Consisting of coal-oil suspensions or aqueous emulsions (C10L1/32)

Fuel emulsion // 2642078
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a fuel emulsion for diesel engines based on diesel fuel with the addition of alcohol, a promoter, and distilled water. Fuel emulsion additionally contains urea alkenyl-succinimide in the following ratios of components, wt %: ethanol 5.0-40.0; distilled water 0.6-4.8; urea alkenilsukcinimid 1.0-5.0; 2-ethylhexyl nitrate 1.0; diesel fuel - up to 100.EFFECT: reducing the rigidity of the combustion process of fuel emulsion in the engine, increasing the stability of emulsion and increasing the reliability and durability of the diesel engine.1 tbl

Line for producing fine-dispersed coal-water slurry // 2637119
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a line for producing a fine-dispersed coal-water slurry that contains a receiving hopper for the coal component of the slurry, connected through a feeder with a shredder, to the inputs of which the water feed and diluent-stabiliser lines are also fed, as well as a device for activating the slurry, the yield of which is bound with a storage capacity intended for storing and dispensing the target product. The line is equipped with the second shredder and a hydrocyclone. As the first shredder, a parabolic vibroimpulse mill is used, and as a device for activating the slurry - a hydrostatic cavitator, the output of the parabolic vibroimpulse mill is connected with the hydrocyclone, the first output of the hydrocyclone is connected to the intermediate vessel, the output of which is connected to the input of the parabolic vibroimpulse mill, and the second - to the second shredder connected by its output to the input of the hydrostatic cavitator.EFFECT: producing a high quality coal-water slurry.1 dwg

ethod of producing coal-water slurry and installation for its implementation // 2636740
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method of producing a coal-water slurry comprising a water-coal slurry capable of being used at power plants, characterized in that the water-coal slurry is produced by electrically and thermally activating fine coal particles in the slurry by an electric discharge throughout the container volume, with the possibility of achieving aggregative and sedimentation stability of the slurry in the processing period, in the entire volume of the container, an electric discharge is produced between the rotating electrode, which serves as a cathode, and the inner surface of the vessel body, which serves as an anode, while the total volume of the container receives a specific energy consumption of 0.4 to 0.6 kW*h/kg at a temperature of 273 to 393 K by electrothermal current on the coal particles in the slurry, with the emission of gases CH4, H2 and CO and with the possibility of intensifying the process of incineration of the slurry on the energy objects, resulting in the formation of filamentary channels of electrical discharge between the electrode and the vessel body that pass through the surface of the coal particles and through the ionized water, wherein the distribution area of the channels is moved along with the rotation of the electrode. An installation of producing a coal-water slurry is also disclosed, which comprises a container with a slurry made in the form of a steel container, an electrode that is made of spherical steel and mounted inside the container with a rotation capability and fixed to the axis of an electric motor connected to a laboratory autotransformer, while all parts of the installation are located inside the steel frame.EFFECT: producing a sedimentally stable water-coal slurry at low energy costs with maximum energy efficiency and without the use of chemical agents.2 cl, 6 dwg
ethod of producing hydrated fuel // 2635664
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of producing hydrated diesel fuel with the addition of water and an emulsifier by treatment in a vibrocavitational homogenizer with a rotating operating element - rotor with a perforated surface and a stationary operating element - stator, wherein diesel fuel is pre-mixed with the surfactant, which is a high-temperature condensation product of a mixture of vegetable oils and mono- or diethanolamine in an amount of 1.0-1.5 wt %, the resulting mixture is fed into a vibrocavitational homogenizer at a specific consumption of the mixture not more than 2.5 g/cm2 of the rotor working surface per second and the peripheral speed of its rotation is not less than 20 m/s, after which an aqueous phase in an amount of 10-20 wt % of the total amount of fuel with surfactant with pre-dissolved carbamide in the aqueous phase in an amount of 30-35 wt %, after which the mixture is fed in a stream to the homogenizer in batches not exceeding 10% per pass with the parameters specified above.EFFECT: producing stable fuel emulsions resistant to low temperatures.2 cl, 2 ex, 2 tbl
Emulsifier of reverse water-fuel emulsions // 2635544
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses an emulsifier of reverse water-fuel emulsions based on fatty acid diethanolamides of vegetable oils, which contains two groups of fatty acid diethanolamides of vegetable oils with a hydrocarbon radical length of C16-18 and C12-14. Emulsifier was produced as a result of synthesis at a temperature of 130-170°C for 2-8 hours with the following ratio of ingredients: group 1 of vegetable oils containing fatty acid glycerides C16-18 - 65-26% in its composition, group 2 of vegetable oils containing fatty acid glycerides C12-14 - 7-40% in its composition, diethanolamine - the rest.EFFECT: preparation of an emulsifier, which provides the aggregative and sedimentation stability of water-fuel emulsions.3 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl
Fuel composition // 2629021
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the fuel composition for diesel engines, based on diesel fuel with the addition of alcohol, emulsifier, water, the mixture of diethanolamine and oleinic acids soaps. The fuel composition further contains CD-7K additive at the following component ratios, wt %: ethanol: 5.0-50.0; water 0.5-7.0; lubricating additive CD-7K 2.0; the mixture of diethanolamine and oleinic acids soaps 0.2; alkenyl succinimide 0.25-1.0; diesel fuel - upto 100.EFFECT: increase of the fuel composition anti-wear properties.1 tbl

ethod of regulating the volume flow of a coal-kerozine suspension and a device for manufacturing a burned coal // 2628524
FIELD: mining engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for controlling the volumetric flow rate of a coal-kerosene suspension in which, during the separation of the solid and liquid phases by feeding the dehydrated coal-kerosene suspension to a centrifugal separator of the decanter type and separating the coal-kerosene suspension into a solid fraction and a liquid fraction, the target electric current fed to the engine to rotate it and drive the screw conveyor of the centrifugal separator of the decanter type is determined such that the liquid level In the tank for a coal-kerosene suspension fed to a centrifugal separator of the decanter type, it can take a constant value; the target opening degree value is determined based on the difference between the target electric current value and the actually measured value of the electric current supplied to the motor; and the degree of opening of the flow control valve, which is located in the middle of the feed line for introducing the coal-kerosene slurry into the centrifugal separator of the decanter type, is adjusted depending on the target degree of opening. Also, the options for ways to regulate the volume flow coal-oil suspensions and devices to perform these techniques are described.EFFECT: ability to effectively prevent overloads and mechanical damages of a centrifugal separator of the decanter type or to reduce the quality of separation of the solid and liquid phases, the ability to stabilise the process of obtaining upgraded brown coal.6 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of obtaining composite fuel emulsion // 2620606
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for producing a composite fuel emulsion comprising a preliminary restructuring of the water-containing and hydrocarbon components by heating them, purifying them of mechanical impurities and then mixing them in a turbulent regime, characterized in that the mixing is carried out so that the water-containing and hydrocarbon components are distributed in a total volume with the factor of homogeneity not less than 0.5 at primary temperatures of mixing of the water-containing and hydrocarbon components differing from each other not less than 25°C, followed by homogenization of the mixing products in a dynamic rotor-mechanical homogenizer, so that the maximum particle size of the dispersed phase does not exceed 40 mcm with an average size of 1-8 mcm.EFFECT: obtaining stable in time high-ecological water-coal emulsions obtained by homogenization, having a high water content and a high degree of dispersion, in which, when burning in power plants, the residual CO2 content is reduced to a minimum.7 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of processing oil wastes based on oil slime, fuel oil or their mixture with production of water-emulsion fuel // 2620266
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for processing oily wastes based on oil slime, fuel oil or a mixture thereof to produce a water-emulsion fuel includes heating liquid oily wastes, cleaning followed by feeding a purified mixture of hydrocarbons with water for three-stage mixture homogenization in a vibro-cavitation homogenizer along with simultaneous feeding a coal fraction from 15 to 30% of the flow rate of the supplied liquid to produce hydrated fuel with a relative centrifugal acceleration of the rotor of not less than 1200 g and with a gap between the rotor and the stator of not more than 0.25 mm. The method is characterised in that, in the process of the three-stage homogenization of hydrocarbon mixture in the vibro-cavitation homogenizer, the fine powder is uniformly supplied as a coal fraction. The powder is solid waste obtained by thermal processing of rubber and tire wastes during pyrolysis in the absence of oxygen at a temperature of 500-1000°C. Simultaneously, at the first stage of the vibro-cavitation homogenizer, 0.1-2% of magnesium oxide and 0.1-1.0% of low alcohols of the total amount of solid waste are added to the solid waste.EFFECT: obtaining a stable fuel emulsion, which is used as a boiler fuel, the combustion fuel provides a lower content of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, the method ensures utilisation of pyrolysis waste.1 tbl, 4 ex
ethod of producing diesel fuel emulsion formulations // 2616921
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a water-fuel emulsions of light oil, namely the method for producing the emulsion composition of the diesel fuel, comprising a gradual introduction with mixing water in an amount of 10% wt. By weight of the emulsion anionic surfactant (surfactant), as sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate is used in an aromatic solvent at a weight ratio of surfactant to the system with water 1:1, and adding the resulting diesel fuel system taken in an amount of 80% by weight of the total emulsion.EFFECT: improved stability of water-fuel emulsions reverse type on the basis of light fuel, which will not have a corrosive effect and does not assume any engine reconstructions.2 cl, 2 ex

ethod for preparation of water-bearing fuel-coal slurry // 2611630
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparation of water-bearing fuel and coal slurry comprising M40 mazut dispersion, containing 1 % wt of water, in an amount of 60 % wt, grinding the dry coal in an amount of 40 % wt or dropout of it in a grinder to fraction less than 10 mm, supply of water-mazut mixture and pulverized coal in a mixer, mixing them in a mixer, subsequent supply of mixture to the next stage of dispersion of coarse grind, regrinding of slurry in a fine grinder, after which the slurry becomes homogenity and stable flow characteristics because of humic acids and humates extracted from coal.EFFECT: increased calorific efficiency of fuel in form of a slurry.3 tbl, 1 dwg
ethod of composite fuel producing and device for its implementation // 2605951
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention describes composite fuel producing method, including solid component grinding, ground particles mixing with liquid component, wherein used solid component is oil shale, grinding is performed by impact-shearing effect by impact with shifting with ultra-fine particles grinding to sizes of 10.0–15.0 µm, used liquid component is water hydrocarbonic emulsion, produced from water and heavy oil residue heated to 60–95 °C, then performing milled solid component mixing with water hydrocarbonic emulsion, mixture is subjected to hydro-percussion impact in cavitation field to produce solid component particles with sizes of 5.0–15.0 µm. Also disclosed is composite fuel producing device.EFFECT: technical result consists in production of composite fuel, which possesses storage stability for not less than 30 days at 20–25 °C, viscosity at 80 °C of 6–16 degrees RV.2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

Production of organic materials using oxidative hydrothermal dissolution method // 2604726
FIELD: ecology; technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly methods of organic substances production, such as oil substances and aromatic acids, phenols and aliphatic polycarbonate acids using hydro-thermic oxidative dissolution process (PER). Method of solid organic substance solubilizing contained in composite material containing organic solid substance and inorganic matrix includes: bringing said composite material in contact with oxidizing agent in superheated water to form aqueous mixture, containing at least one solubilized organic dissolved substance, wherein composite material is selected from group consisting of tar sand, carbonaceous oil shale and any mixture thereof.EFFECT: disclosed is environmentally safe method of organic substances production.16 cl, 31 dwg, 5 tbl, 7 ex

Installation for treatment of well products // 2604242
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil industry, particularly to preparation of market-grade oil. Well product treatment plant includes supply pipeline, heater, unit for destruction of armouring shells connected with end phase divider, three-phase separator with water discharge line, oil and water buffer containers, water outlet line, connected by means of group pumping station to input unit of destruction of armouring shells, wherein end phase divider is provided with two subsonic nozzles with acoustic vibration exciters in form of elastic plates fixed on nozzles across flow of water, first of which with constant adjustment, and second with possibility of changing length of active part, wherein nozzles are connected to group pump station by a pipe.EFFECT: higher impact on armouring shell of emulsion due to total amplitude of two vibration exciters; wider frequency range due to application of beats and change of frequency thereof by controlling length of one of two vibration exciters; simplified unit for destruction of armouring shells due to use of subsonic nozzle, which is structurally and technologically simple to implement.1 cl, 3 dwg

Water-carbon fuel based on solid residue of pyrolysis of tyres // 2603006
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses water-carbon fuel including a carbon-containing component, sodium humate and water, wherein carbon-containing component used is solid carbon residue of pyrolysis of tyres with initial ash content 11.40-11.66 %, sulphur content 1.2 wt%, preliminarily crushed to particle size 0.1 mm and enriched by oil agglomeration, where reagent for enrichment used is a liquid fraction of pyrolysis of tyres in an amount of 4.0-6.0 % to weight of water, used for enrichment, at following component ratio, wt%: carbon granules 60-64, sodium humate 0.6-1.28, water 34.72-39.4.EFFECT: technical result of proposed invention is production of carbon-water fuel with low ash content and sulphur content, prepared from concentrate of carbon residue of pyrolysis of tyres, which enables more complete recycling of waste tyres and improves ecological situation in regions.1 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
Fuel composition // 2602077
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a fuel composition which contains ethyl alcohol, butyl alcohol and gasoline, wherein composition contains a mixture of ethyl and butyl alcohols, taken in ratio, vol% (80-20)-(50-50), pre-treated in vibratory cavitation homogeniser with a rotary working element - rotor with perforated surface and fixed working element - stator at specific consumption of mixture of not more than 2.5 g/cm2 of working surface of rotor per second and circumferential speed of not less than 20 m/s, additive further used in composition is carbamide, vol%: mixture of ethyl and butyl alcohols 20-80; carbamide 0.5-2.0; gasoline - balance.EFFECT: technical result is simplification of ingredient makeup of fuel composition and ensuring stability of composition in a wide range of temperatures from +20 °C to -33 °C.1 cl, 3 ex

ethod of fuel composition production // 2602076
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses fuel composition producing method, including mixing of benzene with butyl and ethyl alcohols, wherein ethyl alcohol is preliminary mixed with butyl alcohol in ratio of 1:1-1:0.2, performing produced mixture homogenization in vibratory cavitation homogenizer with rotating working element, rotor with perforated surface and fixed working element, stator with mixture specific consumption not exceeding 2.5 g/cm2 of rotor working surface per second and its rotation circumferential speed of not less than 20 m/s, then produced mixture of ethyl alcohol with butyl alcohol is mixed with benzene in ratio: mixture of ethyl alcohol with butyl alcohol (90-30) vol. %, benzene (10-70) vol. % and repeatedly supplied into said homogenizer with volume rate of 5-500 l/min.EFFECT: technical result consists in production of stable fuel compositions with uniform distribution of components by fuel composition volume, stable during at least six months in wide temperature range.1 cl, 6 tbl, 3 ex

Device for oil wastes processing // 2594153
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes; oil and gas industry. SUBSTANCE: invention describes device for oil wastes processing including raw mixture preparation assembly, disperser, finished emulsion tank connected by pipeline via check valve to raw mixture preparation unit, wherein finished emulsion tank is equipped with heating, in particular, finished emulsion tank is wound with nichrome, through which electric current is passed. EFFECT: support of required viscosity of emulsion for a long period of time. 1 cl, 1 dwg
Protection liquid fuels // 2577854
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a liquid concentrate for protecting liquid fuels from water contamination, substantially consisting of: (A) from 0.5 to 5 wt.% one or more fatty (C8-C24)-amide-(C1-C6)-alkyl betaine emulsifying agents; (B) from 45 to 75 wt%. C6-C15 alkanol ethoxylated surfactants; (C) from 0.5 to 10 wt% one or more solubilisers based on glycol; and (D) from 5 to 50 wt% one or more C1-C4 alkanols; wherein component (B) comprises a mixture of ethoxylates of C6-C15 alkanols with different carbon number alkanol units and on average from 2 to 5 moles of ethylene oxide per mole of alkanol, wherein the carbon number of two ethoxylates of C6-C15 alkanols which have the highest proportion in weight of the mixture differ from each other by at least 1.5 carbon numbers, wherein the carbon number and one of the two ethoxylates of C6-C15 alkanols which have the highest proportion in weight of the mixture is in the range from 9 to 11, and the other - in the range from 12 to 14. Also disclosed is a method for preparing a liquid concentrate and a stable water-in-oil emulsion containing said concentrate.EFFECT: technical result is to reduce or eliminate formation in a liquid hydrocarbon fuel of ice particles, having a mass median particle size greater than 1 mcm when said liquid hydrocarbon fuel is cooled to a temperature in range of 0 to -50 °C.10 cl, 10 ex
ethod of recycling of liquid oily wastes with production of water-emulsion fuel // 2566306
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the recycling method of the liquid oily wastes with of the water-emulsion fuel, it includes heating of the liquid oily wastes, cleaning with further delivery of the cleaned mixture of the hydrocarbons with water for three times homogenization of the mixture. The cleaned mixture is supplied to the vibration and cavitation homogenizer, simultaneously to the said homogenizer the coal fraction is supplied in amount of 5-10% of flowrate of the supplied liquid mixture during each passage through the homogenizer until content of the coal fraction to 15-30% of hydrated fuel. The cleaned mixture of the hydrocarbons with water and with coal fraction is treated in the vibration and cavitation homogenizer at relative centrifugal acceleration of the rotor at least 1200 g, and clearance between the stator and rotor 0.25 mm, ensuring dispersion in film with maximum thickness 0.25 mm.EFFECT: increased stability of the emulsion.2 cl, 6 ex
Water-fuel composition and method of preparation thereof // 2559055
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-fuel composition for application in thermal and rocket engines, working on liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which includes dispersion medium - hydrocarbon fuel and dispersion phase - water-containing composition, with stability of water-fuel composition being achieved by setting equality of densities of water-containing composition and hydrocarbon fuel due to ratio of components, with application of water-alcohol solution as water-containing composition. Method of obtaining water-fuel composition is also disclosed.EFFECT: obtaining water-fuel composition with improved technical, economical and ecological parameters.2 cl, 3 ex

Fuel emulsion // 2554348
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel emulsion for Diesels based on Diesel fuel with the addition of an alcohol, an emulsifier, a mixture of diethanolamine soaps and oleic acid and water, with the fuel composition additionally containing the lubricating additive DPA-Lubricor with the following component ratio, %: ethanol 5.0-50.0; water 0.5-5.0, alkenylsuccinimide 0.25-1.0; mixture of soaps of diethanolamine and oleic acid 0.2; lubricating additive 0.02; Diesel fuel - to 100.EFFECT: application of the fuel emulsion makes it possible to reduce the rigidity of the burning process, reduce wear in fuel equipment and cylinder-piston group, and thus increase the Diesel reliability and service term.2 tbl, 1 dwg
Aircraft fuel gel // 2551358
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: fuel gel contains a surfactant that is a processing product of a mixture of mono- and dialkylphenols in ethylene oxide - and kerosene in the following proportions, vol %: Surfactant 0.05; Hydrogen peroxide 0.95; Kerosene - the rest up to 100.EFFECT: gel possess high frost resistance and storage stability.1 tbl

ethod of producing liquid coal fuel // 2550818
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing liquid coal fuel includes homogenisation of coal thermal processing products; carrying out combined homogenisation of semicoke, a tar fraction and tar water such that semicoke with particle size of 3-5 mcm is suspended in microdroplets of the tar fraction, which are the dispersion phase of the emulsion with a dispersion medium in the form of tar water, and the obtained fuel acquires kinematic viscosity of 10-40 cSt at 50°C.EFFECT: obtaining medium-calorie, low-viscosity and low-abrasive liquid coal fuel.2 cl

Liquid coal fuel // 2550815
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a liquid coal fuel which consists of a finely dispersed mixture of a solid part in the form of semicoke/coke microparticles and a liquid part in the form of a tar fraction, obtained after thermal processing of raw coal, where the finely dispersed mixture is a double suspension-emulsion system, wherein the solid part used is a combination of microparticles of raw coal and the product of thermal processing thereof in the form of semicoke/coke microparticles, and the liquid part used is liquid products of thermal processing of the same raw coal, wherein the tar fraction is used to encapsulate groups of solid microparticles of raw coal and semicoke/coke in emulsion microdroplets, and the tar water is used as the dispersion medium.EFFECT: obtaining liquid coal fuel with low viscosity and abrasiveness, which provides prolonged use of the burner, enables to obtain a flame with good atomisation and avoids the use of second lifting pumps and additional fuel heaters in the fuel circuit.

Composition, fuel and process for reemulsification of fuel based on vegetable and/or mineral oil // 2547656
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an emulsifying composition intended to homogenise and re-emulsify a fuel, comprising by weight, with respect to the total weight of the said composition, the following mixture i), comprising a) from 5% to 40% of N-oleyl-1,3-propylenediamine, b) from 60% to 95%, by weight, of N,N′,N′-polyoxyethylene-N-tallowpropylenediamine and ii) from 5% to 40% of isopropylbenzene or kerosene, added to the initial mixture. The invention also relates to a fuel, containing the above composition and a process of the fuel manufacture. The present invention also relates to the process of preparation and to the use of the (re)emulsifying composition.EFFECT: improved fuel performance, the fuel is stable over time.12 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 4 ex

Protection of liquid fuels // 2546655
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the application of, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate and, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine in liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which contains less than 50 ppm of water, to reduce or essensially eliminate the formation of ice particles with the weight average particle size larger than 1 mcm, in the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel, when the said liquid hydrocarbon fuel is cooled to temperatures, which are in the range from 0 to -50°C, where the quantity of the said, at least, one alcohol (C6-C15)ethoxylate in the said fuel constitutes from 45 to 4575 ppm by weight, and the quantity of the said, at least, one (C8-C24)alkylamido (C1-C6)alkylbetaine constitutes from 5 to 425 ppm by weight. Described is aviation fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particles formation. The invention also relates to a method of reducing or elimination of the formation of ice particles in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Also described is a method of an aircraft refuelling with the liquid hydrocarbon fuel, which has lower tendency to ice particle formation.EFFECT: reduction or elimination of formation of ice plugs in fuel and fuel tanks of an aircraft with gas turbine engines.13 cl, 4 dwg, 11 ex
ethod of producing hydrocarbon motor fuel // 2545059
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: starting hydrocarbon motor fuel is mixed with distilled water in equal weight proportions; the water-fuel mixture obtained in a tubular flow reactor is exposed to microwaves with frequency of 10-30 GHz and then treated in a vortex tubular reactor at excess pressure of 0.5-3.5 MPa and temperature of 10-30°C in the presence of Cr, Ni, Fe metal alloys, from which swirl vanes of the vortex tubular reactor are made.EFFECT: simple process of producing hydrocarbon motor fuel by exposing a water-fuel mixture in a vortex tubular reactor to microwaves at excess pressure, reduced usage of fossil material - oil - to produce motor fuel.2 ex, 2 tbl
Processing of liquid oil slimes to hydrated fuel // 2535710
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.SUBSTANCE: proposed process comprises oil slime heating and cleaning. Cleaned and heated mix of hydrocarbons with water is fed into working vessel and separated into at least two flows. Separated flows are fed for their homogenisation into vibratory cavitation homogeniser at different flow rate magnitude of at least 1.5. Homogenisation is executed in vibratory cavitation homogeniser with spinning rotor with perforated surface and stationary stator at the mix specific flow rate not over 2.5 g/cm2 of rotor working surface per second and peripheral speed not over 20 m/s. Processing is conducted three times: primary processing is performed unless hydrated fuel emulsion with water drop sixe not over 15 mcm, subsequent processing is conducted unless water drop size does not exceed 5 mcm.EFFECT: higher stability.4 cl, 7 ex

Antiwear additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel // 2529678
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: additive for low-sulphur diesel fuel based on carboxylic acids contains polyethylene polyamine, and the carboxylic acids used are commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids with weight ratio of polyethylene polyamine to commercial-grade alkyl(C16-C18)salicylic acids of 0.007-0.035:1.0.EFFECT: improved lubrication properties of low-sulphur diesel fuel; the additive also meets emulsion property requirements, does not promote formation of a fuel-water emulsion and provides compatibility with cetan number enhancing additives.9 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of dissolving coal, biomass and other solid organic materials in superheated water // 2526254
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dissolution of solid organic materials. The invention relates to a method of solubilising solid organic materials, which comprises reacting a solid organic material with an oxidising agent in superheated water in order to form a solubilised organic soluble substance. The oxidising agent acts on the solid organic material in a reactor which does not have a free space over the superheated water, and temperature of the superheated water ranges from 100°C to 374°C.EFFECT: efficient method of solubilising solid organic materials, which ensures high output and minimal environmental impact.18 cl, 13 dwg, 2 tbl

ethod of production of air-coal fuel (acf) // 2517742
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of air-coal fuel (ACF). Proposed method comprises the use of the device including mining machines of coal plants (CP) with cutter-crusher-sucker working tool (WT) to produce coal powder with localisation of methane gas and coal dust, air transfer units (ATU), final terminal of thermal electric power station (TEPS) to combust ACF as coal powder. Note here that ACF is produced at CP and combusted at TEPS at continuous transfer of ACF from CP work face to TEPS terminal (heat carrier) via series of hollow intake-force ATU parts.EFFECT: simplified production of air-coal fuel, continuous feed of heat carrier.3 cl, 1 dwg
Hybrid emulsion fuel // 2501844
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hybrid emulsion fuel which contains a hydrocarbon, water, an alcohol and a surfactant, characterised by that the fuel is a stable direct emulsion, and the hydrocarbon used is gasoline or kerosene or diesel fuel, with the following ratio of components, vol. %: gasoline or kerosene or diesel fuel 70, water 18-30, ethyl alcohol 0-12, surfactant OP-7 0.3-0.8.EFFECT: hybrid emulsion fuel is characterised by easy preparation which does not require use of special equipment and is easily restored when using hybrid fuel.1 cl, 6 ex

Device for oil waste processing // 2497934
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the area of hydrocarbon waste processing and purposed for output of burning oil. Invention is referred to device for processing of oil waste including unit for raw mixture preparation, dispergator, ready emulsion tank; between unit for raw mixture preparation and dispergator there is an auxiliary regulator for maintenance of permanent raw mixture consumption; ready emulsion tank is connected by pipeline through return valve to the unit for raw mixture preparation and a vortex pump connected to jet cavitating unit is used as dispergator.EFFECT: improving reliability of the device for oil waste processing.2 cl, 1 dwg
Fine emulsion based on water and water-soluble substances and method of its production // 2489202
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of stable fine water-hydrocarbon emulsion for ecologically safe fuel additives and bitumen binder in road construction from water and hydrocarbon components pre-cleaned of mechanical impurities. Proposed method consists in mixing and blending water-hydrocarbon emulsions by micro vortex mincing and conversion in viscous fluid at micro vortex hydrodynamic structures. Said structures are formed in boundary layer in displacement of viscous fluid relative to solid surface and/or displacement of viscous fluid relative to itself at 0°C to 95°C. Note here that this occurs at pressure varying from 0.5 kg/cm2 to 10000 kg/cm2. Invention relates also to emulsions produced by above described method.EFFECT: production of stable fine water-hydrocarbon emulsion for ecologically safe fuel additives and bitumen binder in road construction.12 cl, 4 ex

ethod to produce fuel and device for its realisation // 2480513
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method to produce oil fuel, in which mixing is carried out and reaction of hydrolysis is done with water containing a ferment, which a hydrocarbon oil product, besides, water containing a ferment, is produced by means of mixing of a natural vegetable ferment, containing, at least lipase, in water. The natural vegetable ferment may additionally contain cellulase. The invention also relates to a device for production of oil fuel.EFFECT: increased efficiency of fuel, which is stable, and also suppression of hazardous substances formation.10 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex

Preparation method of disperse water-fuel mixture, and boiler plant with preparation and combustion systems of above mentioned mixture // 2468294
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: boiler plant for thermal power plant or boiler house includes boiler with furnace chamber equipped with burner device, fuel feed device, gas path and chemical water treatment system. In addition, boiler plant includes preparation unit of disperse water-fuel mixture an additional burner device; at that, inlet of the above plant is connected as to fuel to fuel feed device, as to water - to receiver of drains of chemical water treatment system, and outlet is connected through additional burner device to furnace chamber. Electrostatic precipitator is installed in exhaust part of its gas path.EFFECT: invention allows decreasing the environmental pollution with wastes of chemical water treatment used for preparation of make-up feed water supplied to boiler plants of thermal power plants or independent boiler plants operating on solid or liquid fuel.3 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for obtaining fuel composition for boiler plant // 2461607
FIELD: oil and gas production.SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining fuel composition for boiler plant consists in preliminary cleaning of oil sludge from oil and oil product reservoirs that contains 10-20% wt of water due to water excess and mechanical impurities at 70-80°C. Mixing of cleaned oil sludge in quantity 30-70% wt, with residual oil M-100 and wastes of solid fossil fuels semi-coking production - pyroligneous liquor in quantity 0.5-5.0% wt. Water steam is supplied through the obtained mixture at temperature 90-95°C. The mixture emulsification is carried out for 20-30 minutes.EFFECT: method allows using wastes, reducing energy consumption and obtaining fuel of low viscosity, high stability and resistance to corrosion.1 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
Fuel composition for boiler station // 2461606
FIELD: oil and gas production.SUBSTANCE: fuel composition for boiler station includes petroleum tailing - residual oil, oil sludge and wastes of solid fossil fuels semi-coking production - pyroligneous liquor at component ratio, wt: oil sludge 30-70, pyroligneous liquor 0.5-5.0, residual oil is the rest. Note that oil sludge from oil and oil product reservoirs containing 10-20% of water is used as oil sludge.EFFECT: production wastes use, reduction of energy consumption, obtained fuel composition has low viscosity, high stability, low corrosion activity.1 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
Fuel for boiler plant // 2459862
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: fuel for boiler plant includes heavy oil fraction, stabiliser and oil sludge containing 10 - 20% of water, from oil and oil-product reservoirs. As stabiliser there used is shale oil processing byproduct - polymers with molecular weight of 5000-7000, which contain of not more than 0.05% of sulphur and which are soluble in tar oil. Fuel component ratio, wt %: oil sludge 30-70; polymers 3-10; heavy oil fraction is the rest.EFFECT: high fuel stability at increased water content; calorific capacity is increased; utilisation of oil processing waste and shale oil processing byproducts.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex

ethod for coal-water fuel production // 2439131
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: previously ground initial product is exposed in two and more stages to wet grinding in a rotor hydrodynamic cavitation device (2, 7). In a cavitation device the rotor fixed on a driving shaft comprises pump blades, and at least one concentric row of cavitators, quantity of which in the row is a prime number of at least 7 and increases in each subsequent row in direction from a driving shaft to the periphery. Each stage of wet grinding is carried out in a closed cycle with classification of coal-water suspension in size in a device for classification (5, 10). Coarse fraction from the device (10) is returned into the device (7) for grinding. Fine fraction is supplier to a thickener (11). Residue produced in the thickener is divided into two flows, one of which is sent to a mixing device (13) to produce finished fuel. The other is exposed to dehydration at the filter (12), from where it is also supplied to the stage of the finished fuel production into the device (13), where the requested quantity of a stabiliser is supplied.EFFECT: when using the method, power inputs are reduced due to reduction of energy consumption for grinding.6 cl, 2 dwg

Procedure and process installation for treatment of slow-breaking oil emulsions and old oil slimes // 2435831
FIELD: gas and oil production.SUBSTANCE: procedure for treatment consists in preparation of oil slimes, in production and in pump-down of fuel oil. Also, oil slime is pumped through a steam heater, wherein it is heated to temperature 40-140°C, settled to contents of water in it as high, as 50 wt %, and disintegrated. Oil slime in a disintegrator is mixed with stabiliser (black oil of grade M-100). There is produced a homogenous poly-disperse product of 5-15 mcm water-oil which is settled and is pumped-down as fuel oil. Also, here is disclosed the installation for processing slow-breaking oil emulsions and old oil slimes.EFFECT: fast and qualitative preparation of oil slimes, increased share of processed oil slimes, mobility of installation, fast erection on site and on industrial area of refinery, reduced time for assembly and starting-up and adjusting operations.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of pseudo-detonation gasification of coal suspension in combined cycle "icsgcc" // 2433282
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: in method of coals gasification, a liquid activated water-coal fuel of high homogeneity - with drops of identical size and with coal particles in these drops having similar grain size, fuel drops are injected in a broken manner, in separate fuel doses, imparting a certain amount of motion. Coal grinding for the method to prepare activated water-coal fuel is adjusted adaptively by the criterion of actual amount of outgoing volatile substances from coal as a result of its mechanical destruction, and deep classification of coal is carried out by its grain size.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to do a more complete recycling of thermal energy of coals and to ensure increased efficiency of power generation.9 cl, 10 dwg
Fuel composition // 2423411
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to liquid hydrocarbon fuels with additives, particularly flameproof water-fuel microemulsions. Described is a fuel composition which contains diesel fuel, water, diethanolamide of oleic acid, diethanolamine soap of oleic acid, diethanolamine, and additionally containing a monoester of oleic acid and dioxyethylpiperazine, a composition of C4-C7 alcohols, and the diesel fuel contained in the composition is winter diesel, with the following ratio of components in wt %: diethanolamide of oleic acid 3.960-4.840; diethanolamine soap of oleic acid 1.199-1.465; diethanolamine 0.507-0.620; monoester of oleic acid and dioxyethylpiperazine 0.400-0.488; composition of C4-C7 alcohols 0.594-0.727; water 9.0-11.0; winter diesel fuel - the rest up to 100.EFFECT: wider temperature interval of using flameproof diesel fuels.6 ex, 3 tbl
ethod to prepare water-in-oil and oil-in-water nanoemulsions // 2422192
FIELD: nanotechnologies.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of water-in-oil and oil-in-water nanoemulsions preparation, where a disperse phase is distributed in a disperse phase in the form of drops with diameter from 1 to 500 nm, which includes the following stages: 1) preparation of homogeneous water/oil mixture (1) characterised by surface tension of less than 1 mN/m, including water in amount from 30 to 70 wt %, at least two surfactants with different HLB selected from nonionic, anionic, polymer surfactants, besides, the specified surfactants are present in an amount to make the mixture homogeneous; 2) dissolution of the mixture (1) in the disperse phase, made of oil or water with addition of a surfactant selected from nonionic, anionic, polymer surfactants, besides, amount of the disperse phase and the surfactant is such that a nanoemulsion is produced with HLB differing from the HLB of the mixture (1). Invention also relates to water-in-oil nanoemulsions produced by this method with value of HLB from 6 to 14 and containing water in the amount from 1 to 30%, total amount of surfactants is from 0.1 to 20%, besides, the remaining amount (up to 100%) makes oil or oil in water, having the value of HLB that is more than 10, and containing oil in amount from 1 to 30%, total amount of surfactants is from 0.1 to 20%, and the remaining amount (up 100%) is water. The invention also relates to application of these nanoemulsions as carriers of additives in food, oil, cosmetic, pharmaceutical industries and in fuel sector.EFFECT: method ensures production of water-in-oil or oil-in-water nanoemulsions with high stability, a more simple and a wider area of application.33 cl, 26 ex

Fuel composition and method for its obtaining (two versions) // 2411287
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fuel composition on the basis of oil sludge, which includes oil sludge with 0.5 to 1.5 kg of plaster added to it per 10 tonnes of oil sludge, furnace oil, kerosene or solar oil, at the following component ratio, wt %: the above oil sludge - 60, furnace oil - 30, kerosene or solar oil - 10. Invention also refers to the other version of fuel composition and to methods for obtaining compositions.EFFECT: improving resistance to lamination of fuel composition, applicability for long storage and long-distance traffic, including at low temperatures.4 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
ethod of intensifying combustion of hydrocarbon fuel // 2409614
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of increasing efficiency of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel, involving dispersing a catalytic additive in an intermediate liquid medium and adding that mixture to hydrocarbon fuel. The intermediate liquid medium used is water in which a catalytic additive with degree of dispersion of 1-50 nm is uniformly pre-distributed by treating the mixture in a rotary-hydraulic mixer. The aqueous mixture is then added to the hydrocarbon fuel and the fuel-water mixture is then successively treated in a rotary-hydraulic mixer and in a flow-type ultrasonic mixer to form a homogeneous emulsion with water particle size of 100-800 nm. The catalytic additive used is nanopowder of metals, metal oxides or salts.EFFECT: low consumption of hydrocarbon fuel, low environmental damage.3 ex, 2 tbl

Apparatus for processing hydrocarbon-containing wastes into liquid dispersed fuel // 2408663
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: apparatus for processing hydrocarbon-containing wastes into liquid dispersed fuel has a block of mechanical purification filters 2, a homogenisation unit 6, a control unit and a layer separation unit. The layer separation unit has a distributor 3, a hydrophobic filter and pockets 5 for collecting dehydrated hydrocarbons and water purified from hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic filter consists of a container 10 having a filter layer of hydrocarbons and a layer of water. The layer separation unit lies after the block of mechanical purification filters 2, and the homogenisation unit 6 lies after the pocket for collecting dehydrated hydrocarbons 5.EFFECT: simple process and low content of water in the end product.6 cl, 4 dwg
Fuel gel // 2399649
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for reducing losses of volatile hydrocarbons and associated gases during oil production and refining, and for increasing fire safety of hydrocarbons. Fuel gel includes the following, vol. %: surface active substance products of processing of mixture of mono- and dialkylphenols with ethylene oxide 0.10, water 1.40, ethanol 0.50 and kerosene - the rest.EFFECT: gel has high cold resistance during storage.2 ex

ethod of preparing cavitation water-coal fuel (cavwcf) and process line for implementation of this method // 2380399
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods of preparing liquid fuel on base of coal and water without adding other components; said fuel is designed for direct combustion in boilers, furnaces, and various power installations, is suitable for pipeline transporting and continuous storage and is designed for replacement of coal, black oil and gas at fuel consuming objects. Here are disclosed the method of preparing water-coal fuel implementing cavitation effect and the process line for implementing the method of water-coal fuel preparation.EFFECT: efficient and power conserving method of water-coal fuel production of high power potential, ecological safety, low prime cost, wide application and with sufficiently simple process line for implementation.2 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl, 1 dwg