EFFECT: obtaining moulding articles with sufficient strength.13 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a starting agent contains a base treated by a flammable liquid, characterised in that the base is corn ears, wherein the base is impregnated by the flammable liquid and is located in a tight package.EFFECT: increased duration and intensity of burning of the starting agent.6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and can be used for processing organic material, as well as in timber industry. Wet initial material 14 is fed into tube 9 and moved by piston 3 in drying chamber 4, then in pyrolysis 5 and condensation 6 chambers of gaseous products. From chamber 5 portion of gaseous products is taken and via air duct 11 via valve 12 is directed to furnace 13 for combustion. Combustion products taken for mixing with fuel gases 15. Uncondensed gases and liquid phase are removed from chamber 6. Solid phase 19 is cooled down and unloaded.EFFECT: invention allows to increase efficiency of pyrolysis process and recycle low potential heat sources.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes composition for production of solid-fuel products, which includes carbon-containing wastes, binding agent, and as carbon-containing wastes it contains lignocellulose wastes, which consist of wood biomasses, sawdust, milled wood bark, grass biomasses, fruit biomasses, wastes of pulp-and-paper production, wastes of hydrolysis production and/or peat, charcoal or their mixture, and as binding agent - nanoorganomineral or nanooragnic composition.EFFECT: increase of values of lower heat effects of fuel briquette burning, increase of density, reduction of crumbling and crack formation in them.7 cl, 2 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes an organic fuel from household garbage, obtained on the basis of garbage dumping of paper and cardboard, food wastes, textile, including carbon C, hydrogen H, oxygen O + nitrogen N, characterised by the fact that they are mixed with high-carbon peat in the following amounts (wt %): household garbage 83-85, high-carbon peat 15-17.EFFECT: obtaining highly environmentally friendly fuel.3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a solid composite fuel from peat, which includes heat treatment of peat at 200-500°C without air access, mixing binder with a crushed carbonaceous residue, moulding a briquette from the obtained mixture and drying, wherein the pyrolysis condensate obtained during heat treatment is separated into a pyrolysis resin and tar water by filtering; the binder is obtained dissolving dextrin in the tar water in ratio of 1:(5-25), and the briquette made from the carbonaceous residue and binder is dried at 20-105°C and left to cool to room temperature, followed by deposition of filtered pyrolysis resin on the surface of the briquette to obtain composite fuel, which is dried at 20-105°C and held at room temperature for 7-14 days.EFFECT: obtaining moisture-resistant solid composite fuel.6 ex
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: claimed device comprises percussion reactor with rotor and percussion elements. Note here that said reactor resists heat of up to 350°C. Hot drying gas feeder is arranged at percussion reactor bottom. Solid or pasty stock feeder is located at reactor top section. It is provided with at least one device to discharge gas flow containing crushed and dried stock particles. There is one device for separation and discharge of crushed and dried stock particles from gas flow released from percussion reactor. Note here that drying gas is forced into percussion reactor nearby labyrinth seal and/or there through located nearby the percussion reactor rotor shaft Invention disposes also the production of fine-grain fuel in closed-loop reactor.EFFECT: simplified processing process, accelerated production cycle.17 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses production of combustible briquettes from solid household wastes and other organic wastes. Said process comprises the steps that follow. Solid wastes are classified to isolate combustible mass. Said isolated mass is subjected to grinding. Ground material is dried and heated to make the pellets thereof. Note here the initial solid household wastes are classified with isolation of combustible mass by hydromechanical process. Moisture content of the mass to be ground makes 40-55%. Said mass is heated to 550-1000°C. Power supply for production of combustible briquettes is covered completely by latent internal energy of combustible mass of said wastes. Gum condensate is used as a binder isolated from gaseous products of combustible mass thermal decomposition at 550-1000°C.EFFECT: production of high-calorific, smokeless, non-polluting fuel to be used in whatever furnaces and at industrial plants.4 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention describes the pulverised coal for the blast-furnace melting of the carbon containing material, at that the carbon containing material includes 50-55 wt % of low ash and low sulphur fine ground coal with low output of the volatile substances, 40-45 wt % of fine dispersed semicoke produced at 600-650°C from low ash and low sulphur brown coals, and 5-10 wt % of dust wastes of the dry extinguishing of the metallurgical coke. Use of the materials with low output of the volatile substances improves ecological parameters of the cast iron casting in the blast-furnaces.EFFECT: increased intensive heat generation during oxidating due to high chemical activity of the brown coal semicoke, ensures achievement of the necessary coefficient of coke replacement at lower flowrate of pulverised coal, more rational utilisation of high carbon wastes of the dry extinguishing of the metallurgical coke.2 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of coal-water from the mix of solid and liquid components, water and carbon-bearing component. Said mix is processed at 100-300°C and 5-70 bar in reactor with laminar flow. It consists of at least two mix retention sections and at least one flow direction varying section arranged there under. In compliance with this invention: a) mean rate of said mix at lower flow direction varying section equals 1-1000, 10-500 or 30-200 m/min or some 1.5-1000, 5-300 or 20-100 times higher than that in retention sections; b) direction of averaged flow of said mix in said mix retention section deflects from horizontal or vertical; c) total time of holding in pressurised heat exchangers and reactors exceeds two hours. Invention describes the versions of coal-water production processes. Besides, it covers the device for processing aforesaid mix, its versions and device for separation of said components.EFFECT: high heat capacity coal-water to be used as fuel.21 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes solid fuel, which consists solely of vegetable components, wherein the fuel contains binder in the form of starch obtained from seaweed (component A), a shape-generating substance in the form of natural rubber (component B) and a substance containing vegetable oil in the form of Ricinus communis or Jatropha curcas seeds or in the form of seeds of said plants in powder form (component C); the fuel is prepared from a mixture of said components by compression moulding; wherein the amount of component A is 1 to 85 w.p. per 100 w.p. of the mixture, the amount of component B is 1 to 55 w.p. per 100 w.p. of the mixture and the amount of component C is 10 to 85 w.p. per 100 w.p. of the mixture.EFFECT: solid fuel has stable calorific capacity and provides low emission of carbon dioxide.9 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a fuel briquette which includes a carbonaceous component and binder.As the carbonaceous component coke dust with particle size smaller than 1 mm is used and as the binder a mixture of coking sludge with carbamide, with the following ratio of components is used, wt %: binder (a mixture of coking sludge with carbamide in ratio of 1:1) 8-10, coke dust - the balance.EFFECT: obtaining smokeless high-strength fuel briquettes, improved environmental situation in coal processing regions and low cost of the fuel briquettes.2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-temperature pyrolysis of biomass for getting of the product with high content of carbon that features hydrophobic properties. Proposed process comprises the steps that follow. First, fine biomass is produced to be fed into at least one heater for drying purposes. Said dried biomass is fed into at least one spinning reactor of low-temperature pyrolysis. Note here that said reactor is equipped with heating jacket and inner cooling pipes spaced apart in circle. Note here that said cooling pipes are arranged so that at least some of them get in contact at reactor spinning with biomass to cool it down.EFFECT: ruled out formation of sticky tarry matter on reactor inner surfaces.10 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of producing biodiesel fuel from plant material, which includes physical treatment of a mixture of vegetable oil, alcohol and an alkali, wherein treatment is carried out with a stream of microwave energy, and the alcohol used is isopropanol, wherein the mixture is placed in a resonator which operates as a reaction vessel; a magnetron is placed over the resonator; a waveguide is placed between the resonator and the magnetron such that the waveguide can move in the vertical plane and when producing biodiesel fuel, the treated mixture is pumped through a closed loop.EFFECT: speeding up the process while simultaneously improving consumer properties of the end product - biodiesel fuel, and excluding methanol from the process.5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of coal and to its preparation for coking. Proposed method comprises coal pressing and compaction with the help of appropriate pressing equipment to ne or several compacted coal elements. Note here that said coal is subjected to processing at the press comprises of top plates and four plates fitted vertically thereat. All plates allow shaping whereat the surfaces of compacted coal elements are shaped by pressing. Said top four plates make the shell for coal. All plates have shaping elements.EFFECT: increased outer surface, better heat exchange and gas release in coking chamber.11 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of recycling solid residue of tyre pyrolysis, which includes enrichment of solid fuel by method of oil agglomeration. As solid fuel used is solid carbon residue of tyre pyrolysis with initial ash content 11.40-11.66%, sulphur content 1.2 wt %, preliminarily crushed to particle coarseness 0.1 mm, with liquid fraction of pyrolysis being used as reagent for enrichment in amount 4.0-6.0% to weight of water, used for enrichment, after which granulation of obtained concentrate and application of water-resistant smell-absorbing coating from petroleum products on the surface of granules.EFFECT: obtaining moulded fuel from solid residue of automobile tyre pyrolysis with low ash content and sulphur content.4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: food industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for manufacture of multiple products from aquatic plant species biomass. Biomass is obtained, destroyed and separated to produce juice and solid phase; the juice is filtered and clarified. Protein is coagulated from the clarified juice to produce broth including a wet protein concentrate. The said concentrate is separated from broth. The wet protein concentrate is dried to obtain dry protein concentrate. The solid phase is used for wet biological raw materials production. The said biological raw materials are dried to produce at least one product selected from among dry biological raw materials and meal rich in carbohydrates. At least 50% of protein in the multiple products is present in dry protein concentration.EFFECT: method is environmentally friendly and allows production of multiple products selected from among dry biological raw materials and meal rich in carbohydrates.35 cl, 39 dwg, 7 tbl, 25 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes fuel briquettes, which contain combustible binding agent, thickener - coal dust and filler, containing mixture of oil-slime and coil-tar oil in ratio 1:(0.6-0.8) as combustible binding agent, husk of oil-bearing crop seeds as filler and additionally contain hardener - hydrofuse and waste from process of deodorisation of vegetable oils in ratio 1: (0.1-0.5) with the following weight ratio of components: combustible binding agent 40-50; thickener 30-40; hardener 2-4; filler to 100.EFFECT: obtaining high-quality fuel briquettes, which extend assortment of their composition, as well as utilisation of wastes from oil-processing, production of vegetable oils and coal.10 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing fuel briquettes, which includes mixing crushed solid fuel with a phenol-alkaline resin in amount of 1.7-1.8% of the weight of coke fines and an ester curing agent in amount of 22-28% of the weight of the resin, pressing the obtained mixture and moulding fuel briquettes, wherein the coke fines with particle size of 0.6-3 mm and moisture content of up to 3% with the phenol-alkaline resin and ester curing agent are mixed in a vortex mixer, and the obtained mixture is pressed by rigid auger extrusion at pressure of 7-8 mPa, followed by moulding a bar which is then broken down into pieces with length of 100-150 mm.EFFECT: improved efficiency of the process of producing fuel briquettes while simultaneously reducing power consumption and expenses, obtaining high-strength fuel briquettes, high calorific capacity, gas permeability and heat resistance.1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the plant for obtaining of coal briquettes from mix of coal slacks with the humidity up to 60 wt %, comprising the bunker with the feeder, the coal slack activation assembly, assembly for mixture of coal slack with a water-repelling agent, pressing assembly, and the assembly for activation of coal slack comprises the device for rough grinding of coal slack without water-repelling agent, the device for fine milling of coal slack and the heated unit for accumulation of fine milling coal slack, the mixing assembly has two mixers where the first mixer is designed without heating of coal slack with water-repelling agent and the second mixer is designed with a possibility of mix heating, the pressing assembly contains a screw press the parts of which are covered with abrasion-resistant composite material.EFFECT: obtaining from coal slack of briquettes without preliminary dehydration, of comparable by density with a density of lumpy coal, with high durability.4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: wood working industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of deep processing of wood sawdust and leaves without chemical cementing components, characterized by that they are sieved for removal of large-size elements, loaded into a dryer for decrease of humidity down to 10%, crushed until obtaining of a mix of particles with the size less than 15 mm and the volume no more than 0.5-1.0 cm3, formed, pressed at the pressure 120-140 kg/cm2 and the temperature 250-350°C without air access. The invention describes also the briquette obtained by the named method.EFFECT: obtaining robust briquettes from wood sawdust and leaves, without using the chemical cementing components.5 cl, 8 ex
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in by-product coke industry. Proposed method comprises batching, sorting, crushing, drying and mixing of coals. Prior to final crushing, coal charge is sized to separate fraction smaller than or equal to 6 mm and the remaining fraction of the charge is mixed with aforesaid fraction and dried to 4-6% of residual moisture content. Dusty fraction equal to or smaller than 0.5 mm is separated in drier and briquetted. Briquettes are mixed with dried charge and transferred to coke side.EFFECT: dense coal load, higher efficiency of coking, higher yield of better CSR, CRI indices and between mechanical strength M40.2 dwg, 1 tbl