Refining hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, by alkaline treatment (C10G19)

C10G19/073 - (4)

ethod of retooling common oil refinery into enterprise for production of fuel from biological material // 2607771
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of retooling a common refinery into an enterprise for production of fuel from biological raw materials, distinguished by process circuit, which enables to process biological raw materials for producing biofuel. Method of retooling an oil refinery, including system comprising two units, U1 and U2 for hydrodesulphurisation, into enterprise for production of fuel from biological raw material, which includes a unit for obtaining hydrocarbon fractions from biological mixtures, containing ethers of fatty acids, by means of their hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and isomerisation of (ISO), wherein each of units U1 and U2 for hydrodesulphurisation includes: reactor for hydrodesulphurisation, (A1) for unit U1 and (A2) for unit U2, wherein said reactor contains a catalyst for hydrodesulphurisation; one or more heat exchangers for heat exchange between raw material and a stream exiting reactor, E1 in unit U1 and E2 in unit U2; heating system for raw material located above reactor along process, F1 in unit of U1 and F2 in unit U2; acid gas processing unit, located below reactor along process and containing absorbent (B) for H2S, T1 in unit U1 and T2 in unit U2, said method includes: installing between units U1 and U2 line L, which connects them in series; installing a product recirculation line for unit U1 and, optionally, for unit U2, replacing catalyst for hydrodesulphurisation in reactor A1 with hydrodeoxygenation catalyst; replacing catalyst for hydrodesulphurisation in reactor A2 with isomerisation catalyst; installing bypass line X of unit T2 for acid gas treatment unit U2; replacing absorbent (B) in unit T1 for acid gas processing with specific absorbent for CO2 and H2S. Also disclosed is a plant for production of fuel and a method of producing hydrocarbon fractions.EFFECT: considerable reduction of pollutant emissions into atmosphere, recycling equipment.16 cl, 1 dwg

ethod and device for sulphur compounds extraction in hydrocarbon flow // 2605747
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to sulphur compounds in hydrocarbon flow extracting method. Method involves supply of hydrocarbon flow containing sulphur compounds, into preliminary washing zone, containing ammonia, extraction of hydrocarbon flow subjected to preliminary washing from preliminary washing zone and supply of hydrocarbon flow subjected to preliminary washing into mass transfer zone for extraction of one or more thiol compounds from hydrocarbon flow subjected to preliminary washing. Said mass transfer zone includes hollow-fiber membrane contactor, and thiol compounds removal takes place through pores in pipes wall.EFFECT: said method enables to minimize number of equipment required for thiol compounds removal, and wherein liquefied petroleum gas or light naphtha have required characteristics.11 cl, 3 dwg

Improved device for extracting sulphur-containing compounds by liquid-liquid extraction by means of a sodium hydroxide solution with optimised final washing step // 2605441
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method is implemented by extraction in a "liquid-liquid" system with sodium hydroxide solution, using unit (2) for pretreatment of feedstock to be treated, placed upstream of extraction unit (4), sodium hydroxide being introduced into column (4) by means of two separate circuits functioning as described in patent claim.EFFECT: disclosed is a method for selective extraction of sulphur-containing compounds from gasoline fraction of hydrocarbons or liquefied petroleum gas.1 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

Improved device for sulphur-containing compounds extraction, containing periodic pretreatment reactor, and reactor operating in preliminary treatment displacement mode // 2605087
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to method of sulphur-containing compounds extracting from hydrocarbons gasoline fraction or liquefied petroleum gas by extraction in “liquid-liquid” system with sodium hydroxide solution using pretreatment of raw material to be cleaned, which is located upstream of sodium hydroxide extraction plant. At that, preliminary treatment plant consists of first reactor operating in intermittent mode, and in-series installed second flow reactor operating in displacement mode, characterized by Peclet number from 3 to 10, preferably from 3 to 5, where U denotes linear speed of hydrocarbon phase flow in reactor, L is reactor length and Dax is hydrocarbon phase longitudinal mixing coefficient in second reactor.EFFECT: disclosed method enables to considerably increase cleaning process efficiency.5 cl, 4 dwg, 3 ex

ethod for demercaptanisation of hydrocarbon material // 2603635
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of alkaline demerptanisation of hydrocarbon material with subsequent oxidation-catalyst regeneration of mercaptide-saturated alkaline agent or direct oxidation of mercaptans contained in hydrocarbon raw material with atmospheric oxygen in presence of an alkaline agent and a heterogeneous catalyst for oxidation of sulphur compounds. Method is characterised by that alkaline agent used is aqueous solution of alkali, containing polar organic compounds, formed due to deep oxidation of mercaptides by treatment of mercaptide-containing alkaline solution with atmospheric oxygen in presence of highly active heterogeneous catalyst KSM-X on a polymer support. High activity of KSM-X catalyst during oxidative regeneration mercaptide-containing alkaline solution and efficiency of obtained alkaline agent due to water-soluble polar oxygen-containing products of oxidation mercaptides contained therein simplifies technology of process of demercaptanisation of hydrocarbons, significantly reduces size of process equipment, reduces capital and operating costs for its implementation as compared to existing methods.EFFECT: demercaptanisation of hydrocarbon material.1 cl, 2 tbl, 2 exl

ethod for off-grade fuel purification from asphaltenes and sulphur compounds and device for its implementation // 2593995
FIELD: fuel. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to off-grade fuel purification from asphaltenes and sulphur compounds by mixing initial fuel fraction with extraction agent in the form of concentrated sulphuric acid followed by separation of the formed refined fraction by its treatment with neutralizing agent and water. Method distinctive aspect is that the initial fuel fraction is subjected to ozone oxidation prior to mixing, and fuel purification is single-flow in one cycle, where the extraction agent is used once in every cycle, and neutralising reagent is calcined soda, after treatment with water refined fraction is subjected to filtration and dehydration. Invention also relates to the device. EFFECT: present invention provides a simple and efficient method and device for purification of dark, off-grade diesel and furnace fuel from undesirable impurities in one cycle of processing of initial fuel fraction and enables to obtain one whole flow of purified fuel, as well as to reduce the amount of used extraction agent - sulphuric acid, and to reduce the amount of hard-to-utilize residue (acid tar) formed upon extraction. 2 cl, 2 dwg

Unit of acidic tar oils neutralising // 2588125
FIELD: technological processes; oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses apparatus for acid tar neutralization, which has container for raw materials, pipelines, pumps, device for heating of tar, reactor, vessel with neutralizer and dehydrator, at that, it additionally comprises flow and pH analysis sensor and soaking chamber, and tank for raw material is connected via pipeline equipped with pump, with means for heating of tar in form of heat exchanger, which output is connected with reactor in form of cavitator via pipeline equipped with flow and pH analysis sensor, which output is connected with flow regulator installed in pipe communicating vessel with neutralizer with cavitator, which outlet is connected to input in soaking chamber, which output is connected by pipeline equipped with pump, with dehydrator output, inside of which there is a steam supply coil.EFFECT: obtained after processing oil products are used as raw material for bitumen production and oil fuel.1 cl, 1 dwg

Apparatus for processing acid tar oils // 2588124
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses apparatus for acid tar processing, which has a container for raw materials, pipelines, pumps, device for heating of tar, reactor vessel with neutralizer and separator, additionally it comprises flow and analysis of pH sensor and soaking chamber, and tank for raw material is connected via pipeline equipped with pump, with means for heating of tar in form of heat exchanger, which output is connected with reactor with mixer via pipeline in which a flow and analysis of pH sensor, sensor output is connected with flow regulator installed in pipe communicating vessel with neutralizer with reactor in form of cavitation mixer outlet is connected to input in soaking chamber, which output is connected by pipeline equipped with pump, with separator made up of three-phase centrifuge.EFFECT: obtaining acid tar oils, suitable for use as raw material for bitumen production and oil fuel.1 cl, 1 dwg

Apparatus for treating acid tar and method of treating acid tar carried out on said apparatus // 2574728
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: cracking reactor has a sealed cover and is provided with a thermocouple; the apparatus further includes a supply tank for a neutralising agent, a supply tank for acid tar, geared pumps, pipes, a neutralisation reactor with a mixer, with an electric motor and a thermocouple, volatile hydrocarbon and water receivers, a receiver for collecting water and volatile hydrocarbons, a receiver for collecting liquid hydrocarbons, a receiver for collecting carbonaceous solid residue, an exhaust gas receiver, wherein the neutralisation reactor is installed before the cracking reactor; the neutralisation reactor is connected by a pipe to the supply tanks, the cracking reactor and the volatile hydrocarbon and water receivers, and the cracking reactor is connected to the receiver for collecting water and volatile hydrocarbons, the receiver for collecting liquid hydrocarbons, the receiver for collecting carbonaceous solid residue, the exhaust gas receiver; the geared pumps are installed between the supply tanks and the neutralisation reactor, as well as between the neutralisation reactor and the cracking reactor.EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, high efficiency, safety, environmental friendliness and easier use of the disclosed apparatus.3 cl, 1 dwg

ethods for upgrading polluted hydrocarbon flows // 2565758
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: inventions are referred to methods of raw oil upgrading. The invention is referred to a method for upgrading a hydrocarbon stock containing heteroatoms by the removal of heteroatomic polluters that consists of bringing the hydrocarbon stock containing the heteroatoms in contact with an oxidiser; bringing the hydrocarbon stock containing the heteroatoms in contact with at least one caustic and at least one selectivity booster at a temperature of 150°C - 350°C and at a pressure within the range from approximately 0 up to approximately 2000 psi (excess) (from approximately 0 up to approximately 13790 kPa), where at least one caustic is represented by a non-organic oxide containing an element of IA or IIA group, a non-organic hydroxide containing an element of IA or IIA group or their mixture, and the selectivity booster is represented by an alcohol, polyol or their mixture; removing the heteroatomic polluters from the hydrocarbon stock with the receipt of a hydrocarbon product that does not contain heteroatoms in essence. The invention is also referred to versions of the hydrocarbon stock upgrading methods.EFFECT: effective removal of the heteroatoms from the hydrocarbon stock.18 cl, 6 dwg, 2 ex

Reaction system and products obtained therein // 2565594
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses reaction system and method of heteroatoms removal from oxidised hydrocarbon fractions containing the latter and the products produced by this method. Initial oxidised hydrocarbon product containing heteroatoms, flow of caustic substance and selectivity activator react in this reaction system. Note here that said caustic substance is an inorganic oxide of elements of the IA and IIA groups, inorganic hydroxide of elements of IA and IIA groups, their mixes of their fused mixes. Selectivity activator represents alcohol, polyol or mix thereof to make non-ionic hydrocarbon products. Invention discloses also several versions of reaction process and reaction system for reduction of the content of heteroatoms.EFFECT: heteroatoms removal from oxidised hydrocarbon fractions.21 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 22 ex
ethod for desulphuration of petroleum oil // 2561725
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for desulphuration of petroleum oil, which includes a step of diluting crude petroleum oil with a suitable organic solvent before a desulphuration reaction. The organic solvent is selected from alkanes, alkenes, cyclic alkenes and alkynes. Solvent concentration in the mixture of crude petroleum oil and solvent is in the range of 0.1-70%. The mixture of petroleum oil and solvent reacts with sodium at a temperature in the range of 240-350°C and pressure in the range of 0-500 lb/in2 (0-3.45 MPa) for 15 minutes to 4 hours while stirring to obtain an end mixture containing desulphurated petroleum oil.EFFECT: low content of asphaltene in petroleum oil, improved viscosity of desulphurated petroleum oil, low content of residual sodium.10 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex

ethod for treatment of hydrocarbon fractions from sulphur-containing compounds // 2556634
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to method for treatment of hydrocarbon fractions from sulphur-containing compounds, wherein hydrocarbon fractions are treated by their mixing with ammonia water, division of the receives mixture into treated hydrocarbon fractions and waste ammonia water, which is regenerated and thereafter supplied again to treatment of hydrocarbon fractions. Regeneration of waste ammonia water is performed by its treatment from sulphur-containing compounds, rectification with produced waste water and gaseous final product sent to scrubber, receipt in the scrubber of treated gaseous ammonia, which is subject to absorption by treated waste water in a reservoir for ammonia absorption with receipt of regenerated ammonia water.EFFECT: improving ecological safety of hydrocarbon fractions treatment, easy and reliable disposal of waste ammonia water.2 dwg

ethod of processing hydrocarbons // 2545455
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing liquid hydrocarbons for converting acidic impurities into less odorous compounds. The invention relates to a method of processing a purified finished oil product containing mercaptans, which includes (a) mixing the purified finished oil product containing mercaptans with an oxygen-containing gas to form a mixture and feeding said mixture onto a vertical screen consisting of vertically suspended nonporous fibres; (b) feeding an aqueous liquid treatment solution onto said screen, where the liquid treatment solution is combined with the mixture from step (a), which flows downwards on the vertically suspended fibres, wherein the liquid treatment solution is obtained by mixing: (i) an alkali metal hydroxide; (ii) a cobalt phthalocyanine catalyst; (iii) either naphthenic or ethylhexanoic acid; (iv) one component selected from cresol, cyclohexanol, propylene glycol, isopropanol or cresylic acid; and (v) water. Catalytic oxidation of mercaptans to disulphide oils and separation of the purified finished oil product and disulphide oil in the form of a refined hydrocarbon product from the liquid treatment solution and oxygen-containing gas are performed. The invention also relates to a two-step method of processing the purified finished oil product.EFFECT: efficient purification of hydrocarbons.19 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 12 ex

ethod of removing hydrogen sulphide from decomposition gases from apparatus for atmospheric-vacuum or vacuum distillation of oil // 2544993
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of removing hydrogen sulphide from decomposition gases from an apparatus for atmospheric-vacuum or vacuum distillation of oil, which includes burning decomposition gases, formed from heating mazut, in a furnace. Decomposition gases from a multi-step steam ejector-type vacuum generating system after the condenser of a cooler and (or) a first ejection step and (or) other ejection steps are fed into a barometric container and then into an absorber, into which, in order to spray contact devices, a regenerated absorbent is fed, wherein the pressure maintained in the absorber is equal to 1.01-1.05 kgf/cm2, after absorption the saturated absorbent with hydrogen sulphide content of 0.1-5.0 wt % is removed from the absorber for regeneration, which is carried out either within the apparatus or on refining apparatus or apparatus for removing impurities of straight distillates or other products, the cleaned decomposition gases from the absorber are fed for burning into a mazut heating furnace before a vacuum column.EFFECT: removing hydrogen sulphide from decomposition gases.3 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

Oil and gas condensate treatment method // 2541523
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to oil treatment including the treatment from hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans and may be used in the gas and oil producing industry. The invention is referred to the method that includes stages of desalination and treatment from hydrogen sulphide and mercaptans by contacting with aqueous solutions of alkali agents, oxidation of produced hydrosulphides and mercaptides by a 0.1-1.2% solution of hydrogen peroxide, separation of hydrocarbon and aqueous phases wherein the aqueous solution comprises 0.02-1.0% of calcium hydroxide, up to 0.95% of sodium hydroxide, ammonia, amines or their mixtures.EFFECT: performance of deodorising treatment with minimal losses of hydrocarbons and low energy costs directly in field conditions.11 cl, 6 tbl, 6 ex

ethod of light hydrocarbons treatment from carbonyl sulphide // 2540121
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the sphere of hydrocarbons treatment from sulphur compounds and may be used in oil, gas and petrochemical industries. The invention is related to the method of light hydrocarbons treatment from carbonyl sulphide by its decomposition in hydrocarbon by an alkaline agent with further stripping of the alkaline agent saturated with sulphur compounds and its oxidising recovery by treatment of air oxygen in presence of the catalyst oxidising sulphur compounds. The promoter containing alkali water (NaOH, KOH) and water-soluble polar organic compounds formed during treatment of products of alkalis and acid impurities of hydrocarbon fractions interaction in presence of the polymer-based catalyst is used as the alkaline agent. Oxidising recovery of the alkaline agent saturated with sulphur content is made by air oxygen at temperature of 30-80°C and pressure of 3.0 MPa in presence of polymer-based catalysts, at that the above alkaline agent (promoter) has total alkalinity not less than 5 wt % and content of water-soluble polar compounds and acid impurities in it is not less than 1.7 wt %.EFFECT: increasing purification degree of liquefied hydrocarbon gases, in particular propane-propylene fraction from carbonyl sulphide (COS).2 tbl

Removal method of sulphones from hydrocarbon fuel // 2535212
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a one-stage treatment method of hydrocarbons containing sulphones in one reactor made from nickel alloy. The method involves contact of a flow of hydrocarbons containing sulphones with a water solution of alkali metal hydroxide chosen from a group consisting of sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide in a sheet of vertically hanging fibres at the temperature of up to 350°C and at pressure of up to 170 atm, where hydrocarbons and alkali metal hydroxide respond with removal of sulphur atom from sulphone molecule with formation of a water phase saturated with sulphites and a hydrocarbon phase containing less than 10 parts by weight of total sulphur; with that, fibres consist of the material that does not contaminate the reactor and are wetted with one of the two non-mixing liquids.EFFECT: removal of sulphur from a flow of hydrocarbon fuel without any destruction of the whole structure of a sulphone molecule.8 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of obtaining oil plasticiser // 2531271
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the chemical and oil-processing industry. The invention deals with a method of obtaining an oil plasticiser, which includes purification of oil fractions with selective solvents. An extract is preliminarily diluted with a ketone-aromatic solvent or the ketone-aromatic solvent with a mixture with n-methylpyrrolidone or dimethylsulphoxide with a weight ratio extract:solvent of 1:0.1-0.5. Extraction is carried out at a temperature of 25-55°C by the ketone-aromatic solvent or a mixture of polar solvents: acetone, which contains 5-30% of n-methylpyrrolidone or dimethylsulphoxide with a weight ratio extract:mixture of polar solvents of 1:3.5-4.0 in the presence of an anti-solvent, reducing the diluting ability and increasing the selectivity of the solvent, and as such applied is a water solution of 10-25% concentration of sodium hydroxide or iron sulphate in a quantity of 10-50% to a raw material, obtained raffinate is applied as the target product.EFFECT: obtaining an ecologically safe plasticiser with low content of polycyclic arenes (PCA) and general sulphur.2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex

Preparation of hydrogen-sulphide-bearing oil // 2529677
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of hydrogen-sulphide-bearing oil and comprises cleaning oil of hydrogen sulphide at feed of 40-60% go total weight of oil being cleaned, 1st flow for separation with subsequent oxidation of hydrogen sulphide by air oxygen. After oxidation, oil flow is fed to high-pressure separator. Extra desorption cleaning assembly is mounted whereto 40-60% of total weight of cleaned oil is fed, 2nd flow. For blowing hydrogen sulphide off from oil into extra desorption cleaning assembly from high-pressure separator. After cleaning, oil flows are mixed and directed to low-pressure separator. Mix of gases from low-pressure separator and desorption cleaning assembly is used for oil heating.EFFECT: higher quality of commercial oil owing to decrease in concentration of chlorides to first group of GOST R 51858-2002, decreased consumption of process solutions.1 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex
ethod of purifying wide fraction of light hydrocarbons from mercaptan compounds and adsorbent for its realisation // 2529203
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to purification of wide fraction of light hydrocarbons (WFLH) from mercaptan compounds. Invention deals with method, in which mercaptan compounds interact with water solution of alkali, which is preliminarily mixed with alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride, where alkyl C10-C18 is taken in quantity 0.001-0.15 wt % in terms of hydrocarbon phase. Invention also relates to absorbent for purification of wide fraction of light hydrocarbons from mercaptan compounds.EFFECT: increased degree of removal of mercaptan compounds from WFLH, first of all with higher molecular weight (C3 and higher).2 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
ethod for treatment of light hydrocarbon fractions // 2492213
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of treatment of light hydrocarbon fractions containing sulphureous compounds and carbon dioxide, by means of contact in a counterflow absorber within a single stage with a circulating modified aqueous solution of alkanolamine regenerated to preserve a modifying additive by means of temperature desorption of carbon dioxide and sulphureous compounds. The modifying additive is sodium hydroxide in the amount of 0.005-1%, which after regeneration together with the absorbent is returned into the process. Absorbent supply into the absorber column is carried out by two flows into the upper and medium part of the column, the flow of saturated absorbent is discharged accordingly from the medium and the lower part of the absorber, flows are combined and sent for regeneration into a desorber.EFFECT: high extent of treatment from carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and other sulphureous compounds.1 tbl, 2 ex

Hydrogen sulphide neutraliser and method for production thereof // 2470987
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: neutraliser is characterised by that it additionally contains an inorganic base and, optionally, alkylene glycol, with the following ratio of components, wt %: inorganic base - 0.01-2.5, alkylene glycol - 0-35, hemiformal(a) of lower aliphatic alcohol(s) - the balance. The invention also relates to a method of producing said neutraliser by reacting paraformaldehyde with a lower aliphatic alcohol while stirring, characterised by that the process is carried out in the presence of an inorganic base and, optionally, alkylene glycol at high temperature.EFFECT: intense process of producing the neutraliser and neutralisation of hydrogen sulphide from oil, composition of the neutraliser has high efficiency, stability during storage and prevents contamination of commercial oil with organic nitrogen compounds.8 cl, 22 ex, 1 tbl

ethod of processing acid sludge // 2470986
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing acid sludge, wherein sulphuric acid is removed by mixing the acid sludge with distilled water in ratio of 1:6 by volume at 20°C and atmospheric pressure and mixing the aqueous solution of the acid sludge with aqueous ammonia solution in ratio of 7:1.9 by volume.EFFECT: lower power consumption during neutralisation, low consumption of auxiliary materials and number of process operations.1 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod of cleaning hydrocarbon fractions from sulphur-containing compounds // 2453359
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of cleaning hydrocarbon fractions from sulphur compounds and can be used in oil, gas, oil refining and chemical industries. The method is realised by treating compounds with an aqueous alkaline solution at temperature 5-90°C. The alkaline reagent used is a colloidal solution of aluminosilicate of formula: M2O·(0.1-1.2)Al2O3·(4-12)SiO2, where M denotes an alkali metal or ammonium cation with concentration 0.5-25 wt %.EFFECT: cleaning hydrocarbon material from sulphur-containing compounds.1 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex

obile module unit for utilisation of oil-slime and rejects of products of oil and gas processing // 2434051
FIELD: oil and gas production.SUBSTANCE: here is disclosed mobile module unit for utilisation of oil slime and rejects of oil and gas processing. The unit consists of functional blocks: block of control over process, power block, block of raw stock reception and preparation, demulsification and treatment block, block for cleaning excess water, and block for storage and pouring commodity products to consumers. The distinguished feature of the unit is like follows: the unit is made in form of separate mobile modules each equipped with their proper trailing facilities thus forming a train or railroad train with platforms whereon there are secured functional blocks. The blocks are furnished with corresponding fasts securing them to vehicles and with hoisting machines. The said functional blocks are distributed along train of modules in sequence with process for utilisation of rejects. The train of modules can be operatively started up on site. Also, the said module of demulsification and treatment includes the block of preliminary demulsification and hydro-acoustic treatment and the block of main demulsification and hydro-acoustic treatment. The block for excess water cleaning includes the block of excess water cleaning from residues of commodity product and its pneumatic-acoustic treatment and the block of excess water cleaning from mechanic impurities and its pneumatic acoustic treatment. Each of four said blocks for treatment of working medium is equipped with an acoustic cavitation mixer made in form of a cased mechanism with branches for supply and export of process flows of working mixture of emulsion and water. Inside the mixer there is installed an acoustic generator in form of a stationary hollow cylinder with acoustic generating channels-cavitators. Their geometric dimensions and shape correspond to properties and volume of process flows of working mixture in composition of main - prepared mixture and additional medium - water from the blocks of preliminary and main treatment and air - for the blocks of excess water cleaning. The said acoustic generator with its upper part is connected at least with two confusers forming an ejector in the point of their connection for mixing main mixture and additional medium, while with its lower part the said acoustic generator is connected to a diffuser. The block of preliminary demulsification divides prepared mixture to excess water with mechanical impurities and prepared product with insignificant content of water and mechanical impurities. The block of main demulsification and hydro-acoustic treatment performs thermo-chemical demulsification at flushing with hot water and divides prepared product to commodity product and excess water with insignificant content of mechanical impurities. The block for cleaning excess water from rejects of commodity product and its pneumatic-acoustic treatment divides mixture into a floating layer and excess water with mechanical impurities. The block of cleaning excess water from mechanical impurities and of its pneumatic-acoustic treatment divides mixture to excess water and mechanical impurities in form of a suspension.EFFECT: increased efficiency of processing, upgraded quality of production and efficiency of process for division of raw stock to phase constituents; implementation of given process for raw stock divided by standard processes of de-emulsification with difficulty.6 dwg

Apparatus and method for sulphide recovery from hydrocarbon flux // 2352610
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: there are described apparatus and method for sulphide recovery from hydrocarbon flux. The prewashing module designed to convert hydrogen sulphide to hydrosulphuric acid salt resulted from the alkali reaction including caustic soda, is connected to the recovery module directly superadjacent with respect to the prewashing module, designed to convert mercaptans to mercaptides resulted from the alkali reaction. The hydrocarbon product is delivered from the recovery module through the coalescing component that prevents alkali withdrawal with the hydrocarbon product flux. The prewashing module designed to convert hydrogen sulphide to sodium sulphide resulted from the alkali reaction including caustic soda, ensures the hydrocarbon flux prepared to recovery. In the prewashing module, alkali liquor is sampled continuously, with recovered alkali continuously added.EFFECT: reduced investments required to manufacture the recovery system.8 cl, 4 dwg

ethod of production of the polyolefin bases of the synthetic oils // 2287552
FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of production of the polyolefin bases of the synthetic oils.SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the polyolefin bases of the synthetic oils by cationic oligomerization of the olefinic raw and may be used in petrochemical industry. The developed method contains: the stages of preparation of the olefinic raw, preparation and batching in the reactor of the solutions and suspensions of the components of the catalytic system Al(0)-HCl-(CH3)3CCl (TBX), isomerization of alpha-olefins and oligomerizations of the highest olefins and their mixtures under action of the catalytic system Al (0)-HCl-TBX, extractions of the dead catalyst, separation of the oligomerizate for fractions and hydrogenation of the extracted fractions under action of the catalytic agent Pd (0.2 mass %)/Al2O3+NaOH. The invention ensures improvement of the stages of the developed method. For prevention of the corrosion activity of the products the method additionally contains the stage of dechlorination of the present in the oligomerizate chlorine-containing oligoolefins by the metallic aluminum, triethylaluminum, the alcoholic solutions of KOH or using the thermal dehydrochlorination of the chlorine-containing polyolefins at the presence or absence of KOH. For improvement of the technical-and-economic indexes of the method at the expense of the increase of the output of the target fractions of polyolefins with the kinematic viscosity of 2-8 centistoke at 100°C the method additionally contains the stage of the thermal depolymerization of the restrictedly consumable high-molecular polyolefins with the kinematic viscosity of 10-20 centistoke at 100°C into the target polyolefins with the kinematic viscosity of 2-8 centistoke at 100°C.EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of all the stages of the developed method.1 cl, 15 tbl

Hydrogen sulfide containing crude oil treatment process // 2283856
FIELD: crude oil treatment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of treatment of crude oil before subsequent transportation, in particular to treatment of sulfur crude oils and gas condensates with high contents of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans. Treatment of hydrogen sulfide-containing crude oil is carried out via multistep separation and blow-out with hydrocarbon gas either in low-pressure separation step or in additional desorption column at 25-80°C and pressure 0.1-0.5 MPa until degree of removal of hydrogen sulfide contained in crude achieves 55-90% followed by neutralization of remaining amounts of hydrogen sulfide by adding, at stirring, effective amounts of 20-40% water-alkali solution of sodium nitrite with pH at least 11 or 18-40% aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite at sulfite-to-bisulfite molar ratio 1:(0.3-0.9). In this case, sodium nitrite water-alkali solution is added on the basis of 0.9-2.0 mole (preferably 1-1.5 mole) nitrite and aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and bisulfite on the basis of 1-2 mole sulfite and bisulfite per 1 mole residual hydrogen sulfide. When treating hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan-containing crude, the latter is added with 0.9-2 mole (preferably 1-1.5 mole) nitrite per 1 mole residual hydrogen sulfide and light methyl- and ethylmercaptans. Alkali agent in above water-alkali solution of sodium nitrite is sodium hydroxide and/or water-soluble organic amine. Hydrocarbon gas used for the blow-up is preliminarily liberated from hydrogen sulfide separation gas from H2S-containing crude oil or low-sulfur petroleum gas, or natural gas preferably used on the basis of 2.5 to 10 m3/m3 oil.EFFECT: increased efficiency of process due to elimination of pollution of commercial petroleum with nitrogen-organic compounds and use of accessible, inexpensive, and less toxic neutralizer, simultaneous neutralization of petroleum acids, reduced acidity and corrosiveness of treated commercial petroleum.9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 8 ex

Hydrogen sulfide-containing crude oil treatment process // 2269566
FIELD: crude oil treatment.SUBSTANCE: process of removing hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans from crude oil is characterized by that, after purge of oil with hydrocarbon-containing gas to remove hydrogen sulfide, the rest of hydrogen sulfide is removed by oxidation with air oxygen in presence of water-alkali and ammonia solutions of phthalocyanine catalysts under pressure up to 2.5 MPa followed by separation of exhausted air by reducing pressure to 0.15-0.30 MPa. Exhausted air containing 40-75% hydrocarbons is used at the same pressure is used as hydrocarbon-containing purge gas.EFFECT: reduced loss of hydrocarbons with exhausted air and reduced consumption of air and reagents in oxidative purification stage.4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of freeing crude oil from hydrogen sulfide // 2263705
FIELD: crude oil treatment.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to freeing crude oil, gas condensates, and fractions thereof from hydrogen sulfide using neutralization reagents. Cruse oil is purified by treating starting material with 10-45% aqueous solution of alkali metal pyrosulfite or hydrosulfite, or nitrite, or ammonium hydrosulfite taken on the basis of at least 1 mole pyrosulfite or 2 mole hydrosulfite, o5 1 mole nitrite per 1 mole hydrogen sulfide. Process is conducted in presence of alkaline caprolactam production effluent taken in amounts 3 to 15 g per 1 g hydrogen sulfide at 10 to 80°C.EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency and extended application area for alkaline caprolactam production effluent.5 cl, 9 ex

A method of processing an acidic tars // 2241017
The invention relates to the refining and processing of acid tars

ethod of refining // 2235753
The invention relates to the technology of oil processing for receipt of petroleum products
The method of cleaning oil from hydrogen sulfide // 2230095
The invention relates to methods of refining oil, gas condensate mixtures thereof, water-oil emulsions from hydrogen sulfide and can be used in oil and gas production and refining industries for deodorizing scavenging hydrogen sulfide and oil mercaptoundecanoic

Removing naphthenic acids from crude oil and distillates // 2208622
The invention relates to a process for recovering organic acids including naphthenic acids, heavy metals and sulfur from the source of crude oil

Removing naphthenic acids from crude oil and distillates // 2205857
The invention relates to a process for recovering organic acids from the source of crude oil

A method of processing an acidic tars // 2186086
The invention relates to the protection of the environment, and in particular to methods of recycling product recycling

A method of processing an acidic tars // 2183655
The invention relates to the processing of the acid tars obtained using petroleum products as raw materials for the production of bitumen and as boiler fuel

ethod of sweetening hydrocarbon // 2173330
The invention relates to a method of sweetening dry and liquefied petroleum gases, gasoline fractions, light oils and condensates and can be used in gas, oil, petroleum and petrochemical industries

A method of reducing the acidity and corrosivity of crude oil // 2167909
The invention relates to a method for reducing the acidity and corrosivity of crude oil by adding thereto an effective amount of metal-containing solid compound selected from the group comprising oxides, hydroxides and hydrates, hydroxides of metals of groups IA and IIA in the presence of a small amount of water

A method of reducing corrosion activity and acidity of crude oil // 2167185
The invention relates to a method of reducing the corrosive acidic corrosion of crude oil by adding to the original oil raw material naphthenate metals of group IIA in the effective number or the second substrate in an effective amount, containing naphthenate metals of groups IA and IIA, and the original oil feedstock contains an effective amount of water of 0.3 -7 wt

A method of manufacturing an alkaline reagent for regeneration of lubricating oil // 2140463
The invention relates to the field of mechanical engineering, power engineering, chemical and petrochemical industry, specifically, to the field of production of alkaline multicomponent alloys, in particular , is used as the alkaline reagent for regeneration of lubricating oils

Apparatus for the decomposition of alkaline waste generated during the cleanup of oil fractions of ammonia water // 2115694
The invention relates to the refining industry and can be used in the production of petroleum products

The method of cleaning light oil fractions from petroleum acids // 2115693
The invention relates to the refining industry and can be used in the production of light petroleum products

The method of obtaining diesel and jet fuel // 2075500
The invention relates to the refining and can be used to produce diesel and jet fuel from low-sulphur, sulphur and high-sulphur crude oil

The method of cleaning and furnace fuel sulfur compounds from // 2061734
The invention relates to processes for purifying hydrocarbon fuels from sulfur compounds and may find its application in oil refining, gas processing and petrochemical industry

The method of obtaining light oil // 2033421
The invention relates to a method for producing light oil gasoline, kerosene and diesel fractions processing of sulphur, sulphur and high-sulphur crude oil and can be used in the petrochemical industry
 
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