Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from oxygen-containing organic materials, e.g. fatty oils, fatty acids (C10G3)

ethods of purifying fluid emulsion using microporous materials having filtration and adsorption properties // 2641929
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for separating a stream of a fluid emulsion having a continuous aqueous phase into a hydrocarbon stream and an aqueous stream in which a stream of a fluid emulsion is passed through a microporous membrane to produce a hydrocarbon product stream and an aqueous product stream, the membrane comprises substantially a hydrophobic, polymer matrix and substantially a hydrophilic, finely divided, fine-grained, essentially water-insoluble filler distributed throughout the matrix. The polymer matrix has an average pore size of less than 1.0 micron, and the purity of the product streams is independent of the stream rate of the aqueous product and the pore size of the membrane.EFFECT: improving the efficiency of oil separation from water in real time.20 cl, 9 tbl

Plant for catalytic aromatization of light hydrocarbon feedstock and method of its operation // 2641692
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the plant for catalytic aromatization of light hydrocarbon feedstock, including at least one catalytic processing unit located on a feed line and a unit for separating concentrate of aromatic hydrocarbons with a line for supply of circulating gas to the catalytic processing unit. The plant is characterized in that a membrane separation unit of hydrogen is installed on the circulating gas line.EFFECT: increased yield of target products and simplification of the plant.4 cl, 1 dwg
Cold oil refining method // 2639864
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for low-temperature destructive transformations of oil and oil fractions into motor fuels is proposed, which consists in the fact that the oil is subjected to a recurrent cycle: the cryolysis of the product at a temperature of not higher than -15°C for at least 20 hours with the preliminary introduction of a donor additive into it in the amount of less than 0.5% to the weight of oil, followed by distillation of the fuel fractions formed in this cycle.EFFECT: possibility of obtaining the maximum amount of fuel fractions without the use of high-temperature technological processes.3 tbl

ethod of catalytic conversion of ketoacids and their hydroprocessing in hydrocarbons // 2638836
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved catalytic conversion of ketoacids, including to methods of increasing the molecular weight of ketoacids, comprising a stage of preparation of the reaction mixture in the reactor, containing, at least, one ketoacid, water and a base. Then, a base-catalyzed condensation reaction is carried out in the reaction mixture at a temperature of, at least, 65°C. The invention also relates to a method of producing hydrocarbons with high yield, involving astage of increasing the molecular weight of ketoacid, a stage of hydrodeoxygenating this reaction product, and also optionally a stage of isomerization.EFFECT: high molecular weight compounds produced by the method of the present invention are suitable for use as components of fuels and base oil or chemicals, or as raw materials for their production.14 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of catalytic conversion of ketoacids through intermediate dimers of ketoacids and their hydroprocessing in hydrocarbons // 2638835
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an improved catalytic conversion of ketoacids, including the increase in the molecular weight of ketoacids by the method, which includes the following stages: a source material is fed into a reactor, containing, at least, one ketoacid, the first reaction of the C-C binding is carried out in the source material in the presence of a catalyst based on ion-exchange resin for the formation of, at least, one dimer ketoacid, a reaction mixture is fed in to the reactor, containing, at least, one dimer ketoacid, the second reaction of C-C binding is carried out in the reaction mixture in the presence of hydrogen at a temperature of, at least, 200°C. The invention also relates to a method of producing hydrocarbons with high yield, involving a stage of increasing the molecular weight of ketoacid to obtain a reaction product and a stage of carrying out this reaction product of hydrodeoxygenation, and also optionally a stage of isomerization.EFFECT: high-molecular compounds produced by the method according to the present invention, suitable for use as components of fuels or base oils, or chemicals.13 cl, 4 dwg, 7 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of producing light gasoline with low sulfur content // 2638167
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes the following steps: a) conducting a demercaptization step by attaching, at least, a portion of the mercaptans to the olefins by contacting the gasoline with, at least, the first catalyst at a temperature of 50 to 250°C, a pressure of 0.4 to 5 MPa, and a liquid space velocity (LHSV) of 0.5 to 10 h-1. The first catalyst is presented in a sulfided form and comprises the first carrier, at least, one metal selected from group VIII, and, at least, one metal selected from group VIb of the Periodic Table of Elements, a weight percent expressed as the equivalent of metal oxide selected from group VIII, with respect to the total weight of the catalyst, is from 1 to 30%, and the weight percent expressed in the equivalent of metal oxide selected from group VIb is from 1 to 30% based on the total weight of the catalyst; b) carrying out the step of treating the gasoline from step a) with hydrogen in a distillation column comprising, at least, one reaction zone containing, at least, one second catalyst comprising the second carrier and, at least, one metal from group VIII. The conditions in step b) are selected such that the following operations are carried out simultaneously in the said distillation column: I) distillation with the separation of gasoline from step a) into a light gasoline fraction with a reduced content of sulfur-containing compounds and a heavy gasoline fraction having a higher boiling point, than light gasoline, and containing most of the sulfur-containing compounds, the light gasoline fraction being withdrawn at a point above the reaction zone, and the heavy gasoline fraction is withdrawn at a point located under the reaction zone; II) contacting the gasoline fraction from step a) with the second catalyst to carry out the following reactions: (i) thioetherification by attaching a portion of the mercaptans to a portion of the diolefins to produce thioethers, (ii) selective hydrogenating a portion of the diolefins to olefins and, optionally, (iii) isomerization of olefins.EFFECT: method helps to produce a light gasoline fraction.14 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of producing catalyst of hydrodeoxygenation of aliphatic oxygen-containing compounds // 2637117
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a catalyst for the hydrodeoxygenation of aliphatic oxygen-containing compounds to n-alkanes containing, as an active component, nickel phosphide on the surface γ-Al2O3, includes the impregnation of the carrier granules with a nickel compound, followed by reduction of the catalyst precursor, and treatment with a phosphorus-containing compound in the liquid phase by the method of temperature-programmed reducing phosphidation, characterized in that, in preparing the catalyst, an aqueous solution of nickel citrate and citric acid molar ratio of citric acid: Ni equal to 2, the resulting sample of the nickel-containing precursor catalyst prec preliminarily reduced in a hydrogen flow at a temperature not higher than 400°C, and treatment with the phosphorus-containing compound is carried out in the liquid phase by the method of temperature-programmed phosphidation with a phosphorus-organic compound solution, preferably with a solution of triphenylphosphine in n-decane, in a stream of hydrogen at a temperature of 250-380°C for 1-4 hours.EFFECT: high activity and selectivity of the catalyst in the hydrodeoxygenation reaction of methyl palmitate to form n-hexadecane and n-pentadecane.2 tbl, 4 ex

Oil purification plant // 2636313
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the plant for oil purification including a flow tubular settling separator, branch pipes for supply of oil and washing liquid, a mixer for oil and washing liquid which is characterized by that oil and washing liquid supply branch pipes are connected to the mixer installed in front of the settler, in the mixer the jets of oil and washing liquid are directed towards each other with equal cross-section at the point of collision of jets, the and branch pipe for supplying the mixture of oil and washing liquid from the mixer to the settler is in the form of a horizontal slit diffuser with a width equal to inner diameter of the horizontal tube of the tubular settling separator. The invention is intended for purification of oil contaminated with floating liquid medium, for example, water and can be used for the preparation of oil at fields and oil refineries and in any industry where such a need arises.EFFECT: application of the plant makes it possible to increase oil purification efficiency by increasing the degree of oil mixing with washing liquid and creating conditions for more efficient gravitational separation of oil from washing liquid.1 dwg
Oil purification method // 2636312
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved oil purification method with higher efficiency comprising preliminary mixing of oil and washing liquid by feeding them into a mixer, supplying the formed mixture to a flow settling tank for gravitational separation, where in the mixer the jets of purified oil and washing liquid are directed towards each other with equal cross-section at the point of collision of jets, from the mixer the mixture is directed into the flow settling tank for gravitational separation through a horizontal slit diffuser with a height providing laminar flow of mixture layer from diffuser outlet.EFFECT: invention is intended for purifying oil contaminated with floating liquid medium, for example, formation water or flushing liquid and can be used for preparation of oil at fields and oil refineries, and in any industry where such a need arises.1 cl
Catalyst for riforming gasoline fractions and method of its production // 2635353
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: catalyst for reforming gasoline fractions containing platinum, rhenium, chlorine, and a carrier is described, the catalyst comprising a surface compound of dehydrated zirconyl aluminium oxodifluoride of general formula Al2O3[ZrOF2]x as a support with the weight stoichiometric coefficients x from 1.0·10-2 up to 10.0·10-2 at the following content of the components, wt %: platinum 0.1-0.5, rhenium 0.1-0.4, chlorine 0.7-1.3, carrier - the rest. The method of producing a catalyst for reforming gasoline fractions comprises preparing the support by mixing an aluminium hydroxide of a pseudoboehmite structure with an aqueous solution of hexafluorozirconic acid H2ZrF6, containing organic components (formic, acetic, oxalic, citric acid, or their mixture with a total acid modulus of, at least, 0.01 g-mol acid/g-mole of Al2O3) followed by drying to a moisture content of 58-65 wt %, by moulding into extrudates with a diameter of 1.0-3.0 mm, drying to a moisture content of not more than 20 wt % and calcining to a moisture content of not more than 3 wt %.EFFECT: production of reformed gasolines with reduced aromatic hydrocarbon content while maintaining the octane number, increasing the yield.4 cl, 9 ex, 2 tbl

ethod for processing heavy hydrocarbon residue // 2634727
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for processing a heavy hydrocarbon residue (1) is described, in particular a bitumen residue with an asphaltenes content of 20 to 45 wt % and a content of the material insoluble in tetrahydrofuran in the amount of 10 to 20 wt %, comprising the following steps: heating the processed heavy residue to the temperature of 325-500°C; carrying out a substantially adiabatic expansion of the processed heavy residue in a medium at the pressure equal to or less than 4 kPa abs. (0.04 bar abs.) and the temperature equal to or less than 450°C; for the purpose of separation from the processed heavy residue: the first less volatile fraction (17) having a boiling point at the atmospheric pressure equal to or greater than 540°C, the solid and/or anhydrous residue of which mainly contains asphaltenes and/or other residues insoluble in pentane and insoluble in tetrahydrofuran; the second more volatile fraction (7), mainly containing maltens and other hydrocarbons having a boiling point equal to or less than 540°C at atmospheric pressure.EFFECT: providing more efficient blowing, the possibility of implementing the method at a very simple installation and without centrifugation.16 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex

ethod of optimizing deemulgator dosage // 2632744
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: high-frequency waveguide-type sensor is installed on the pipeline before entering the separator of the oil treatment unit, by means of which the current signals corresponding to the qualitative state of the residual water in the emulsion in the pipeline are received from the reflection at the oil/water interface. The received current signals are compared with the reference signal, which is set to the corresponding desired qualitative state of the residual water in the emulsion. By the result of comparing the signals, the amount of demulsifier supplied to the pipeline is corrected until the current signal equal to the reference signal is reached.EFFECT: possibility of eliminating a demulsifier overdose in the automatic mode with a change in the physicochemical parameters of the emulsion, including its viscosity.7 cl, 1 dwg

Combined electric desalination plant (elou-avtk/bs) of oil processing plant // 2632260
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined electric desalination plant (ELOU-AVTK/BS) for primary oil processing including a thermal conversion unit and a fractionation unit equipped with lines for feeding prepared oil, discharge of gas, naphtha and diesel fraction connected by means of steam supply line to the thermal conversion unit. The plant includes an electric desalination plant adjacent to supply line of prepared oil and equipped with injection line of unprepared oil, and is additionally provided with sulphur production unit and bitumen unit with bitumen sulphurisation device. The fractionation unit is equipped with fuel oil discharge line, on which a vacuum fractionation unit is placed, and connected by means of light fraction discharge line to vapour supply line, heavy gas outlet line is connected to the thermal conversion unit, and residue discharge line is connected to the bitumen unit, wherein the sulphur production unit is arranged on gas outlet line equipped with cleaned gas outlet line and connected by sulphur supply line to the bitumen unit, and the thermal conversion unit is connected by circulating fraction supply line to the fractionation unit, and residue discharge line is connected to the bitumen unit.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the quality of obtained products with the use of simplified plant.3 cl, 1 dwg

Oil dehydration and demineralisation device // 2632017
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device contains a remote oil mixer (3) with fresh flushing water and a water chamber (2) for oil flushing and a settling chamber (11) located in a common body (1) separated by transverse partition (10). The settling chamber is an electric precipitation chamber. The device can further comprise a pre-dewatering chamber. A gas separation chamber can be additionally installed on the body of the pre-dewatering chamber. There are one or more injector mixers placed vertically or under inclination in the water flushing chamber and provided with nozzles (4) and coaxial mixing nipples (5) in the lower part.EFFECT: increased efficiency of oil dehydration and demineralisation by increasing time for mixing oil with water at high water-oil ratio.7 cl, 5 dwg
ethods of regenerating aromatization catalysts // 2631499
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses and describes methods for treating or regenerating spent catalysts containing a transition metal and a catalyst substrate, reforming methods, and a regenerated catalyst produced by the said methods. The method for treating the spent catalyst comprises: (1) contacting the spent catalyst with a halogen-containing stream containing chlorine and fluorine to produce a halogenated spent catalyst. The halogen-containing stream contains less than 100 ppm weight of the oxygen-containing compounds; (2) contacting the halogenated spent catalyst with a purge stream containing essentially inert gas; and (3) contacting the halogenated spent catalyst with a coke-removal gas stream containing oxygen; where the stream of coke oven gas contains less than 50 ppm weight of the halogenated compounds after step (2). Another method of treating the catalyst comprises: (i) bringing the spent catalyst into contact with a halogen-containing stream containing chlorine and fluorine to produce a halogenated spent catalyst; and (ii) bringing the halogenated spent catalyst into contact with a coke oven gas stream containing oxygen after step (i). In the halogenation step, fluorine and chlorine can be used together, or fluorine and chlorine can be used sequentially. The reforming method comprises: (a) bringing the hydrocarbon feed into contact with the aromatization catalyst under reforming conditions in the reactor system to produce an aromatic product; (b) carrying out step (a) for a period of time sufficient to form a spent aromatization catalyst; (c) bringing the spent aromatization catalyst into contact with a halogen-containing stream containing chlorine and fluorine to produce a halogenated spent catalyst; and (d) bringing the halogenated spent catalyst into contact with a coke oven gas stream containing oxygen.EFFECT: spent catalyst, which was initially halogenated, has a significantly lower start-up temperature than the spent catalyst, which was first subjected to the coke removal, demonstrating the unexpected advantage of carrying out the halogenation step prior to the carbon annealing step, the advantage is maintained, when halogens are added sequentially prior to the coke removal step.39 cl, 4 tbl, 63 ex

ethod of allocating concentrate of valuable metals contained in heavy oils and products of their processing // 2631427
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: presented method includes processing heavy crude oil with a low-temperature plasma generated by microwave (MW) electromagnetic radiation. The method is implemented as follows. Heavy crude oil is loaded to the heated reactor equipped with an electrode with a through-hole for supplying inert gas-argon. An inert gas is fed through the electrode, after which the power is turned on and the plasma is generated. At the tip of the electrode, a breakdown is initiated with further formation of gas bubbles, the temperature inside of which reaches 1500 K. The processing of crude oil is carried out for 2 minutes. Heavy crude oil is used as a processed sample with the density of 900 to 1100 kg/m3. A copper rod is used as a material for the electrode. The method allows to obtain a concentrate of valuable metals such as Ni, V, Mo, Co, Cu, Zn, and others contained in crude oil.EFFECT: production of a solid product from heavy crude oil and liquid hydrocarbons with a reduced metal content.2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
ethod of processing of worked liquid oil products for manufacture of mixtures explosive explosives containing oxidizer in the form of salts - nitrates // 2630486
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of treating spent liquid petroleum products includes their mechanical purification with the removal of water and mechanical impurities and their subsequent chemical purification from impurities that are chemically active with respect to mentioned oxidant by passing a stream of spent liquid petroleum products through a filter with a filler in the form of granular ammonium nitrate.EFFECT: safe, simple, convenient and effective cleaning of waste liquid petroleum products from mechanical impurities, as well as impurities that are chemically active with respect to the oxidants used in the mixture explosives.2 cl

System and method of management and optimisation of hydrothermal process of heavy oil and bitumen refinement // 2629955
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: system contains a fluid flow route formed to continuously deliver the process stream along this route in the direction of flow. The flow route includes a reactor, a reactor configured to receive a process stream with water at an inlet temperature in the range of about 60 to 200°C, a reactor including one or more pressure pipes defining the total cross-sectional dimension of the flow inside pipes across the flow. The total length of one or more pressure pipes is at least 30 times more than total cross-sectional dimension of the flow inside the pipes, a reactor configured to supply heat to the process flow passing therethrough so as to gradually increase the flow temperature at the reactor inlet to the outlet temperature T(max)1 in the range of about 260-400°C at the reactor outlet. At that reactor is arranged to maintain a pressure in the process stream sufficient to provide a single-phase flow of the process stream at T(max)1, the controller is configured to selectively control the flow rate of the process stream through the reactor in order to maintain the total contact time of the process stream of feedstock in the reactor within an interval of about 1 to 25 minutes. Said flow rate, said lengths of the pressure pipes and said heat supply ensure minimization or prevention of coke formation.EFFECT: use of the proposed invention enables maximizing the efficiency and degree of refiniment at the highest temperatures, minimizing adverse reactions of coke formation.36 cl, 11 dwg

Systems and methods for renewable fuel // 2628521
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a fuel that contains a catalytic cracking product of a fluid comprising a fuel mixture comprising: i) 93-99.95 wt % of the oil fraction material and ii) 0.05-7 wt % of the raw material of the non-enriched renewable petroleum fuel, where the non-enriched renewable petroleum fuel comprises a product of grinding and non-catalytic fast heat treatment of the cellulosic biomass with conversion of, at least, 60 wt % of cellulosic biomass into non-enriched renewable petroleum fuels, and where the non-enriched renewable petroleum fuel has a carbon content of, at least, 40 wt % on a dry basis and oxygen content in the range of 20-50 wt % on a dry basis and water content in the range of 10-40 wt %. A method of obtaining fuel is also disclosed.EFFECT: co-processing of thermally obtained biomass products with petroleum raw materials in various refining operations.20 cl, 20 dwg, 11 tbl, 3 ex
Processing method of heavy vacuum gasoil // 2628508
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: residual oil vacuum distillation product, the heavy vacuum gasoil, is subjected to cryolysis, i.e. freezing, at the certain process conditions with subsequent distillation of light fuel fractions. The processing method of vacuum gasoil is included in its physical separation into fractions, where in order to increase the most valuable light fuel fractions yield, the fuel oil vacuum distillation product -vacuum gasoil is subjected to cryolysis at the temperature of not higher than -35°C for at least 20 hours with the preliminary introduction in it the donor additive (water) at least 0.5% to the gasoil weight. The invention is the alternative to the catalytic cracking process, since the process yield of the light fuel fractions at the heavy vacuum gasoil cryolysis treatment is not less than the yield, obtained by catalytic cracking.EFFECT: complete bleeding of the valuable light fuel fractions from the oil.4 ex, 1 tbl

Device for oil wastes recycling // 2627784
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device for oil waste recycling contains scroll conveyor body, a auger placed in it, a heater, an additional steam generator. The body of the scroll conveyor in the upper part is made in the form of a rectangular box, the bottom wall of which is made in the form of a porous plate with a porosity of 0.2-0.6, on which a horizontal tube bundle is installed. In the lower part, the body is made in the form of two semi-cylindrical slots installed in parallel and connected along a generatrix of a cylindrical surface. The auger is made in the form of two spirals, each of which is installed in a semicylindrical slot. On the axis of each spiral there is a pipe with a porous wall, which is connected to the steam generator with its input. The output of each pipe with a porous wall is connected to a rectangular box. The heater in the form of a tube bundle is installed from the outside on the conveyor body and is connected to the output of a horizontal tube bundle with its input.EFFECT: reduction of hydrocarbon losses during oil wastes recycling, reduced harmful discharges to environment.4 dwg, 2 ex

Oil residual delayed thermal conversioin plant // 2626321
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the oil residual delayed thermal conversion plant, including the fractionation unit, equipped with the gas discharge lines, light products, flux oil and the heavy gas oil outlet line to which the circulating residue supply line adjoins and at which the cracking furnace and the separator, equipped with the residue feed line in the thermal conversion reactor, equipped with the supply line of the circulating and balance residue vapours. In this case, the fractionation unit is equipped with the heavy fraction input and the thermal conversion vapours supply lines, the marine fuel and naphtha input lines, the latter - to the heavy gas oil outlet line. In addition, the plant is equipped with two mixers and three separators, the first of which is located on the heavy gas oil outlet line, the balance residue supply line is adjacent to the flux oil output line to the first mixer, located on the vapour part supply line from the first to the second separator, which is equipped with the vapours supply line to the thermal conversion vapour supply line and the residue supply line to the third separator, connected by the vapour supply line to the second mixer, located on the vapour remained part supply line from the first separator to the thermal conversion vapour supply line, also equipped with the residue supply line to the absorber, equipped with the absorption vapour supply line into the vapour supply line from the third separator, on which the vacuum-generating device is located, as well as the bituminic raw materials output lines, the input of the raw fuel oil part and the supply of the heavy fraction into the fractionation unit, to which the supply line of the raw oil residual remain part heated in the recuperative heat exchanger ajoins, located on the bituminic raw material output line.EFFECT: plant allows to obtain the marine fuel and bituminic raw materials without using the water vapour.1 dwg
ethod of processing sulfur-containing oil sludge with high water content // 2626240
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for processing a sulfur-containing oil sludge with a high water content involves premixing the oil sludge with a hydrocarbon solvent, activating the product produced by exposing the latter to electromagnetic radiation with a frequency of 40-55 MHz, a power of 0.2-0.6 kW, with an activation time of 1-8 hours and a temperature of 40-70°C, separating the hydrocarbon, aqueous and solid phases from the activated product, distilling the hydrocarbon solvent from the hydrocarbon phase, and carrying out the hydrocracking produced by stripping the hydrocarbon component in the presence of the zeolite-containing catalyst at a temperature of 400-500°C, a hydrogen pressure of 50-100 atm, for 2.0-3.0 hours to produce the desired oil.EFFECT: producing the target petroleum product with low sulfur content.3 ex

ethod for biological initial material purification // 2624009
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method for biofuel or biofuel components production includes: purification of biological feedstock selected from tall oil substances using a combination of a heater and evaporators including a heater selected from a combination of a heat exchanger and a flash unit, a falling film evaporator, a molecular distillation plateper and a thin film evaporator, and a series of three evaporators. The biological feedstock is treated in a heater at a temperature of 80 to 150°C to obtain the first fraction and the second fraction, the second fraction from the heater is treated in the first evaporator at a temperature of 180 to 250°C to obtain the third fraction and the fourth fraction, the fourth fraction is treated in the second evaporator at a temperature of 200 to 350°C to obtain the fifth fraction and the sixth fraction, the sixth fraction is treated in the third evaporator at a temperature of 250 to 400°C to obtain the seventh fraction and the eighth fraction, and the fifth fraction and the seventh fraction are used as the purified biological feedstock. Then, the purified biological feedstock is supplied into a reactor system which comprises a catalytically active phase of the protective layer and a catalytically active phase of the main reaction, and wherein the purified biological feedstock in at least one layer of the said phase catalyst is brought into contact with a combination of hydrodeoxygenation catalysts (GDO) and hydrodewaxing (GFC), the purified biological feedstock catalytic treatment is carried out with hydrogen in a reactor system to implement hydrodeoxygenation, isomerisation and cracking of feedstock components to obtain a hydrotreatment product, extraction of at least one hydrocarbon fraction of the hydrotreatment product as a biofuel or biofuel components.EFFECT: method provides biofuel with acceptable flammability and acceptable low-temperature fluidity properties.31 cl, 6 dwg, 11 tbl, 3 ex
Catalyst of low-temperature dehydration of naphthenic hydrocarbons for the process of reforming hydro-purified petrol films and the method of its production // 2623434
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a catalyst based on aluminophosphate zeolite APO-11 zeolite or silicoaluminophosphate SAPO-11 with a hierarchical pore structure. The finished catalyst contains, by wt %: 0.1-0.3 Pt, 0-0.2 Sn, 10.0-80.0 alumophosphate zeolite APO-11 or silicoaluminophosphate zeolite SAPO-11 with a hierarchical porous structure, Al2O3 - the rest.EFFECT: decrease in the operating temperature range for the reactions of dehydrogenation of cyclic saturated hydrocarbons during the reforming of hydrotreated gasoline fractions, using a catalyst providing a relative residual C5+ content of naphthenic hydrocarbons in stabilized catalyst not more than 0,45 at temperatures not exceeding 480 degrees as compared with raw materials.3 cl, 5 tbl, ex 12

Way to manage the process of intrauterine separation of oil-water emulsion by acoustic impact // 2622931
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: way is to select the frequency of the oscillation ƒ1 from first source of ultrasound exposure with the direction of wave propagation, matching the flow direction, so that a plot of L is equal to the distance between the sources, run fading condition and Wherein Al(0)=A2(L), where A1(0) and A2(L)-amplitude acoustic oscillations in emulsion directly near sources, A1(L) and A2(0)-amplitude acoustic oscillations at a distance L from sources, measure flow rate and create frequency fluctuations of ƒ2, less than ƒ1, and the direction of wave propagation, opposite to the direction of traffic flow, so that where c is the speed of sound w-emulsion flow rate.EFFECT: enables to increase the degree of flocculation of oil globule.2 dwg, 1 ex

ethod for clearing liquid hydrocarbons of high molecular impurities // 2622404
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for purifying a liquid hydrocarbon product containing not more than 3% by weight of polymeric impurities having a molecular weight of at least 8×105 g/mol, wherein the liquid hydrocarbon product is contacted with a hydrophobic porous inklyudirovannoy ultrafiltration membrane comprising a substrate layer of a polymeric substrate, the hydrophobic polymer layer.EFFECT: use of the proposed method increases the throughput while maintaining membrane selectivity.29 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

A method for detailing catalyst dust from the flow of the fuel oil // 2621731
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for the separation of catalyst fragments from the fuel oil stream comprises: separating catalyst dust from entering the fuel oil flow in a centrifugal separator to generate a stream of purified fuel oil; obtaining NMR-response signal from the NMR-device related to the amount of catalyst dust in the stream of purified fuel oil and/or in the incoming stream of fuel oil and to the top of adding or increasing the amount of separation additive to the incoming stream of fuel oil, when NMR-response signal indicates an increased amount of catalyst dust in the stream of purified fuel oil and/or in the incoming stream of fuel oil.EFFECT: improved performance of dust separating catalyst from a fuel oil stream.17 cl, 1 dwg
Procedure for decomposition of water-oil emulsions // 2621675
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: procedure for decomposition of water-oil emulsions is carried out by bringing into contact with the water-oil emulsion of a demulsifying composition containing bottoms of alcohol production, a nonionogenic surfactant and a solvent using as bottoms of alcohol production the production bottoms of butyl alcohols, oil aldehydes, 2-ethylhexanol, 2-ethylhexanoic acid, ethylene-propylene and ethylbenzene, having the following chemical composition, wt %: diester (2-ethylhexyl) 4.60-4.98; 2.4-diethyl-1.3-octanediol 6.80-8.50; isobutyric aldehyde 0.17-0.58; N-butyraldehyde 5.48-6.13; 2-ethylhexanoic acid 6.08-6.87; 2.2.4-trimethyl-1.3-pentanediol 3.31-3.72; butyl-2-ethylhexanoate 13.98-15.03; 2-ethylhexyl-2-ethylhexanoate 2.57-2.81; butyl butyrate 1.20-1.46; 2-ethylhexyl butyrate 1.71-1.87; 2.2.4-trimethyl-1.3-pentadiol-diisobutyrate 0.45-0.53; 2-ethylhexanoic acid anhydride 1.79-1.93; 2-ethylhexanol 0.16-0.19; 2,4-dipropyl-5-ethyl-1.3-dioxane 0.28-0.56; Σ unidentified high-boiling components up to 100. The nonionogenic surfactant is selected from the group of block copolymers of alkylene oxides, or from a number of modified block copolymers of alkylene oxides, or from a series of oxyethylated phenolic or phenol formaldehyde resins, and as a solvent, low molecular weight alcohols or aromatic hydrocarbons in a mixture with isopropyl alcohol in a volume ratio of (5 -7):1, respectively, with the following component ratio, vol. %: the indicated bottoms 5-12, the specified nonionogenic surfactant 38-45, the solvent is the rest. The total amount of the noted bottoms and nonionogenic surfactant is 50 vol. %.EFFECT: increased efficiency of water-oil emulsions separation at a reduced temperature, while ensuring the high quality of the separated water, by reducing the content of oil and particulate matter in it, including manifold and mixed water-oil emulsions, as well as for water-oil emulsions with increased content of paraffin, at the same time ensuring deep dehydration of oil.3 cl, 4 tbl

ethod for purifying gasoline from sulfur impurities // 2621030
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: purification of petroleum products is carried out in a distillation column under the conditions of cyclically variable pressure, at which a portion of vapors of the gasoline to be cleaned is fed successively to the separation volume of each tray, starting from the top one, at a pressure exceeding the vapor pressure in this separation volume and in an amount sufficient for complete condensation of the vapors in the volume. Each elementary volume of vapor, when moving from a cube to a fractional column, is exposed to 5 to 30 such short-acting pulses. The method allows purifying petroleum products from sulfur compounds without the use of additional reagents, and by the degree of purification it exceeds the known ones by approximately 10 times.EFFECT: this method can be used for purifying liquids from slow evaporating impurities or in the case where the majority of the mass transfer resistance is concentrated in the vapor phase.3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of removing sulfur oxides from ozonized petroleum or gas-condensate feedstock // 2619950
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method of removing sulphur oxides from ozonized petroleum or gas-condensate feedstock is carried out by rectification under vacuum with residual pressure of 58.0-95.5 kPa, in the presence of a stripping agent supplied to a column in the amount of 0.8 -2.5% moll. per feedstock, wherein exhaust of vacuum-creating booster steam jet pump is condensed, cooled and the resulting water steam condensate is used for absorption of sulphur oxides.EFFECT: increased efficiency of sulphur oxide separation from ozonized hydrocarbon mixture by rectification method under vacuum.1 tbl, 4 ex

ethod for continuous conversion of lignin into compounds suitable for use // 2619929
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the continuous process for conversion of lignin in the lignin feedstock. The continuous process for conversion of lignin feedstock containing lignin, contains: deoxygenation of lignin up to collection of conversion products of lignin in the reactor for the conversion of lignin containing liquid composition which comprises at least one compound which is liquid at 1 bar and 25°C; while simultaneously continuously removing at least part of the aggregated lignin conversion products from the reactor; where conversion of lignin is carried out in contact with hydrogen and the first catalyst; conversion of lignin is carried out at the pressure and temperature of conversion of lignin, where lignin conversion temperature is in the range above the boiling temperature of said liquid composition at atmospheric pressure and below the critical temperature of the liquid composition, and lignin conversion pressure is higher than the pressure in the bubble of the said liquid composition at the lignin conversion temperature, in this case the lignin conversion pressure is chosen avoiding coke formation as per the following steps: determination of pressure in the bubble of the said liquid composition at the lignin conversion temperature, reaction and analysis for coke presence, and if coke is present the said pressure is increased so that coke formation after two cycles in the reactor is absent.EFFECT: invention provides implementation of the continuous process to obtain useful products, impurities are removed during conversion, which leads to wastewater with lower chemical consumption of oxygen (CCO).17 cl, 7 tbl, 9 dwg

ethods of deoxygenation of tall oil and obtaining polymerised monomers out of it // 2618234
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for deoxygenation of tall oil and producing polymerised monomers. The method for producing polymerised monomers from tall oil has the following steps: introducing the sulfonated crude tall oil and hydrogen gas into the catalyst layer; catalytic deoxygenation of oil by hydrogen in the catalyst layer at a temperature of 280°C to 350°C using a sulfided metal catalyst; cooling the stream comimg out from the catalyst layer; separation of hydrocarbon liquid phase from the gas phase; steam cracking of the hydrocarbon liquid to obtain a product containing polymerisable olefins.EFFECT: invention provides an improved yield of aliphatic and non-aromatic cyclic hydrocarbons at the deoxygenation stage, which leads to increased yield of subsequently polymerised monomers.18 cl, 1 dwg,1 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of producing liquid hydrocarbons // 2617119
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a process for producing liquid hydrocarbons by contacting an aliphatic alcohol with a catalyst at a temperature of 300-400°C, the volumetric feed rate 2.4-3.0 h-1. As the catalyst a micro-mesoporous composite is used and prepared by adding a mixture comprising water, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium hydroxide, a mixture of tetraethylorthosilicate, water and tetrapropylammonium hydroxide and aluminium isopropoxide subjected to microwave irradiation, followed by crystallisation of the resulting mixing said slurry mixtures under microwave irradiation, and the resulting transfer of the dried and the calcined precipitate in the hydrogen form.EFFECT: use of the present invention improves the conversion of raw materials, improve the yield and quality of the desired product.3 dwg, 2 tbl

ethod of producing hydrocarbons of gasoline range from associated petroleum gas using synthetic gas and oxygenates // 2616981
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: catalyst obtained by tabletting of industrial cuprum-zinc-aluminium catalyst MegaMax-507 and aluminium oxide in a weight ratio of 2:1 is used as metal-oxide catalyst, with a colloidal graphite in an amount of 1% from catalyst weight, after synthesis of oxygenates water-methanol fraction is separated and removed from the process, while fresh synthetic gas is additionally fed into hydrocarbon synthesis reactor at a circulation ratio of 5-10 vol/vol.EFFECT: usage of the proposed method enables to reduce the aromatic compound content in hydrocarbon mixture of the gasoline range, which is an analogue of gas condensate, when used in the first stage of non-toxic industrial catalyst, increase the catalyst lifetime.2 tbl, 5 ex, 3 dwg

Combined oil refining unit elou-avtk/b // 2616975
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a combined oil refining unit ELOU-AVTK/B, which comprises a thermal conversion unit and a fractionation unit, equipped with treated oil feed lines, gas, naphtha and diesel fraction outlet, coupled with thermal conversion unit with a vapor supply line. The unit also includes an electro-desalinating unit adjacent to the treated oil supply line and equipped with an untreated oil inlet line and the fractionation unit is equipped with a black oil output line on which a vacuum fractionation unit is provided equipped with a residue output line connected by a light oil output line to a vapor supply line and a heavy gas oil output line with a thermal conversion unit, wherein the thermal conversion unit is connected to the fractionating unit by a circulating fraction supply line, and with the residue output line, it is connected to the output line of the vacuum fractionation residue, on which the bituminous block is located.EFFECT: simplification of the unit, allowing to obtain bitumen as residue product.3 cl, 1 dwg

anufacture of chemicals and fuels from biomass // 2616620
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals. A method for converting of biomass into fuels and chemicals comprises: providing biomass feed stream as a solid biomass slurry containing solvent and biomass components - cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; implementation of catalytic reaction of biomass feed stream with hydrogen and a catalyst for decomposition at the decomposition temperature and pressure to produce a product stream comprising a vapor phase, liquid phase and solid phase, wherin the vapor phase comprises one or more volatile oxygenates C2+O1-2, the liquid phase contains water and one or more oxygenated hydrocarbons C2+O2+, and the solid phase contains ash components painted dry residues, protein materials and inorganic products; separating of volatile oxygenates C2+O1-2 from the liquid phase and the solid phase; and the implementation of catalytic reactions of volatile oxygenates C2+O1-2 in the presence of the condensation catalyst at condensing temperature and pressure to obtain a compound C4+, containing an element selected from the group consisting of alcohol C4+, ketone C4+, alkane C4+, alkene C4+, cycloalkane C5+, cycloalkeneC5+, aryl, condensed aryl and their mixtures. Two process versions are provided.EFFECT: invention provides obtaining fuel compositions and solid chemicals from solid biomass.31 cl, 36 dwg, 11 tbl, 21 ex

Synthetic oil production method // 2616607
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: process of synthetic oil production is carried out from unconventional oil stock. The method involves the preliminary preparation of the oil stock by preparing the emulsified suspension from the oil residue, crushed shale and water, the further partial oxidation of emulsified suspension by steam-oxygen gasification in the gasifier of continuous action at a temperature 1000-1400°C, pressure 1.0-3.0 MPa, and the oxygen concentration in the blast - not less than 95 rev.%, the following cooling of the obtained gasification products, further provide the purification of the cooled gasification products, at first by washing with the hydrocarbon fraction, boiled above 250°C with emission of black-hydrocarbon suspension, further provide the water purification of the gasification products with separation of black-water suspension with ashes components and provide the final purification of gasification products from the sulfur compounds by water solution of alkaline sorbent agent, obtaining the cleared synthetic natural gas with ratio H2:CO from 1.5:1 upto 2.5:1. Further the product is converted according to the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis method in the tubular reactor with the fixed layer of the cobalt based catalyst at the temperature of 180-280°C, the pressure of 2.0-4.5 MPa and the feed space velocity of 2500 upto 10000 h-1, the synthetic oil with the fractions content of boiled upto the temperature of 360°C not less than 50 wt is obtained from the hydrocarbons mixture after the separation of hydrocarbon gases and reaction water %.EFFECT: improvement of the environmental characteristics of the method due to reduction of the emission into the atmosphere, simplification of the technology.2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg, 2 ex
ethod for cyclization of normal alkanes // 2615778
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for cyclization of normal n-alkanes consisting in the fact that gas and raw material mixture consisting of hydrogen-containing gas and straight-run gasoline fraction boiling away within the range of 85-180°C or C7-C12 synthetic hydrocarbon fraction or C7-C10 individual n-alkane mixture is passed through catalyst layer at temperature of 400-520°C, process pressure of 0.1-3.5 MPa, volume feed rate of the raw material within the range of 0.5-2.54 h-1, ratio of hydrogen-containing gas to the raw material 800:1-1500:1 Nm3/m3 with catalyst containing, wt. %: platinum 0.20-0.85, zeolite KL 40.0-80.0, aluminum oxide - the rest. The catalyst contains zeolite KL crystallite morphology of which corresponds to "short cylinder" type, crystallite size being from 200 to 2000 nm and ratio of crystallite length to diameter being from 0.2:1 to 2:1.EFFECT: increased catalyst activity and providing the output of stable catalysate of not less than 80 wt % with cyclic hydrocarbon content of not less than 55wt % including C8+ arene content of not less than 63 rel% what allows to qualify it is a component of motor car and aviation gasolines or jet engine fuel.1 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of separating mixtures with high content of liquid-phase product // 2615412
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method of separating mixtures with high content of liquid-phase product using a tray column with horizontally mounted curtains and vertically positioned tray drain devices comprises injecting the raw material to the column by one or two streams, forming the raw material of two fluid streams in the column below the water level, forming upwardly flowing vapour (gas) stream at the bottom of the column by injecting a stripping agent and (or) by heating and evaporating of part of the fluid streams, alternating contact of the fluid streams with the upwardly flowing vapour (gas) stream of the column at the curtains of only their group of trays, transporting of fluid streams to the column bottom by avoiding the tray groups of another fluid stream, withdrawal of separation products from the column in liquid and vapour (gas) phases, wherein the alternating contact of the fluid streams with the upwardly flowing vapour (gas) stream is carried out at the curtains of adjacent column trays to produce liquid-vapour (gas) system with high monodispersity degree and highly-developed surface of phase connecting using the curtains with finely perforatedirreversible elements, transporting of fluid streams to the column bottom is carried out only by tray drain devices.EFFECT: increased fluid-carrying capacity and separating capacity of column lower than the level of raw material input.6 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex

ethod of producing olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons // 2615160
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for producing olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons from naphtha, comprising the stages of: 1) conducting the naphtha extraction separation to obtain purified oil containing alkanes and cycloalkanes and an oil extract containing cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons, the weight ratio between cycloalkanes contained in the refined oil and cycloalkanes contained in the naphtha being 10-35%, 2) contacting the oil extract containing cycloalkanes and the aromatic hydrocarbons with a reforming catalyst under conditions of the catalytic reforming reaction: the pressure of 0.2-3.0 MPa, the temperature of 300-550°C, the molar ratio of hydrogen/hydrocarbon 0.5-20 and volumetric speed (of feeding) of 0.1-50 p-1 to obtain a reformate with the high content of aromatic hydrocarbons, 3) the reactions of cracking of refined oil containing alkanes and cycloalkanes, to obtain olefins.EFFECT: it is possible to obtain light olefins and light aromatic hydrocarbons with high output.14 cl, 2 dwg, 8 ex, 5 tbl

Device for oil desalting and dehydration // 2613556
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device for oil desalting and dehydration comprises a tube with holes, a manifold with a reagent (water) feeding pipe branch, oil inlet chamber which is coaxial with the pipe and comprises cylindrical middle and inner tube flow splitters of treated oil which are fitted with nozzles and placed concentrically to the housing at calculated distances, which form the outer, middle and inner flows, wherein the inner splitter is made with outer and inner walls, between which there is an annular cavity for reagent (water), and before the flow splitters there are water collector rings for pre-turbulation of the treated oil at adjusted distance.EFFECT: increased efficiency of oil desalting and dehydration and plant capacity due to intensification of mixing the treated oil with a reagent, turbulation and separation of all the oil flow volume into several concentric ones with the specified flow thicknesses.3 cl, 4 dwg

Treatment method of liquid environments with short low frequency electromagnetic pulses // 2613504
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: method of processing liquids carried by electromagnetic Iimpulses in the frequency range of 5 to 50 Hz and a pulse duration in the range from 1 to 8 ms. Use electromagnetic system, imposed on the pipeline of non-magnetic materials. Electromagnetic system contains pulses generator and connected with it electromagnetic inductor. Electromagnetic inductor is operated as an open magnetic circuit with a magnetizing coil located on it so that the axis of the pipeline is located between poles of electromagnetic inductor.EFFECT: invention allows to provide an economical and efficient way of electromagnetic treatment, leading to a change in the physical properties of liquid media.8 cl, 4 dwg

ethod of high viscous oil preparation // 2612964
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of high viscous oil preparation for pumping through a pipeline, the method can be used in oil industry. The method comprises oil heat treatment by heating in heat exchangers and thermal cracking oven, further separation of the thermal cracking products to gas/vapour/liquid and liquid phases in an evaporator, the later phase use as heating medium in the heat exchangers with further separation of the cooled liquid phase to two parts, one part is delivered for quenching cooling of the thermal cracking products prior to delivery to the evaporator, and another part after additional cooling is used as oil component pumped in the pipeline, further separation of gas/vapour/liquid phase of the thermal cracking products in a gas separator to hydrocarbon gas used as fuel of the thermal cracking oven and distillate. Wherein the distillate is subjected to additional separation to the hydrocarbon gas and stable distillate in a stabilization column having a nozzle, the hydrocarbon gas from the stabilization column is mixed with the hydrocarbon gas from the gas separator, and stable distillate after heating in heater is partially used as hot jet delivered to the bottom part of the stabilization column, and partially after cooling in cooler is used as live reflux delivered to the top part of the stabilization column, and balance quantity of the stable distillate is mixed with the cooled liquid phase of the evaporator and delivered for transfer.EFFECT: method of high viscous oil preparation reducing losses during transport and storage by its physical stability increasing.5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

Bubbling bed catalytic hydropyrolysis process utilising larger catalyst particles and smaller biomass particles featuring anti-slugging reactor // 2611631
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hydropyrolysis method. Hydropyrolysis method includes: a. introducing solid particles of an oxygenated organic feedstock into a fluidized bed reactor, wherein said feedstock is rapidly heated from ambient temperature to temperature of fluidized bed, and is thereby devolatilized; b. introducing a stream of fluidizing gas comprising mostly molecular hydrogen into fluidized bed reactor, creating conditions under which rapid mixing and heat transfer occur throughout fluidized bed; c. maintaining a deep bed of solid particles of catalyst, depth of which is significantly greater than 2 reactor diameters, in a state of vigorous motion, to promote reactions resulting in deoxygenation and chemical stabilisation of vapours produced when feedstock is devolatilized; d. removing solid residues, containing ash and charcoal, remaining after devolatilization and hydropyrolysis of feedstock, from fluidized bed reactor via entrainment in stream of fluidizing gas and product vapours exiting fluidized bed reactor; e. removing attrited residues of catalyst, but not intact particles of catalyst, or particles of catalyst that have been minimally attrited, from fluidized bed reactor via entrainment in stream of fluidizing gas and product vapours exiting fluidized bed reactor; f. separating solid residues, entrained in stream of fluidizing gas and product vapours exiting fluidized bed reactor, from stream of fluidizing gas and product vapours exiting fluidized bed reactor; g. recovering a product stream of hydrocarbon vapours comprising hydrocarbon products with atmospheric-pressure boiling points, consistent with those of at least one of gasoline, kerosene and diesel fuel, from hydropyrolysis process as condensed liquid; h. releasing enough exothermic heat from deoxygenation reactions occurring during hydropyrolysis of feedstock to supply process heat required by endothermic processes occurring during hydropyrolysis of feedstock, including chemical reactions, heating of feedstock, and evaporation of liquids; and i. dispersing one or more obstacles to an interior of reactor vessel in such a manner that “slugging” does not occur within fluidized bed reactor.EFFECT: technical result is increased output of liquid hydrocarbon products with oxygen content lower than 4 wt%, improved process parameters due to reduction of "slugging" in reactor.64 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod for production of methanol and hydrocarbons of gasoline range using synthetic gas // 2610277
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method is carried out in cascade of three and more flow-through catalytic reactors (FCR). Synthetic gas (SG) with initial ratio hydrogen-carbon monoxide 1.5≤H2:CO≤2 is passed successively through the first FCRs with catalyst for methanol synthesis with release of methanol as a target product; then the residual SG flow after methanol synthesis with ratio hydrogen- carbon monoxide H2:CO≥1 is directed to FCR with bifunctional catalyst for synthesis of dimethyl ester (DME) and obtained DME is supplied to FCR for synthesis of hydrocarbons of gasoline range (HGR) with subsequent isolation of HGR and waste products sent for disposal.EFFECT: method allows to increase the total transformation rate of carbon monoxide and enhance the target product output.8 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 6 ex

Reformate hydrotreatment method and apparatus // 2609780
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a reformate hydrotreatment method and apparatus. Method comprises contacting a reformate with a catalyst having a catalytic hydrogenation action under a liquid-phase hydrotreatment condition in a hydrogenation reactor, wherein a part of hydrogen gas for hydrotreatment is produced from dissolved hydrogen contained in the reformate; wherein the hydrotreatment is carried out in presence of supplemental hydrogen gas, injected into the reformate before contacting and/or during contacting through pores by means of a mixing device, which contains, at least, one liquid passage for accommodating the reformate and at least, one gas passage for accommodating the supplemental hydrogen gas, the liquid passage is adjacent to the gas passage through a component, at least, part of the component is a porous area; wherein the reformate is obtained from bottom of gas liquid separating tank by injecting a catalytic reforming mixture into the gas liquid separating tank to remove from the product, obtained by contacting, removing volatile components, reformate is fed into the hydrogenation reactor after exchanging heat with the volatile constituent-removed oil, volatile constituent-removed oil is injected into a tower for removing heavy constituents and for aromatics extraction at the top of tower. Apparatus comprises catalytic reforming reactor (5) for contacting hydrocarbon oil with a catalyst having a reforming catalytic action under a condition of catalytic reforming in catalytic reforming reactor; gas liquid separating tank (6) for removing volatile constituents (7) from a catalytic reforming mixture by gas liquid separation with obtaining the reformate from the bottom of gas liquid separating tank (6); Mixing device (8) for injection of supplemental hydrogen gas into the reformate to produce hydrogen reformate; hydrogenation reactor (9) for contacting the hydrogen reformate with a catalyst having a catalytic hydrogenation action under a liquid-phase hydrotreatment condition, tower (10) for removing volatile constituents; tower (13) of removing heavy constituents; heat exchanger (11) to perform heat exchange with reformate. According to the method the reformate, separated in a reforming product separating tank, may be directly subjected to liquid-phase hydrotreatment; therefore, not only can the hydrogen, dissolved in the reformate be fully utilized, but the olefins in the reformate can also be removed, while eliminating the requirements for recycle hydrogen and a recycle device thereof.EFFECT: reformate obtained by the method of the present invention reduces the bromine index to below 50 mgBr2/100 g, and has an arene loss of less than 0,5 wt%.25 cl, 8 dwg, 2 tbl, 6 ex

ethod for manufacturing spheroidal alumina particles // 2608775
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. To obtain spheroidal alumina particles suspension is prepared, containing water, an acid and at least one boehmite powder. Ratio of size of crystallites along directions [020] and [120], obtained using Scherrer formula for x-ray diffraction, varies from 0.7 to 1. Method includes adding to suspension a porogenic agent, surfactant and, optionally, water or emulsion containing at least one porogenic agent, surfactant and water. Content of porogenic agent, expressed as a ratio of weight of porogenic agent to total weight of water added to obtained suspension is in range from 0.2 to 30 %. Suspension is mixed and spheroidal particles are formed by coagulation in a droplet. Obtained particles are dried and calcined. Particles have average diameter from 1.2 to 3 mm, BET specific surface area of 150–300 m2/g, value of density of filling with a seal from 0.5 to 0.6 g/ml.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain alumina particles with high mechanical strength with low density.15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 11 ex

Catalytic process and apparatus for producing hydrocarbons from biooil // 2608522
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for catalytic conversion material of biological origin into hydrocarbons, suitable as fuel components. Method of producing hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons includes: feeding raw materials from biological material into reactor, which includes at least two catalyst layers, containing hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and hydrodewaxing (HDW) catalysts, where fraction of HDW catalyst increases in direction towards bottom of reactor, wherein HDO catalyst is selected from a group consisting of NiMo, CoMo and mixture of NiMo and CoMo, and HDW catalyst used is NiW, treatment of raw material in reactor at temperature in range of 280–450 °C and pressure from 1 to 25 MPa (from 10 to 250 bars) to obtain at least one hydrocarbon and extraction of hydrocarbon or mixture of hydrocarbons. Also disclosed is apparatus for producing hydrocarbons, method of using hydrocarbon obtained using disclosed method, fuel.EFFECT: technical result is production of hydrocarbon components suitable for use in fuel.21 cl, 3 dwg, 9 tbl, 9 ex
ethod of processing sulphur-containing oil sludge // 2608036
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of processing sulphur-containing oil sludge, which can be used in oil and oil refining industry. Method involves separation of oil sludge water and mechanical impurities, contacting prepared sludge with a catalyst system, consisting of a mixture of an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, alkali metal or ammonium salts -vanadates, molybdates, tungstates, vanadyl sulphate and interphase carrier, taken in amounts to provide molar ratio of metal to sulphur, contained in oil sludge of 1: (100–500), hydrogen peroxide to sulphur, contained in oil sludge (1-3):1, interphase carrier to sulphur, contained in oil sludge of 1:(20-100), at temperature of 40–80 °C for 3–8 hours, with subsequent separation of aqueous phase from product of contacting and heating remaining product at a temperature of 300–400 °C for 3–5 hours to produce end oil product, wherein contacting is carried out with exposure of sludge with catalyst system to electromagnetic radiation at frequency 40–55 MHz, power 0.2–0.5 kW.EFFECT: proposed method enables to produce an end product with content of sulphur, enabling use thereof without additional hydrofining, using simplified technology.3 cl, 2 ex
 
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