Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oxygen-containing organic materials, e.g. fatty oils, fatty acids (C10G3)

ethod of retooling common oil refinery into enterprise for production of fuel from biological material // 2607771
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of retooling a common refinery into an enterprise for production of fuel from biological raw materials, distinguished by process circuit, which enables to process biological raw materials for producing biofuel. Method of retooling an oil refinery, including system comprising two units, U1 and U2 for hydrodesulphurisation, into enterprise for production of fuel from biological raw material, which includes a unit for obtaining hydrocarbon fractions from biological mixtures, containing ethers of fatty acids, by means of their hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and isomerisation of (ISO), wherein each of units U1 and U2 for hydrodesulphurisation includes: reactor for hydrodesulphurisation, (A1) for unit U1 and (A2) for unit U2, wherein said reactor contains a catalyst for hydrodesulphurisation; one or more heat exchangers for heat exchange between raw material and a stream exiting reactor, E1 in unit U1 and E2 in unit U2; heating system for raw material located above reactor along process, F1 in unit of U1 and F2 in unit U2; acid gas processing unit, located below reactor along process and containing absorbent (B) for H2S, T1 in unit U1 and T2 in unit U2, said method includes: installing between units U1 and U2 line L, which connects them in series; installing a product recirculation line for unit U1 and, optionally, for unit U2, replacing catalyst for hydrodesulphurisation in reactor A1 with hydrodeoxygenation catalyst; replacing catalyst for hydrodesulphurisation in reactor A2 with isomerisation catalyst; installing bypass line X of unit T2 for acid gas treatment unit U2; replacing absorbent (B) in unit T1 for acid gas processing with specific absorbent for CO2 and H2S. Also disclosed is a plant for production of fuel and a method of producing hydrocarbon fractions.EFFECT: considerable reduction of pollutant emissions into atmosphere, recycling equipment.16 cl, 1 dwg
oulded catalyst for converting methanol into aromatic hydrocarbons and method of producing said catalyst // 2607633
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst for converting methanol into aromatic hydrocarbons, method of producing said catalyst and method of converting methanol into aromatic hydrocarbons. Catalyst contains 85 to 99 parts by weight of zeolite ZSM-5, from 0.1 to 15 parts by weight of element M1, which is least one element selected from a group consisting of Ag, Zn and Ga, and from 0 to 5 parts by weight of element M2, which is at least one element selected from a group consisting of Mo, Cu, La, Ce and P, Co, wherein total specific surface area of catalyst is in range of 350–500 m2/g, and specific surface area of micro pores is within range of 200–350 m2/g. Method involves following steps: step I: mixing template agent I, an inorganic acid, silicon source, aluminium source, water, soluble compound of element M1 and, optionally, soluble compound of element M2 to obtain a mixture, converting mixture into gel with subsequent holding and drying of gel to obtain amorphous mixed silicon-aluminium mixed oxide precursor; step II: mixing silicon-aluminium mixed oxide precursor obtained at step I, with a crystal seed and binding agent, moulding and drying mixture to produce a moulded semi-finished product; and step III: crystallisation followed by calcination of moulded semi-finished product obtained at step (II), to obtain said catalyst. Catalyst is characterised by high values of total specific surface area, specific surface area of micro pores and micropore volume.EFFECT: results of reaction for synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbons from methanol using a catalyst, provided in present invention, demonstrated good catalytic activity.14 cl, 3 tbl, 25 ex

ethod of controlling process control and list of produced oil products during oil refining (versions) // 2607089
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of controlling process and list of produced oil products during oil refining. Method comprises the most complete physical separation into fractions and is characterised by that to increase output of most valuable light fractions, oil is subjected to cryolysis at temperature not higher than -15 °C for not less than 20 hours with preliminary addition of a donor additive (water) in amount of not less than 1 % at different processing steps: before fractionation, instead of vacuum distillation at oil fields, where simultaneously with increase in content of fuel fractions in oil fractions there is its dewatering and desalination (partial or complete), as well as in various combinations of processing steps, for example before fractionation and instead of vacuum distillation or at oil fields and instead of vacuum distillation.EFFECT: use of disclosed method makes it possible to increase number of extracted fuel fractions.1 cl, 1 dwg, 5 tbl
ethod of separating water-oil emulsion using nanoparticles // 2606778
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil and bottom water treatment process. Disclosed is a method of separating water-oil emulsion by adding carbon nanotubes, containing metals, selected from: iron, cobalt, nickel. Surfactant is also added to emulsion and stirred. Further, method includes magnetic field exposure.EFFECT: technical result is faster process of oil treatment and reduction of residual water content of prepared oil.1 cl, 1 tbl

ethod of reducing content of organic chlorides in oil // 2605601
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of reducing content of organic chlorides in oil. Method includes preliminary dehydration and degassing of oil, heating oil with extraction of organic chlorides, discharge of purified oil. Preliminary dehydration is performed to oil water content of not more than 1 %, heating is carried out to temperature, which enables to distill a fraction from oil in a rectification column, said fraction containing organic chlorides and boiling at atmospheric pressure in temperature range from initial boiling point to 204 °C, and part of distilled fraction - reflux is used for irrigation of rectification column, volume of reflux is defined empirically depending on structural features of said column and oil volume, fed for distillation.EFFECT: proposed method enables to obtain purified oil with content of organic chlorides of less than 10 ppm.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

Hydrocarbon conversion catalyst // 2605406
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of increasing output of aromatic compounds and reducing output of C1-C4-compounds when reforming naphtha and to use of a catalyst for increasing output of aromatic compounds and reducing output of C1-C4-compounds when reforming of naphtha. Catalyst contains platinum, potassium or lithium, cerium, tin, chloride and substrate. Average packed density of catalyst ranges from 0.300 to 1.00 g per cubic centimeter. Content of platinum is less than 0.6 % (wt).EFFECT: content of potassium or lithium ranges from 50 to 1,000 ppm (wt), and cerium content ranges from 0,05 to 2 % (wt).7 cl, 1 tbl, 1 dwg, 5 ex

ethod of separation by means of modified hot separator system of high efficiency // 2604740
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a biodiesel fuel from a renewable raw material. Method of producing a biodiesel fuel from a renewable raw material includes deoxygenating of the renewable material in a reaction zone of deoxygenating; separating the reaction zone effluent of deoxygenating in the first liquid-vapour separator into a vaporous flow and a liquid flow, wherein the said first liquid-vapour separator operates at a temperature within the range from about 40 °C to about 350 °C; dividing the liquid flow into a circulation part and a product part; stripping the said product part from the liquid flow in a stripping column by means of a stripping gas with separation into a head steam flow and a still flow, herewith the level of contamination in the still flow of the stripping column after the first liquid-vapour separator is less than from 1/100 to 1/1,000 from the level of contamination in the still flow of the stripping column without a liquid vapour separator, herewith the said stripping column operates at a temperature within the range from about 50 °C to about 350 °C; isomerization of the still flow of the stripping column in a reaction zone of isomerization; recirculation of the circulation part from the liquid flow into the reaction zone of deoxygenating and separation of at least part of the isomerization reaction zone effluent to obtain at least one flow of the biodiesel fuel.EFFECT: technical result is production of lower levels of contaminants in the process flow.8 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl

Device for destruction of water-oil emulsion during transportation through pipeline // 2604351
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil extraction and oil refining industry, particularly to breakdown of water-oil emulsions. Device for breaking down a water-oil emulsion during transportation through a pipeline comprises a pipeline and a longitudinal partition made in form of rectangular plate, smoothly coiled along a spiral, wherein its edge at outlet is turned 180° relative to edge at inlet. Pipeline before longitudinal partition in direction of flow of water-oil emulsion is equipped with a cone, converging in direction of flow of water-oil emulsion at a ratio of areas of bases of cone of 2:1 in direction of flow of water-oil emulsion, wherein inside cone there is a concentrically fitted auger made in form of a spiral plate, wherein flow section area of auger decreases in axial direction from inlet to outlet, and inclination angle of spiral plate of auger at outlet is less than 90°, wherein at outlet of cone between auger and cone there is an annular disc, together with cone forming an annular chamber, hydraulically communicated via a radial hole made in cone with removal of heavy fractions, embedded into pipeline, wherein flow section area between auger and annular disc is smaller than that at output of auger.EFFECT: proposed device for breaking down water-oil emulsion during transportation through pipeline increases efficiency of breaking down oil-water emulsion; speeds up process of breaking down oil-water emulsion; improves reliability and reduces costs on desalination and dehydration of oil after transportation.1 cl, 2 dwg

ethod for selective production of fraction alkanes, suitable for petrol and diesel fuel // 2603967
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for selective production of fraction of alkanes, suitable for petrol and diesel fuel. Method is characterised by that it includes a step, for simultaneous decarbonylation/decarboxylation and direct hydrodeoxygenation of raw material, originating from renewable sources and containing triglycerides of fatty acids and/or derivatives thereof, at temperature of 350-450 °C and pressure from 10 to 50 atm in presence of a heterogeneous catalyst, which is reduced with hydrogen at temperature of 400-500 °C for 11-12 hours prior to bringing into contact with raw material, wherein heterogeneous catalyst based on gamma-aluminium oxide, prepared using platinum acetate blue is used, containing 0.1 to 1 wt% of platinum.EFFECT: method provides high output of end products and longer service life of catalyst.1 cl, 6 tbl, 18 ex

Processing of organic material // 2603965
FIELD: production of fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel. Method of producing biofuel includes: production of a suspension containing an initial organic material, water and oil, treating the suspension in a reactor device at the temperature of about 200 °C to about 450 °C and the pressure of about 100 bar (10 MPa) to about 350 bar (35 MPa), cooling the suspension and reduction of the specified pressure, as the result of which a product is obtained containing the said biofuel, herewith the said initial organic material contains a lignocellulose material or lignite.EFFECT: processing a solid lignocellulose biomass having low specific energy content into liquid biooil, which has high specific energy content, is stable, suitable for storage, transfer, processing.24 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 3 ex

ethod or system for extraction of carbon dioxide // 2603164
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and a system for extraction of carbon dioxide at plant for synthesis of methanol from hydrocarbon gas or synthesis of petrol from hydrocarbon gas through methanol. Method includes a reforming step for obtaining converted gas by steam reforming of hydrocarbon gas, methanol synthesis step for synthesis of methanol from converted gas, combustion step for combustion of fuel gas to produce heat source for steam reforming reaction, carbon dioxide extraction step to extract carbon dioxide using absorbing liquid from waste gases of combustion generated by combustion, step of producing a plurality of heating media for converted gas or heating media for converted gas and methanol with different temperatures of converted gas or from converted gas and methanol and a step for regeneration of absorbing liquid for recovery of absorbing liquid by means of stepwise heating of absorbing liquid containing carbon dioxide absorbed therein, for removal of carbon dioxide from absorbing liquid, wherein heating is carried out using plurality of heating media with different temperatures.EFFECT: invention allows effective use of waste heat of low-temperature converted gas.12 cl, 9 dwg, 9 tbl

Device for destruction of water-oil emulsion during transportation through pipeline // 2600742
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil and oil refining industry, particularly to destruction of water-oil emulsions. Proposed is a device for destruction of water-oil emulsion at transportation through a pipeline including a pipeline and a longitudinal partition made in the form of a rectangular plate smoothly coiled along a spiral, herewith its edge at the outlet is turned at 180° relative to the edge at the inlet. Pipeline before the longitudinal partition in the direction of the water-oil emulsion flow is equipped first with a converging cone, and then with an expanding cone with the possibility of separate longitudinal movement and fixation relative to the pipeline, herewith the converging cone outside is equipped with a spiral plate with the turning angle along the length of the converging cone of 90° at the ratio of through circular cross section of bases squares at the inlet and the outlet of the cone of 3:1 in the direction of the water-oil emulsion flow and the length of the converging cone to its maximum inlet diameter at the ratio of 4:1, herewith the expanding cone inside is equipped with a spiral plate with the turning angle along the length of the expanding cone of 90° at the ratio of squares at the inlet and outlet of the cone bases of 1:3 in the direction of the water-oil emulsion flow and the length of the expanding cone to its maximum inlet diameter at the ratio of 1:4, herewith in the pipeline after the converging and the expanding cones there are radial holes connected to a branch pipe with a gate valve embedded into the pipeline for removal of heavy fractions.EFFECT: device increases efficiency of oil-water emulsion destruction, provides faster destruction of the oil-water emulsion, improves reliability of the device operation and reduces costs for desalination and dehydration of oil after transportation.1 cl, 1 dwg

System and method of separating mixture containing two fluid phases at least partially non-mixed with each other and having different specific density, in particular, for downhole use // 2600653
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of hydrocarbons. Separated is a mixture containing two fluid phases at least partially non-mixed with each other and with different specific densities. Said mixture is introduced into system 10 for separation and subjected to the first coarse separation stage using gravity. First portion of the flow enriched with oil (a fluid phase with low specific density) and a fluid phase with high specific density are obtained. First part of the flow enriched with oil is fed into upper outlet 12a of system 10 for separation. Fluid phase with high specific density Is subjected to at least one stage of fine separation. Obtained second part of the flow enriched with oil is fed into upper outlet 12a of system 10 for separation and the water flow - into lower outlet 12b of system 10 for separation.EFFECT: invention enables efficient and compact use of the system for separation inside wells, separation of fluid flows into oil products and water with high degree of purity and reduction of oil well injection capacity in case of reverse injection of water.18 cl, 5 dwg

ethods and devices for fuel processing for increasing pyrolysis oil flow and hydrocarbon flow quality // 2599246
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of processing flows for increasing their quality. Method for increasing pyrolysis oil flow and hydrocarbon flow quality comprises: separate introducing the pyrolysis oil flow and hydrocarbon flow into the reaction zone for forming mixture of the pyrolysis oil flow and hydrocarbon flow in the reaction zone; catalytic cracking mixture of the pyrolysis oil flow and hydrocarbon flow in the presence of cracking catalyst particles in the reaction zone and active cooling and maintaining the pyrolysis oil flow at temperature lower than or equal to 80 °C, in fact before introducing into the reaction zone, in which active cooling and maintaining the pyrolysis oil flow includes external cooling the pyrolysis oil flow by external cooling medium. Active cooling may additionally include inner cooling. Disclosed is a version of method.EFFECT: minimized deposit formation in pyrolysis oil supply lines.17 cl, 2 dwg

Device for destruction of water-oil emulsion during transportation through pipeline // 2597614
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil and oil processing industries, particularly to destruction of water-oil emulsions. Device for destruction of water-oil emulsion during transportation through pipeline comprises pipeline and longitudinal partition, made in form of rectangular plate, smoothly coiled into spiral, wherein its edge at outlet is turned by 180° relative to edge at inlet, wherein pipeline before longitudinal partition in direction of water-oil emulsion flow is equipped with hollow cylindrical housing, provided with transverse diaphragms with centered slotted holes, every next slot holes of transverse diaphragm therein have progressively smaller throughput capacity, and displaced at angle 15-30° clockwise or counter clockwise, wherein downstream transverse diaphragms at end of hollow cylindrical body cone is made accommodating concentrical auger, cone therein expands in ratio of areas of cone bases of 1:2.5 towards water-oil emulsion flow direction, auger therein is made in form of spiral plate with turning angle along cone length by 180° with ratio of inner diameter of inlet to cone length of 1:4, and hollow cylindrical casing with cone are longitudinally movable and fixable relative to pipeline.EFFECT: proposed device allows to increase efficiency of destruction of oil-water emulsion, quicken destruction of oil-water emulsion, and reduce operating costs at oil preparation.1 cl, 3 dwg

ethod for dewaxing mineral oil compositions // 2597424
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method for reducing the paraffin content in mineral oil compositions, wherein the composition of mineral oils is provided with a dewaxing aid, which is a copolymer mixture obtained in a single polymerisation step, wherein the copolymers differ in the composition of the repeat units; it is cooled to form a paraffin precipitate and the paraffin precipitate is at least partly removed, where a copolymer mixture comprising at least four copolymers is used; the said four polymers have repeated units which are derived from alkylmethacrylates having 16-18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and repeat units that are derived from alkylacrylates with 18-22 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical, wherein the said repeat units are derived from at least one acrylate and one methacrylate. Present invention also relates to a dewaxing aid for reducing the paraffin content in mineral oil compositions, which includes is a copolymer mixture obtained in a single polymerisation step, wherein the copolymers differ in the composition of the repeat units; where the copolymer mixture is a mixture of at leat four polymers, which have repeated units which are derived from alkylmethacrylates having 16-18 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical and repeat units that are derived from alkylacrylates with 18-22 carbon atoms in the alkyl radical, wherein the said repeat units are derived from at least one acrylate and one methacrylate.EFFECT: reduce the content of paraffins in mineral oil compositions.9 cl, 5 tbl, 10 ex

Device for treatment of crude oil emulsion and method of operating said device // 2594740
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of a device for treatment of crude oil containing a treatment section and an evaporation section connected to each other and an evaporative valve. Method involves the following steps: water containing crude oil is fed into the said treatment section; in this section, water is separated from crude oil containing water; there is obtained partially dehydrated crude oil containing 5 or more volumetric % of water; the partially dehydrated crude oil is ducted through the specified pipe and evaporative valve into the specified evaporation section of the said device; partially dehydrated crude oil is heated upstream in relation to the evaporation section and downstream in relation to the evaporative valve by means of heat exchange with the above mentioned water separated from crude oil in the treatment; thus, the water contained in partially dehydrated crude oil is heated to a temperature above the water boiling point and there is obtained dehydrated crude oil from the specified evaporation section. Invention also relates to a device for implementation of the specified method.EFFECT: use of this invention makes it possible to reduce the size of the treatment section.12 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for increasing octane number // 2594484
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for increasing the octane number of petrol, characterised by that the gasoline fraction containing olefins is applied to nitrous oxide at the temperature of 150-500 °C and pressure of 1-150 atm. Method for increasing the octane number of petrol, characterised by that gasoline fraction treated with nitrous is used as at least one of petrol components is also disclosed. Motor octane number and 4 units. Research octane number.EFFECT: method provides higher benzene octane number by the value of up to 4 1/2 units.8 cl, 2 tbl, 14 ex

Catalyst for reforming of gasoline fractions // 2594482
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for reforming gasoline fractions in order to obtain high-octane auto-component or aromatic hydrocarbons and can be used on oil-refining and petrochemical enterprises. Catalyst for reforming of gasoline fractions contains platinum, chlorine, aluminium oxide and promoter. Promoter used is a binary mixture of oxides of tin and zirconium xSnO·yZrO2 with molar ratio x:y=1.0-30.0:1, which is introduced into catalyst by adding binary mixture xSnCl4 (or SnCl2)·yZrOCl2 to aluminium oxide hydrosol with subsequent production of support in form of a ball by passing hydrosol through oil, drying and calcination.EFFECT: technical result is increased output of reformate C5+.1 cl, 1 tbl, 11 ex

Catalyst and method of producing aliphatic hydrocarbons from rapeseed oil // 2592849
FIELD: chemistry. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering, namely to method of producing alkanes and alkenes from renewable raw material, oils and fats of vegetable origin and more specifically relates to heterogeneous catalytic conversion of rapeseed oil to narrow fractions C3 -C19+, which can be used for producing motor fuels and unsaturated monomers. Catalyst for producing aliphatic hydrocarbons from rapeseed oil contains Pt, Al2O3 and additionally Sn in following proportions, wt%: Pt - 0.1-1, Sn - 0.24-1.2, Al2O3 is rest. Method of converting rapeseed oil is carried out in presence of said heterogeneous catalyst at high temperature of 400-460 °C and rapeseed oil volume rate feed of 0.6-2.4 h-1 in hydrogen medium at pressure of 40-50 atm. If necessary, catalyst is first treated with hydrogen at temperature of 100-500 °C before entry into contact with rapeseed oil. EFFECT: higher selectivity of conversion of rapeseed oil into narrow alkane-olefin fractions C3 -C19+, higher yield at high purity of produced fractions of aliphatic hydrocarbons and increased output of by-products while minimising number of process steps. 3 cl, 3 tbl, 18 ex

ethod of converting hydrocarbon material containing shale oil by hydroconversion in fluidised bed, fractionation using atmospheric distillation and hydrocracking // 2592688
FIELD: technological processes. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of converting shale oil or a mixture of shale oil with nitrogen content at least 0.1 wt%, comprising following steps: a) raw material is introduced in part for hydroconversion in presence of hydrogen, wherein said part comprises at least a reactor with fluidised bed, which operates in mode of gaseous and liquid flow and comprises at least one hydroconversion catalyst on a substrate, b) output stream obtained at step a) is at least partially in fractionation zone, from which, by means of atmospheric distillation are output gaseous fraction, naphtha fraction, gas oil fraction and a fraction heavier than gas oil, c) said naphtha fraction is processed at least partially in first part for hydrotreatment in presence of hydrogen, wherein said part comprises at least one reactor with fixed layer, containing at least one catalyst for hydrotreatment, d) said gas oil fraction is processed at least partially in second part for hydrotreatment in presence of hydrogen, wherein said part comprises at least one reactor with fixed layer, containing at least one catalyst for hydrotreatment, e) fraction heavier than gas oil fraction is processed at least partially in part for hydrocracking in presence of hydrogen. Invention also relates to shale oil processing using said method. EFFECT: invention provides maximisation of output fuel base. 28 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod for production of olefins and gasoline with low benzene content // 2592286
FIELD: chemistry. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for production of olefins and low benzene content gasoline from naphtha. Method involves the following steps: 1) subjecting naphtha to extractive distillation to obtain extract oil containing cycloalkane and aromatic hydrocarbon and raffinate oil containing alkane and C6 cycloalkane, with mass ratio of C6 cycloalkane in raffinate oil to C6 cycloalkane in naphtha being 80-95 %, 2) contacting extract oil with a reforming catalyst in catalytic reforming reaction conditions: 0.01-3.0 MPa, 300-600 °C, a hydrogen/hydrocarbon mole ratio of 0.5-20, and a volume space velocity of 0.1-50 h-1, thus obtaining reformate with a low benzene content; 3) sending raffinate oil into a steam cracking device to undergo cracking reaction to produce light olefins. EFFECT: method leads to high degree of utilisation of naphtha and to production of petroleum component with low benzene content in addition to production of naphtha ethylene, propylene and butadiene with high output. 14 cl, 2 dwg, 7 tbl, 9 ex

Composite medium for water treatment processes and methods for use thereof // 2588134
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of processing of the initial stream containing hydrocarbon liquid and water-based liquid. One of the versions involves feeding initial flow in inlet tank containing composite medium consisting of single-phase homogeneous particle shape, wherein each particle contains a mixture of cellulose-based material and polymer; and contact of initial flow with composite medium to obtain a processed stream, wherein the treated stream contains specified target concentration of hydrocarbon fluid. Invention also relates to a system.EFFECT: used composite medium is more effective.34 cl, 10 tbl, 7 ex, 15 dwg

Polyepihalohydrin reverse demulsifiers // 2586066
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to versions of compositions of reverse demulsifier for separation of external water and oil emulsions, as well as to the method for separation of water and oil emulsion. Reverse demulsifier composition comprises at least one poliepigalogidrin formula (1) wherein X is selected from the group consisting of chloride, bromide, iodide, trifluoromethylsulfonate, toluenesulfonate, methylsulfonate, combinations thereof, and the N+R1R2R3, Wherein R1, R2, R3 represent alkyl or aryl, or hydrogen, y1 is an integer from 2 to 20, y2 is from 2 to 20, y3 is an integer from 2 to 20. Method of separating water and oil emulsion consists in the fact that the above composition is added to the emulsion of reverse demulsifier in an effective amount. (1)EFFECT: invention enables to obtain economically efficient demulsifier with good viscosity properties and high efficiency.8 cl, 4 dwg, 3 tbl, 4 ex

ethod of cleaning diesel fuel from sulphur compounds // 2584697
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil processing industry and can be used for cleaning diesel fuel with high content of different organic sulphur compounds, including thiophenes, benzo-dibenzothiophenes and substituted analogues. Method of cleaning diesel fuel from sulphur compounds includes a step for oxidising sulphur compounds in diesel fuel in presence of oxidation catalyst at high temperature, step for liquid-liquid counterflow extraction removing oxidized sulphur compounds, separation of cleaned diesel fuel, method is characterised by that fuel oxidation step is carried out in reaction mixture containing catalytically effective amount of catalyst - molybdenum in hydrogen peroxide and protonated phase-transfer agent, reaction mixture is subjected to ultrasound then in oxygenated reaction mixture is added effective amount of flocculant with subsequent separation into water phase containing catalyst, and oxidised diesel fraction is extracted, extraction stage is carried out by extraction agent containing a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and glycerine in volume ratio of oxidised diesel fraction: extractant, equal to 1:1-3, respectively, with subsequent separation of cleaned diesel fuel from extract and step for regeneration of extractant from extract.EFFECT: method provides high depth of extracting sulphur compounds, at that is cheap, since it enables to return into process both catalyst and extractant.10 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg, 3 ex
Reforming catalysts with controlled acidity to achieve maximum output of aromatic compounds // 2582343
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a catalyst for catalytic reforming of naphtha. Catalyst comprises a) a noble metal containing one or more members selected from platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium and iridium; b) a mixture of lithium and potassium; c) tin or a halide; and d) a substrate. Also disclosed is a method of reforming.EFFECT: invention provides a catalyst material for selective reforming of naphtha feedstock.3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of dehydrating highly stable water-hydrocarbon emulsions of natural and technogenic origin and device therefor // 2581584
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for dehydration highly stable water-hydrocarbon emulsions, including a mixture of oily wastes, decomposition products and cleaning of lubricating-cooling liquids, barn sludge, liquid pyrolysis products, heavy pyrolysis resin, an intermediate layer of oil, natural bitumen and other water-hydrocarbon emulsions. Method of dehydrating highly stable water-hydrocarbon emulsions of natural and technogenic origin is implemented by heating, generation and evaporation of water phase from volume of boiling liquid, formed vapour from top of evaporator is directed to condenser-cooler, where vapour is condensed, fed into a settler with separation of condensate into a hydrocarbon fraction and water, respectively, and dried product from lower part of evaporator in case of compliance is pumped into a container for collection of dry product, method is characterised by dehydration of water-hydrocarbon emulsion is carried out in conditions of continuous transfer residue from lower part of evaporator to its upper part with provision of additional heating and cleaning bottom liquid from mechanical impurities. Device for implementing said method is also disclosed.EFFECT: technical result is higher efficiency and reliability of dehydration of various types of water-hydrocarbon emulsions.2 cl, 1 dwg
Optimised catalyst for catalytic reforming // 2580553
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reforming catalyst, which contains platinum, at least one metal-promoter selected from group consisting of rhenium and iridium, and at least one halogen selected from group consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine. Content of platinum in said catalyst is from 0.02 to 2 wt% of total weight of catalyst, content of each metal promoter ranges from 0.02 to 10 wt% of total weight of catalyst and halogen content ranges from 0.1 to 15 wt% of total weight of catalyst. At that, said catalyst is produced on base of substrate from aluminium oxide, in which sulphur content ranges from 500 to 1,200 in weight parts per million of total weight of substrate, and content of phosphorus ranges from 0.04 to 1 wt% of total weight of substrate. Invention also relates to a method of catalytic reforming using said catalyst and use of substrate from aluminium oxide with low content of sulphur and phosphorus for producing a catalyst.EFFECT: disclosed catalyst has high activity and selectivity in process of reforming, as well as improved ability to retain chlorine.12 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex

ethods of upgrading biooil to transportation grade hydrocarbon fuels // 2577337
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of fuel materials from biomass. A method for treating feedstock containing biooil comprises: dispersing the feedstock containing biooil in a hydrocarbon type liquid, selected from an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent, a naphthenic hydrocarbon solvent, a naphtheno-aromatic hydrocarbon solvent, a fossil or biomass fuel derived hydrocarbon liquid and/or a recycled hydrocarbon liquid obtained from further hydrotreatment and/or hydrocracking and/or mild hydrocracking step(s) of the upgraded biooil, using a dispersing agent, selected from a surfactant or an oxygen-containing solvent, pure or blended, selected from an alkanol, ketones, esters and phenol compounds, or recycled partially upgraded biooil with or without the hydrocarbon type liquid contained in the organic phase, from a hydroreforming step; feeding the obtained dispersion to a hydroreforming step with hydrogen under pressure in the presence of at least one transition metal catalyst, where the hydroreforming step is carried out at a temperature of about 250°C to about 450°C and at absolute pressure of about 3.4 to 27.6 MPa; separating the output stream after the hydroreforming step into an aqueous phase and at least one organic phase containing partially upgraded biooil and a hydrocarbon type liquid, where the partially upgraded biooil, with or without the hydrocarbon type liquid, is contained in an organic phase; further feeding to a hydrotreatment step in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrotreatment catalyst at a temperature of 250°C to 450°C, at a pressure of 2 MPa to 25 MPa and with hourly space velocity of 0.1 h-1 to 20 h-1 and/or a hydrocracking step in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrocracking catalyst at a temperature higher than 200°C and pressure of 2 MPa to 25 MPa and hourly space velocity of 0.1 h-1 to 20 h-1 and/or a mild hyrocracking step in the presence of hydrogen and a hydrocracking catalyst at a temperature of 250°C to 480°C, at a pressure of 2 MPa to 12 MPa and hourly space velocity of 0.1 h-1 to 20 h-1 to obtain a liquid hydrocarbon product.EFFECT: improved conversion of biooil without the considerable formation of coke or biooil polymers.12 cl, 9 tbl, 10 dwg, 13 ex

Apparatus for producing petrol // 2575848
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: apparatus comprises reaction pipes for the synthesis of petrol from methanol, wherein two catalyst types, including a dimethyl ether synthesis catalyst for the synthesis of dimethyl ether from methanol and a petrol synthesis catalyst for the synthesis of petrol from dimethyl ether, are fed into a reaction pipe in two steps and into a channel which enables air to pass from outside the reaction pipes. Heat exchange occurs between the synthesis heat released in the reaction pipes and air passing through the channel, and the said channel is adapted to enable the air to pass from the outside of the portion of reaction pipes where the dimethyl ether synthesis catalyst is loaded, and then pass from the outside of the portion of reaction pipes where the petrol synthesis catalyst is loaded.EFFECT: enabling the efficient use of the reaction heat released during petrol synthesis, as well as rapid cooling of the petrol synthesis column to a specific temperature.5 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

Initial hydrotreatment of naphthenes with subsequent high-temperature reforming // 2575847
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes: feeding hydrocarbon material containing naphtha and a hydrogen-containing recycle gas obtained from an aromatic compound separating apparatus into a first reactor to obtain a first output stream with low content of naphthenes, wherein the first reactor is a dehydrogenation reactor or a reforming reactor operating at a low temperature; feeding the first output stream into a separator to produce a stream of light hydrocarbons containing C7 or lighter hydrocarbons and a stream of heavy hydrocarbons containing C8 or heavier hydrocarbons; feeding the stream of heavy hydrocarbons into a second reactor system to obtain a second output stream with high content of aromatic compounds; feeding the second output stream and the stream of light hydrocarbons into a third reactor system to obtain a third output stream containing aromatic compounds; and feeding the third output stream into a reforming product separating column to obtain an overhead product containing C7 or lighter aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons, and bottom product containing C8 or heavier aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons. The second reactor system is the first reforming reactor system operating at a second set of reaction conditions, and the third reactor system is the second reforming reactor system operating at a third set of reaction conditions, wherein the second set of reaction conditions includes temperature in the range of 540-580°C and pressure lower than 580 kPa, and pressure in the second set of conditions is lower than pressure in the third set of conditions.EFFECT: use of the present invention reduces power consumption.9 cl, 4 dwg, 5 tbl, 2 ex

Processing method of hydrocarbon raw material // 2574408
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing method of hydrocarbon raw material that includes preliminary processing of war material flow and further processing with separation into fractions. The method is characterized by formation of primary flow having characteristic of tubular linear laminar flow, thereupon flow of raw material imparts directional progressive rotation according to vortex trajectory with maintaining laminar origin of the flow, further primary flow obtains rate, which maximum value at the boundary of vortex axile zone meets condition of Reinhold's number reaching critical value for tubular flow of fluid.EFFECT: usage of this invention allows increase in processed raw oil and intensity of its processing with simultaneous reduction of energy costs.6 cl, 2 dwg

System for producing gasoline and method therefor // 2573565
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: system for producing gasoline from natural gas through methanol comprises: a steam reforming apparatus for producing reforming gas via steam reforming of natural gas; a methanol synthesis apparatus for synthesis of methanol from the reforming gas obtained by the steam reforming apparatus; a gasoline synthesis apparatus for synthesis of gasoline from methanol, which is synthesized by the methanol synthesis apparatus; and an air preheating apparatus for preheating combustion air to be fed into the steam reforming apparatus using steam obtained by heating boiler water with synthesis reaction heat in the gasoline synthesis apparatus, or using heat exchange between combustion air and synthesis heat generated in a reaction tube loaded with a gasoline synthesis catalyst, in the gasoline synthesis apparatus.EFFECT: efficient utilisation of reaction heat released during gasoline synthesis, and enabling rapid cooling of the gasoline synthesis column when producing gasoline from natural gas through methanol.4 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg

ethod and system for obtaining petrol or dimethyl ether // 2573563
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: system for obtaining petrol or dimethyl ether from natural gas with intermediate methanol synthesis includes: device (10) for steam natural gas reforming for obtaining reforming gas; heat exchanger (17) of flue gas-steam type for obtaining steam or heat, used in system, by recovery of heat of flue gas, formed in combustion zone (12) of steam reforming device (10); methanol synthesis device (20) from reforming gas, obtained in device for steam reforming; heat exchanger (19) of reforming gas-steam type, intended for obtaining steam or heat, used in system, by recovery of reforming gas heat before supply of reforming gas into methanol synthesis device (20); device (30) for synthesis of petrol or dimethyl ether from methanol, synthesised in methanol synthesis device, and device, selected from the group, and a series of heat exchanges as shown in the invention formula. Signs, effecting total energy balance of system, are formulated for system.EFFECT: effective application of heat, obtained in method or system.10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 dwg, 10 ex

High-temperature platformer // 2572601
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to the method for producing of aromatic compounds from hydrocarbon material flow that includes passage of flow of raw hydrocarbon material to the first reformer, which is operated at temperature from 500°C up to 540°C in order to obtain upflow from the first reformer; heating upflow from the first reformer up to the second temperature and passage of the heated flow to the second reformer, which is operated at temperature more than 540°C and wherein on inner metal surfaces of the reactor a coating of non-coked material is applied thus producing process flow containing aromatic compounds; passage of the above process flow to fractionation unit in order to produce the main flow containing C4 and lighter hydrocarbons and residue-rich stream containing C5 and heavier hydrocarbons; and passage of the above residue-rich stream to aromatic compounds extraction unit in order to receive in this way process flow of aromatic compounds and refined oil flow. At that the above reformers comprise catalyst containing precious metal of the VIII group at the carrier; moreover the above catalyst has reduced chloride quantity.EFFECT: prevented increase of thermal cracking and cocking-up.8 cl, 11 dwg
ethod of obtaining automobile petrol // 2572514
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes catalytic reforming of straight-run hydro-purified petrol fraction with preliminary separation of petrol part of reaction mixture and separation of catalytic reforming catalysate. Petrol part of reaction mixture is preliminarily divided by fractioning into main, medium and residual fractions, which boil out in the interval of temperatures 62-85°C, 85-100°C and 100-190°C respectively, residual fraction is subjected to catalytic reforming, catalytic reforming catalysate is divided into low-boiling and high-boiling fractions, which boil out in the interval of temperatures i.b.-90°C and 90°C-e.b. respectively, and in process of blending involved is head of stabilisation i.b.-62°C, low-boiling fraction i.b.-90°C, high-boiling fraction 90°C-e.b. with addition of methyltertbutyl ether.EFFECT: method makes it possible to obtain automobile petrol with reduced content of benzene, improve technological efficiency of reforming process with preservation of high anti-detonation characteristics of fuel.3 cl, 5 ex

Hydrogen treatment of crude tall oil for producing aromatic monomers // 2569897
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing aromatic hydrocarbons from tall oil-based raw material. The method is characterised by that hydrogen gas and bio-oil, which consists of 2-90% tall oil fatty acids and 2-98% tall oil resin acids and optionally other vegetable oils, are fed into a fixed catalyst bed formed by a solid material; the bio-oil is subjected to catalytic deoxygenation and cracking in the bed under the effect of hydrogen using a deoxygenation catalyst and a cracking catalyst which differ from each other and are arranged in series at a distance from each other in the catalyst bed. The stream coming from the bed is cooled and divided into a hydrocarbon-containing liquid phase and a gas phase, and one or more aromatic hydrocarbons, selected from a group which includes ortho-xylene, meta-xylene, para-xylene and cymene, such as para-cymene, are extracted from the hydrocarbon-containing liquid phase. The invention also relates to a method of producing terephthalic acid from biological material.EFFECT: disclosed method enables to convert wood-derived material into monoaromatic compounds.14 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

Dehydration device for oil and oil products, gas condensate, liquid hydrocarbons // 2569844
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device is characterised by the fact that coalescing package is represented as a regular multilayer fit of corrugated permeable plates forming in normal profile of the vessel a wall matched to the vessel case, at that neighbouring corrugated permeable plates contact each other between peaks of corrugations, moreover for the purpose of collection of coalescent water phase in the lower part of horizontal cylindrical case of the vessel water-accumulating tank is built in, and for the purpose of collection of coalescent hydrocarbon phase in the upper part of horizontal cylindrical case of the vessel hydrocarbon-accumulating tank is built in.EFFECT: device allows separating of water-oil emulsions both with continuous hydrocarbon phase and continuous water phase.6 cl, 2 dwg

ethod and system for producing fuel components // 2569681
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing fuel components from biological material. A method of producing fuel components from biological material includes the following steps: a) evaporating biological material to remove impurities and obtain pure biological material, wherein evaporation is carried out in two, three or more steaming steps, the first being carried out at temperature of 50-250°C and pressure of 5-100 mbar, b) hydrogenating the pure biological material in the presence of hydrogen gas and at least one catalyst to form a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds, c) separating the gaseous compounds from the obtained mixture of hydrocarbon compounds to obtain liquid hydrocarbon compounds, d) fractionating the obtained liquid hydrocarbon compounds to obtain fuel components, and e) recirculating part of the liquid hydrocarbon compounds obtained at the separation or fractionation step to the hydrogenation step. Also disclosed is a system for producing fuel components and fuel components obtained using the disclosed method. Also disclosed is use of fuel components and a composition containing fuel components.EFFECT: method provides almost complete processing of raw material which includes a heavy fraction into valuable fuel components of good or high quality.30 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
Water-in-oil emulsion separation method using ultrasonic exposure // 2568980
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in oil industry for the purpose of oil dehydration. Water-in-oil emulsion separation method using ultrasonic exposure includes treatment of emulsion with ultrasound, at that optimal ultrasonic frequencies are pre-determined depending on size of water drops in emulsion that allow minimum water share in oil. Emulsion treatment is carried out with change in optimal ultrasonic frequency depending on change in size of water drops in the process of treatment.EFFECT: invention allows increase in oil dehydration degree and reduction of settling time thus allowing reduced capital costs for oil dehydration.1 ex, 3 tbl

ethod of electromagnetic modification of liquid energy carriers and device for its implementation // 2568273
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: at reactor output the continuous monitoring of the product quality parameters is performed by results of which in case of incompliance of the determined quality parameters with the required ones the product is returned back into the reactor, the intensity of the radiated signal is selected so that to get the nuclear magnetic resonance for selective impact only on such group of components of the product which is decisive for achievement of the required quality parameters.EFFECT: present invention allows to improve efficiency of procedure of electromagnetic modification of hydrocarbon fuels for the purpose of achievement of the target quality parameters at minimum power consumption and production wastes.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of preparing catalyst for aromatising light paraffins // 2568117
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of preparing a catalyst for aromatising light paraffins, based on mixing microporous material with a pentasil-type zeolite structure with pore size of not less than 5E and zinc-containing aluminium oxide. The zinc-containing aluminium oxide is obtained using aluminium hydroxide obtained by hydrolysis of aluminium isopropoxide with 0.5% aqueous isopropanol solution of methanoic acid with molar ratio aluminium isopropoxide:water:isopropanol of 1:(3-10):(10-20) and hydrolysis temperature of 30-40°C, characterised by average diameter of transport pores of 55-65 nm.EFFECT: method enables to obtain catalysts, the use of which increases the output of aromatic compounds.1 tbl, 9 ex

New modular external grid for reactors with radial layers // 2567547
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a reactor with a radial layer having the height of 2 to 15 metres and diameter of 1 to 10 metres. The reactor includes a coaxial external cylindrical grid and a coaxial internal cylindrical grid, which form an annular space containing a catalyst layer, in which the external grid with diameter D is a Johnson grid formed with a row of vertical fibres (7) and horizontal rings (8), which are attached to each other by welding and form a rectangular cell; with that, horizontal rings (8) are divided in a vertical direction into distance (d) comprising 5 to 200 mm and preferably 10 to 100 mm, and vertical fibres (7) are divided in a horizontal direction into distance comprising 0.1 to 5 mm and being shorter than equivalent diameter of a catalyst divided by 2; with that, the above grid is mainly divided into equal modules; with that, each module has the shape of a parallelepiped arc with height H comprising 1/15 to 1/3 of reactor height and with the side corresponding to an angular sector with angle α; with that, the side has length equal to D/2·α, where α is 20 to 60°, and each side of the module is equipped with a shoulder directed inside the reactor and being generally perpendicular to the plane of the above module; with that, modules form an external grid by being arranged in rows marked in an upward direction with figures of 1 to N; with that, two serial rows marked as I and I+1 are located in a staggered order; with that, horizontal and vertical shoulders of the module have thickness of 1 to 10 cm and preferably 1 to 5 cm.EFFECT: improving mechanical strength of an external grid, as well as simplifying installation and repair operations of the above grid.4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl

ethod and device for obtaining of high-octane gasoline by combined processing of hydrocarbon fractions and oxygen-containing organic raw material // 2567534
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon fractions and oxygen-containing organic raw material (oxygenate) are mixed. Obtained mixture is heated and supplied to the top of tray reactor, connected to system of cooling of reaction products inside reactor. Part of oxygenate is additionally directed directly in middle part of reactor. Catalysate from reactor is applied as heat-carrier in stabilisation column evaporator. Catalysate is cooled in first heat-exchanger and first refrigerator and supplied into separator, made with possibility of separating supplied cooled catalyst into flash gas, water and liquid hydrocarbon fraction, which after preliminary heating in second heat-exchanger is directed into stabilisation column. Flash gas is directed into main line of stabilisation gas and partially into stabilisation column. Part of stabilisation gas from upper part of stabilisation column is supplied through second refrigerator into reflux capacity, from which gas fraction is supplied into main line of stabilization gas and liquid phase - for irrigation into stabilisanion column and partially as liquefied propanebutane fraction to product warehouse.EFFECT: increased quality of obtained product with simultaneous simplification of applied device construction.4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod and apparatus for processing hydrocarbon streams // 2566820
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing a hydrocarbon stream, which includes: passing a hydrocarbon stream through a hydrocarbon processing vessel; heating at least a portion of the inner surface of the vessel to a predetermined temperature of 400°C or higher for 300 hours or more; identifying zones of the inner surface of the hydrocarbon processing vessel, which is kept at the predetermined temperature and exposed to chlorides with concentration higher 1 ppm; monitoring sensitisation and stress corrosion cracking in the chloride medium, occurring in the chloride-exposed zones of the hydrocarbon processing vessel, by making said portion of the inner surface of the hydrocarbon processing vessel from new austenitic stainless steel containing 0.005-0.020 wt % carbon, 10-30 wt % nickel, 15-24 wt % chromium, 0.20-0.50 wt % niobium, 0.06-0.10 wt % nitrogen, up to 5% copper and 1.0-7 wt % molybdenum, and other zones from another material to limit sensitisation and stress corrosion cracking in the chloride medium of the chloride-exposed zones of the inner surface. The invention also relates to an apparatus.EFFECT: invention enables to avoid additional steps for blowing or neutralising the medium inside the vessel.9 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg

Process and apparatus for producing hydrocarbons from feedstocks comprising tall oil and terpene-compounds // 2566763
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and device for producing hydrocarbon components. A method of producing hydrocarbon components includes: providing material containing (i) tall oil and (ii) terpene compounds, which are streams in the wood processing industry containing C5-C10 hydrocarbons and sulphur; subjecting the material and feed hydrogen gas to hydrofining in the presence of a NiO/MoO3 catalyst on an Al2O3 support to obtain hydrocarbon components, which include n-paraffins, subjecting the hydrocarbon components, which include n-paraffins, to isomerisation in the presence of a NiW catalyst on a zeolite-Al2O3 support and in the presence of hydrogen to form a mixture of hydrocarbon components.EFFECT: method and device enable to obtain hydrocarbon components from biological material, which are suitable for use as fuel or fuel additives.18 cl, 2 dwg

Process and apparatus for producing fuel from biological origin through single hydroprocessing step in presence of niw catalyst // 2566762
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process for producing mixture of fuel components, which process comprises providing a feed of biological origin. A process for producing mixture of fuel components comprising: providing a feed of biological origin, selected from tall oil, crude tall oil and bio-oil from hydropyrolyzed wood, subjecting said feed of biological origin and a hydrogen gas feed to a single step of hydroprocessing in the presence of a catalyst system comprising NiW catalyst, supported by zeolite-Al2O3, to form a mixture of fuel components. The invention also relates to an apparatus for producing fuel components using a feed of biological origin.EFFECT: simplification of process and apparatus by elimination of intermediate steps and reduction of costs.17 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

Device for catalytic processing of light hydrocarbon raw material // 2565229
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device, which includes recuperative heat exchanger, heater, at least, two isothermal catalytic reactors, which work alternately in mode of processing and regeneration of catalyst, as well as heat-carrier heater, lines of raw material supply, catalyst output and intra-device technological lines. In the process of devices operation light hydrocarbon raw material is heated in recuperative heat exchanger and processed in isothermal catalytic reactor, heated by heat-carrier, obtained catalysate is cooled in recuperative heat-exchanger and put out of device. Heat-carrier is obtained in heater by air oxidation of fuel and regeneration gas, waste gas is discharged from device. Oxidative catalyst regeneration is realised by blowing catalyst in reactor, which is in mode of regeneration, with oxygen-containing gas, at temperature of regeneration, obtained regeneration gas is supplied into heater.EFFECT: continuity of device operation and reduction of its fire-explosion hazard.4 cl, 1 dwg

ethods for purification and production of fuel from natural oily raw material // 2565057
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of purifying and processing natural oily glycerides, which includes providing (a) raw material which includes natural oily glycerides, and (b) low-molecular weight olefins; cross-metathesis of natural oily glycerides with the low-molecular weight olefins in a metathesis reactor in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesis reaction product, which includes olefins and esters; separating the olefins in the metathesis reaction product from the esters in the metathesis reaction product to obtain a separated olefin stream; and recycling the separated olefin stream into the metathesis reactor. The natural oily raw material can be converted into useful chemicals, e.g., wax, plastic, cosmetic agents, biofuel etc., with any number of different exchange reactions.EFFECT: improved method.20 cl, 2 dwg, 13 ex, 1 tbl

ethod of reforming of hydrocarbons flow // 2564528
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method of reforming of hydrocarbons flow includes its separation to light hydrocarbons flow and heavier flow with relatively high concentration of naphthenes. The heavy flow is subjected to the reforming to transform the naphthenes to the aromatic compounds, and produced flow of products is additionally subjected to the reforming together with light hydrocarbons flow to increase output of the aromatic compounds. The catalyst is delivered through the reactors successively.EFFECT: increased output of the aromatic compounds.9 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
 
2551013.
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