Working-up peat (C10F7)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C10F     Drying or working-up of peat(571)
C10F7                 Working-up peat (extracting wax from peat c10g)(343)

ethod for milled peat large fraction isolation at roller-disc screen // 2640343
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: method for milled pit large fraction isolation one roller-disc screen includes screening with the division of the obtained product to fines and reject, as well as fines sorting on rotating parallel shafts with discs fixed in a chessboard order thereon. The frequency of shaft rotation along the course of peat movement changes wavily, initially with an increasing frequency of rotation, then with a smooth transition to a decreased rotational speed and then with a smooth transition to an increased rotational speed. Shaft rotation speed on a 9-shaft roller-disc screen along the peat movement course is 49 to 51 rpm on the 1st shaft, 57 to 59 rpm on the 2nd shaft, 83 to 85 rpm on the 3rd shaft, then the rotation speed of the 4th shaft is 83 to 85 rpm, after which the rotation speed decreases and is 57 to 59 rpm on the 5th shaft, 49 to 51 rpm on the 6th shaft, then the rotation speed of the 7th shaft ranges from 49 to 51 rpm, after which the rotation speed increases and is 57 to 59 rpm on the 8th shaft, then the rotation speed on the 9th shaft is 59 to 57 rpm.EFFECT: increased the number of milled peat large fraction obtained with an average weighted diameter of particles mixture from 6 to 12 mm, necessary to enhance the quality of bales obtained, making them less heavy and more durable.2 cl, 4 dwg

ethod for development of peat deposits // 2637346
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: in the method, the extraction area is divided into adjacent even-numbered and odd- numbered parallel entries with width equal to the distance between the tracks of the mining complex, and the length equal to the length of extraction area in near-contour part of the deposit, but not less than 50 m and not more than 100 m, starting from the first odd-numbered stage up to the last odd-numbered stage. After restoring the surface vegetable layer on the even-numbered entries of the bearing capacity which is sufficient for movement of the mining complex with its support thereon, the extraction of odd-numbered entries is carried out in retreat order. When the mining complex is moved from the boundary of the deposit into the depth (direct movement of the complex), the extraction of lump peat is performed from upper cohesive layer by auger device with packing and transportation of packs by means of rope conveyer to the pile located behind the deposit contour. At that, the length of the pile is not more than the width of the extraction area. The extraction of peat from the lower watered layer with formation of peat pulp is carried out in the reverse movement of the mining complex by a mechanic and hydraulic method with hydraulic transportation of pulp via the pulp line into geotextile water-separating containers located the process zone behind the deposit contour.EFFECT: reduced costs for preparation and development of the deposit, increased recovery factor of mineral, elimination of costs for reclamation of the deposit after peat extraction.1 dwg

ethod of peat mechanical activation and device for implementation of this method // 2636961
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: method comprises compression, heat treatment under pressure of the initial material in the reactor by means of a screw press in which the mass is reversibly fed through the channels to a multiple compression zone supplemented by a jacket. Mechanical treatment is carried out throughout the volume due to infrasound mechanical vibrations, and the evolved vapour-gas mixture is cooled, condensate and non-condensed gases are collected separately, the product is cooled to 50-100°C, the compensation of the pressure drop is carried out by feeding into the press of non-condensed gases. The device includes a jacket, a screw rotating from the drive, a receiving tank of the initial material, a mouthpiece. The screw press is made from the receiving tank to the mouthpiece with a variable interturn pitch along the axis and a reduction in the interturn space, with a gap between the outer surface of the screw press and the inner surface of its jacket. The helical surface of the screw is made with the quality of processing higher by several classes than the jacket. The inner surface of the jacket is made with ribs along the entire length and on the cone with a decrease in volume to the output of the processed mass by 15-20%. An infrasonic vibrator based on an electromagnetic solenoid is installed on the screw axis.EFFECT: increased quality of the hydrophobic sorbent.3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

Technological complex on peat based fuel production // 2624208
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: in the technological complex on peat based fuel production, containing the interconnected by the conveying devices the receiving unit and the peat raw material separating unit, the chemical solution preparation unit, peat binder preparation unit, the peat binder mixing and homogenization with the main carbon bearing fuel component unit, fuel moulding unit, fuel drying and packing unit, the peat binder preparation unit contains the raw material mechanical and/or ultrasonic treatment device, thermal energy supply device and the chemical reagents solution dosed supply device.EFFECT: simplification of the peat binder preparation process, reduction of the specific energy costs per production unit, increase of reaction properties and burnout rate of the produced fuel.1 dwg
ethod of producing bounding agents from peat // 2614671
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method comprises peat processing with acetic anhydride in an amount of 1 - 3 mole per 1 mole of peat OH-groups during intensive mechanical grinding for 30 - 60 minutes at 50°C.EFFECT: reduced reagent consumption, process time and process temperature.2 tbl, 4 ex
ethod for organomineral binder production // 2613701
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for preparation of an organic-binder comprising obtaining of a peat and water mixture, mixture heating, cavitation dispersion and finished product cooling. Cavitation dispersion is made by flow processing of the peat and water mixture and by ultrasound at low frequencies ranging from 20 to 25 kHz.EFFECT: reduced labor and increased productivity.2 cl
ethod for production of potassium humate from local peats of yamalo-nenets autonomous okrug // 2610956
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and soil science. The method for producing potassium humate from local peats of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug for reclamation of disturbed and contaminated tundra soils includes: at the first stage - the 0.1 N peat decalcification with sulfuric acid solution at the ratio of 1:20 and its sedimentation; at the second stage - the extraction of humic acids from the resulting sediment 0.1N with sodium hydroxide at the ratio of 1:15, at the third stage - the sedimentation of humic acids with 10% hydrochloric acid solution at the ratio of 50:1, at the fourth stage - the purification of the obtained humic acids sediment by dissolving it in 0.1 N sodium hydroxide solution, adding sodium sulfate solution and 0.1 n hydrochloric acid solution, rinsing with distilled water and drying. At the fifth stage, implemented once, the analysis of the aliphatic, polysaccharide, and aromatic carboxyl carbon content in humic acids is performed by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 13C-method, by which the regional specificity of a particular peat field is determined, and, using the data obtained, the 2.5% potassium humate solution with pH 7 is subsequently prepared by adding distilled water and 0.1N. solution of potassium hydroxide, and based on express laboratory studies the recommendations are given for its optimal implementation, in particular together with peat for the reclamation of specific plots of disturbed tundra land near the area of peat deposits.EFFECT: invention provides obtaining chemically pure humic acids, achieving the maximum compliance with environment in the reclamation of disturbed tundra soils.1 tbl

ethod of production and processing of peat and vegetal-and-peat floating bogs and device for implementing said method // 2599117
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and can be used in peat industry for production and processing of peat and vegetal-and-peat floating bogs in water reservoirs, as well as for extraction and peat processing on flooded areas. This invention comprizes the fact that excavation of floating in the water reservoir vegetal-and-peat floating bogs is carried out by double-jawed digging automatic grab, located on floating base directly in the water reservoir, with process equipment in the form of modules for excavation, raw material preparation, press-extruder, production of electric energy from gas, diesel-generator, gas generator, electric power, transshipment of ready products and warehouse, combined by transport and power lines. Floating process complex provides processing of vegetal-and-peat raw material in solid, liquid and gaseous fuels with subsequent conversion into electric power, thus providing complete independence of complex as a whole.EFFECT: enabling extraction and processing of peat with moisture content from 50 to 70 % in water area.7 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of producing moisture-resistant composite fuel from peat // 2569685
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a solid composite fuel from peat, which includes heat treatment of peat at 200-500°C without air access, mixing binder with a crushed carbonaceous residue, moulding a briquette from the obtained mixture and drying, wherein the pyrolysis condensate obtained during heat treatment is separated into a pyrolysis resin and tar water by filtering; the binder is obtained dissolving dextrin in the tar water in ratio of 1:(5-25), and the briquette made from the carbonaceous residue and binder is dried at 20-105°C and left to cool to room temperature, followed by deposition of filtered pyrolysis resin on the surface of the briquette to obtain composite fuel, which is dried at 20-105°C and held at room temperature for 7-14 days.EFFECT: obtaining moisture-resistant solid composite fuel.6 ex

ethod for production of peat-based pellets and briquettes // 2541317
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing peat-based pellets and briquettes includes mechanical and chemical processing of water-peat dispersion, used as binding agent. Mechanical and chemical processing of water-peat dispersion is realised by mechanical and/or ultrasonic impact at higher temperature in presence of chemical reagents.EFFECT: reduction of specific energy consumption per production unit, increase of reaction properties and rate of produced fuel burn-out.2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
ethod of producing structured organomineral binder // 2529619
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing structured organomineral binder includes at least one-time cavitational dispersion of a mixture of peat and water in ratio of 1:4-1:4.5, respectively. Dispersion is carried out until the mixture reaches temperature of 80-90°C, followed by cooling the mixture to room temperature to obtain the end product.EFFECT: preserving binding properties of the product for a long period of time during storage.

Non-volatile process complex for manufacturing of products from peat // 2529059
FIELD: instrumentation.SUBSTANCE: process complex for manufacturing of products from peat includes the following components functionally interconnected with each other - a preparation module, a drying module, a module for shaping of peat raw materials, and a module of processing of wastes of core production. The module of preparation of peat raw materials is made of the following components serially installed and connected to each other by means of belt conveyors - a receiving hopper, a roller separator, a flow magnetic separator, a milling crusher and a press-auger separator, and is connected with the drying module by a belt conveyor, with the shaping module by the belt conveyor, with the module of processing of wastes by the belt conveyor, the belt conveyor and the pipeline. The drying module includes a biofuel storage, connected by means of an auger feeder with a heat generator, connected by an air duct with a tunnel multi-tier dryer, and is interconnected with the help of belt transfer units and conveyors with the shaping module. The shaping module is equipped with batching hoppers of additional raw materials, connected by a belt conveyor with a double-auger attrition mill, connected via a feeding hopper with an auger extruder, equipped with replaceable draw plates and connected by a belt conveyor with a filler of big bags, connected with a finished goods warehouse by means of a fork lift and interconnected with the help of belt conveyors and transfer units with the drying module. The module of processing of core production wastes is equipped with a receiving hopper for metal inclusions, a settling tank for water by the connected pipeline via filters with peat charge with a reservoir for service water, equipped with a pump house and a storage of wastes, connected by the belt conveyor to the hammer crusher, connected by the belt conveyor with the biofuel storage included into the drying module.EFFECT: provision of the possibility to produce various peat products from peat raw materials of any type and quality when supplying to non-volatile production.1 dwg, 6 cl
ethod for producing light material // 2524099
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method for producing a light material, comprising obtaining of granules from a peat mixture, drying and heat treatment, where the peat mixture is prepared by mixed grinding of polypropylene fibres and moss peat in a weight ratio of 1:5, water is added, extrusion of granules and their drying is carried out from the obtained plastic mixture, and heat treatment - at 120-130°C by heating the mentioned mixture prior to extrusion or during 15-20 minutes after drying of granules.EFFECT: increase of strength.2 ex

Briquetting ram press // 2524032
FIELD: mechanical engineering.SUBSTANCE: press comprises a loading chamber, a premoulding chamber, a stamp chamber to form briquettes. The stamp chamber is designed in the form of a socket. An actuator mechanism for pressing in the form of a hydraulic cylinder with a rod and an actuator mechanism of raw supply in the form of a pneumatic cylinder with a piston are provided in the press. The stamp chamber is equipped with a flap in the form of a wedge, having the actuator mechanism of its lifting and lowering. The press is equipped with a device, designed to coordinate operation of the actuator mechanisms of the flap, pressing and supply of raw.EFFECT: improvement of quality of the pressed products and decrease of energy costs for their production.5 cl, 2 dwg

Production of fuel briquettes // 2519545
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel briquettes to be used in power engineering. In compliance with proposed method, initial stock is minced to grain size not over half the stroke of male die and conveyed to batcher. Then, minced material is fed to press stage for it to be formed. Note here that in mincing maximum fraction size is made equal to or smaller than the length of opening formed between male die and conveyor walls. Press stage is arranged in detachable conveyor. Packing is performed along with briquette forming in container layer-by-layer. Then, container is closed by cover.EFFECT: power savings, dense compaction, no need in special premises for storage of containers.1 cl, 1 ex, 5 dwg
Peat-wood moulding mixture for making heat insulation and structural-heat insulation articles // 2514973
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to structural materials used for heat insulation of industrial equipment and buildings for various purposes. The peat-wood moulding mixture for making heat insulation and structural-heat insulation articles contains peat dispersed in an aqueous medium as binder, sawdust as aggregate and tempering water, treated for 20-60 s with a magnetic field with magnetic induction of 40 mT, the tempering water being water subjected to preliminary ionisation before treatment with the magnetic field, and the binder being high or low moor peat dispersed in an aqueous medium or a mixture of low and high moor peat dispersed in an aqueous medium, with the following ratio of components, wt %: said peat or said mixture 20.5-28.5, sawdust 61.0-73.0, tempering water 6.5-10.5.EFFECT: low water absorption and heat conductivity.5 tbl

ethod for production of products and generation of heat and electric energy from peat // 2512210
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for obtaining products, generation of heat and electric energy from peat for agricultural industry, public living needs and industrial needs. The method involves peat excavation from a deposit, its dehydration, introduction of composites, binding modifying agents and mineral fertilisers, formation of granules or briquettes with additional drying, pre-packing and packing of the whole dried products, direction of some part of peat for pyrolysis for generation of thermal and electric energy. Peat is excavated from the deposit together with timber inclusions that are further separated from peat; peat is subject to mechanical dehydration till humidity is 75-82%; then, it is mixed with a draining filler, and the obtained mixture is again subject to mechanical dehydration till humidity is 45-60%, and the draining filler is separated for its repeated use. Dehydrated peat is transported to a modular processing station, and timber inclusions are transported to a pyrolysis station for heat treatment together with peat in order to obtain gaseous and solid fuel, with that, some part of solid fuel is used as a composite, and some part of gaseous fuel, thermal and electric energy is used for needs of a technological complex.EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency and ecological compatibility of the method.2 dwg

ethod to produce sod peat and peat-producing machine // 2492325
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: method includes stages of peat production from a peat production field using a producing auger installed in a winning pipe, supply of produced peat under pressure into outlet nozzles, with which the winning pipe is equipped, cutting of pressed peat discharged from outlet nozzles, into pieces. At the same time the method includes a stage of transfer into the peat production field stack, by means of a belt conveyor or a similar device, of sod peat produced at different distances from the peat production field. Besides, transfer of the freshly produced sod peat is carried out with its laying above the previously produced sod peat dried without usage of turning and bundling.EFFECT: minimised number of vehicles, working stages and reduced losses of peat.14 cl, 8 dwg

Procedure and device for production of solid hydrocarbon fuel // 2490317
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to procedure and method for production of solid hydrocarbon fuel. For this purpose the procedure of solid hydrocarbon fuel production involves the following: saturation of hydrocarbon raw material with water; dispersion of the raw material saturated with water up to ultrafine condition in result of volumetric cavitation under ultrasound; dispersed raw material is extruded through magnetoacoustic coagulator made as a thin-wall metal tube; formation of ring eddy currents in metal of the magnetoacoustic coagulator which are directed around it longitudinal axis and have frequency approximately equal to the frequency of free radial mechanical oscillation of the magnetoacoustic coagulator; output from the magnetoacoustic coagulator of solid hydrocarbon fuel obtained in result of ultrafine mixture coagulation under influence of magnetoacoustic resonance processes in magnetoacoustic resonator.EFFECT: use of the device allows simplification of more efficient solid hydrocarbon fuel from any organic raw material.12 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of making fuel briquettes from biomass // 2484125
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making fuel briquettes from biomass, involving heat treatment of biomass at temperature of 200-500°C without access to air, preparing binding substance obtained by dissolving dextrin in a pyrolysis condensate in ratio of 1:(5-20), mixing the binder with a carbon residue ground to particle size of 2 mm, moulding a fuel briquette from the obtained mixture and drying said briquette at room temperature for 2-5 days. The obtained briquettes have low combustion heat, improved mechanical strength and resistance to compression.EFFECT: use of the disclosed method widens the range of solid fuel, the raw material base for making briquettes and reduces technological expenses on making briquettes.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

ethod for preparing biologically active substances of humic acids of low-mineralised silt sulphide mud // 2480224
FIELD: medicine, pharmaceutics.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to pharmaceutical industry, namely to a method for preparing humic acids from low-mineralised silt sulphide mud. The method for preparing humic acid from low-mineralised silt sulphide mud, which involves three-stage processing in perchloric acid followed by keeping and washing with water till a negative reaction to calcium and iron ions, four-stage processing of a deposit in a sodium hydroxide solution, keeping of an alkaline extract, decantation and filtration, acidification with sulphuric acid, separation of the deposit and washing with water till a negative reaction to the sulphate ions, ethanol extraction of impurities and deposit extraction with a sodium hydroxide solution, re-keeping in sulphuric acid, deposit washing, deposit extraction with a sodium hydroxide solution, passing through KU-2 cation under certain conditions.EFFECT: invention enables higher yield of the end product.1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

odular technological complex of peat digging and production of agglomerated fuel // 2470984
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: modular technological complex of peat digging and production of agglomerated fuel includes peat digging section with extensible stock pile, peat separation section, transportation section, peat processing section, which includes raw material treatment devices, shaping device, drier, heat generator and is equipped with ventilated finished products storage area. Complex is equipped with link of internal transport, link of external transport, link of production monitoring, link of meteorological information evaluation, production control unit, and on basis of sections there formed are production, transportation and processing modules with adaptive control system, which are interconnected as per series-parallel circuit. Besides, production module includes pit with single-bucket track-type excavating-loading machine and is equipped with pre-drying platform of excavated peat raw material, which is equipped with bulldoser and pull-type disc harrow; transport module includes peat loading section with separation and is equipped with loading equipment with bucket-type screening crushers, and general-purpose pneumatic-tyre tractor aggregates; processing module includes shop separation section and peat raw material crushing section. Besides, extraction section and pre-drying platform of extraction module are connected to each other by means of link of internal transport, and extraction and processing modules are connected by means of external transport link.EFFECT: invention allows reducing power costs and improving raw material quality.1 dwg

ethod for obtaining organic hydrophobic component from peat // 2468064
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to procedure of thermal and mechanical and chemical processing of peat, and namely to obtaining of organic hydrophobic component from peat, which contains solid and liquid phases and is used for hydrophobic treatment of disperse materials. Method for obtaining organic hydrophobic component from peat involves peat drying in peat-and-gas mixture with simultaneous crushing. Drying is performed at temperature of not more than 105°C; at that, peat is heated due to inner heat released at friction of peat particles one against the other and crushing elements, and crushed to final particle size of less than 100 mcm.EFFECT: invention allows increasing the safety of the method for obtaining organic hydrophobic component from peat and reducing power consumption at its implementation.1 tbl, 1 dwg

ethod of processing carbon-containing material to obtain therapeutic mud concentrate, feed additive and fertiliser // 2467052
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mechanical processing of carbon-containing material selected from peat and brown coal to obtain a high-quality ecologically clean activated concentrate without any artificial additives, which is suitable for use as therapeutic mud, a feed additive for animals and birds and humic fertiliser. The method of processing carbon-containing material selected from peat and brown coal involves passing solid material through a vibratory sieve to obtain particles with size of up to 1 cm3, treating water by hydrodynamic heating to 28-30°C, mixing the ground solid material with water in weight ratio 1-1.15 in a container using a mechanical mixer, followed by grinding and homogenisation of the mixture by hydropercussion treatment with rotor speed of the hydropercussion apparatus of 2800-3000 rpm, to achieve temperature of the mixture of not less than 40°C and subsequent separation of impurities by passing the obtained pulp through a centrifuge.EFFECT: invention increases biological activity and degree of grinding.7 cl, 1 dwg

ethod to manufacture briquettes from peat // 2463333
FIELD: power engineering.SUBSTANCE: method to produce peat briquettes consists in peat pressing under pressure in a forming element. The forming element is a steel matrix of round section, where peat is pressed with moisture of 5-25% under the specific pressure of briquetting of 7.8-46.8 MPa, when exposed to alternating magnetic field.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase mechanical strength of fuel briquettes from peat without additional of binding substances.1 dwg, 2 tbl
Peat esterification method // 2451690
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to acetylation of peat derivatives and can be used in production of plastic mass. The peat esterification method involves mechanical treatment of peat with sodium hydroxide while grinding in a planetary mill AGO-3, followed by esterification with acetic anhydride at 80-100°C for 2-8 hours.EFFECT: broadening the raw material base using peat in chemical processing by acetylation, cutting consumption of reactants and duration of the process.3 tbl
Peat carboxymethylation method // 2446201
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: peat is treated with solution of sodium hydroxide in isopropyl alcohol during 1-6 h at 50-100°C. Then, it is treated with monochloracetic acid during 1-6 h at 50-100°C. The obtained product has good water solubility and water-alkali solutions.EFFECT: method allows decreasing temperatures of alkali treatment of lignocarbohydrate material and enlarging the raw material stock for obtaining humin-bearing products.4 tbl, 6 ex

ethod of producing fuel peat pieces // 2418034
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: in the method of producing pieces of fuel peat, involving mixing peat mass, moulding and drying, milled peat is first separated from fractions larger than 10 mm and then turned into a viscous-plastic state with moisture content of 70-75% by adding water heated to 20-80°C, and the moulded pieces are dried to normal amount of moisture. Warehouse milled peat with moisture content 60-69% is used. The moulded pieces are dried to normal amount moisture under constant radiation-convectional conditions.EFFECT: obtaining pieces of peat with good strength properties from milled warehouse peat with normal amount moisture, low power consumption.3 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
ethod to dry peat for communal-general needs // 2411431
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method to produce granulated peat for communal-general needs includes granulation, radiation of granules with microwave field, and blowing of granules. At the same time granules are formed from peat with moisture from 50% to 75% under pressure from 0.4 to 0.8 MPa, formed peat granules are transported along belt conveyor, heating them in the field of alternating electromagnet oscillations up to temperature from 70°C to 80°C, afterwards cooled with air flow down to ambient temperature. At the same time frequency of alternating electromagnet field makes from 2400 to 2600 MHz.EFFECT: simplified drying and granulation of peat, reduced energy intensity and cost of method.2 cl
Heat insulating composition for making construction materials based on peat // 2393128
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: heat insulating composition for making materials based on peat can be used in making slabs and blocks for heat insulating residential and industrial buildings. The composition contains binder in form of lowland peat dispersed in water in amount of 90.0 wt %. The filler used is bead polystyrene expanded with jet steam in amount of 10.0 wt %. The water to solids ratio equals 2.5. The bead polystyrene is in form of granules with a fine pored structure and occupies 80-85% of the volume of the composition. The peat binder strongly binds particles of the filler which has low average density.EFFECT: obtaining homogeneous construction material characterised by low density, low coefficient of thermal conductivity and improved strength characteristics.1 cl, 2 tbl
ethod of peat insulating board manufacture // 2338772
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: method of peat insulating boards manufacture includes preparation of raw mixture from previously prepared peat raw material and flax chaff, shaping of boards from prepared raw mixture and their drying. As peat raw material peat humus is used, which contains at least 80 wt % of peat dust, which is brushed in process of preliminary preparation. Mixture preparation is carried out by means of prepared peat supply into tub together with hot water, boiling for 10-15 minutes at the temperature of 65-70°C with further supply during mixing of flax chaff and continuation of boiling for 10-15 minutes until peat fibers are decomposed, uniform mass is prepared and resin substances are extracted. Prior to extrusion prepared mixture is dehydrated to 83-85%. Extruded boards are dried at the temperature of 100-180°C for 24-32 hours until moisture content amounts to 4-5%.EFFECT: increase of peat insulating board strength during bending.1 cl, 1 tbl
Heat insulation mass // 2333173
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: heat insulation mass includes, in mass %: dispersed peat of 72-76% humidity, undergone double processing in screw disperser - 75-80, and filler made of foam polystyrene granules of 1.0-5.0 diametre - 20-25.EFFECT: improved physical and mechanical properties of heat insulation article at lower cost, facilitated utilisation of industrial and domestic foam polystyrene waste in the form of used package.1 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl

ethod for fuel coal pellet production // 2322480
FIELD: coal conversion, particularly crown coal and peat briquetting to obtain solid fuel agglomerates for municipal industrial purposes.SUBSTANCE: method involves milling brown coal and peat to obtain particles with dimensions of not more than 2.5 mm; mixing the particles and drying thereof to obtain 20.0-21.5% moisture content; forming pellets without additional binding material usage. Peat content in mixture is 20-50% by weight. Briquetting pressure is 50±5 MPa and temperature thereof is 90±5°C or briquetting pressure is 147±10 MPa and temperature thereof is 20±5°C.EFFECT: increased efficiency.2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg
Fuel briquette fabrication process // 2318866
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of agglomerated solid fuel and can be used in fabrication of solid fuel for use in public solid-fuel boiler assemblies and gas generators as well as use as domestic fire-place fuel. Invention is directed to reduce power demand of fuel briquette fabrication process, to increase density, strength, atmosphere resistance, moisture resistance, storage time of finished product, and to reduce hygroscopicity and crumbliness while simultaneously improving appearance of the product. Process in general consists in stirring raw mix of solid fuels and binder, briquetting, and drying briquettes, said binder being lignosulfonate in the form of 35-75% solution used in amount of 3 to 35% on the dry weight of solid fuel. Before briquetting, mix is dried to moisture content 5-23% and then compacted under specific pressure 05 to 35 MPa.EFFECT: improved performance characteristics of product.1 tbl, 3 ex
ethod for production of liquid peat humates // 2310633
FIELD: production of liquid peat humates.SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes peat preparation, providing of peat suspension in aqueous solution of hydrolyzing agent, suspension heat treatment under elevated pressire, followed by cooling thereof and isolation of target product. Abovementioned suspension is prepared by mixing of prepared peat with ammonia aqueous solution with concentration of 0.8-1.0 % in component ratio of 1:(2.5-3.0) and heat treatment is carried out at 130-150°C< pressure of 0.8-1.5 atm for 60 min.EFFECT: target humate with increased physiological activity.8 ex, 4 tbl

Fuel briquette fabrication process // 2305697
FIELD: solid fuels.SUBSTANCE: process of fabricating fuel briquette for communal-general and industrial needs comprises providing peat mass, removing moisture, adding binder, and pressing. Removal of moisture is performed during peat mass providing step or during pressing step. Binder is selected from chemical production bottoms, namely tall pitch, mazut, goudrons, and oil slime. Binder is added under overpressure simultaneously with pressing.EFFECT: reduced power consumption during briquette fabrication, increased combustion heat of briquettes, reduced ash content and assured strength and hydrophobicity of briquettes.1 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod of production of the products, heat and electric power from the peat and the production complex for the method realization // 2295556
FIELD: mining industry; processing branches of industry; municipal economy; biothermochemical production; small energetics; environmental protection; methods of production of the products, heat and the electrical power from the peat.SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the products, heat and the electrical power from the peat and may be used in mining industry, processing branches of industry, municipal economy, biothermochemical production, small energetics. The method consists, that the peat is used in the form of the pulp, which is divided into the coarse- dispersion and fine-dispersion fractions. At that the first of the fractions is dehydrated up to the humidity of 50-60 %, molded and the gained products are finely dried up to the humidity of 20-30 %. Then the fine-dispersion fraction is dehydrated up to the humidity of 65-70 % and fed into the extruding machine. At that simultaneous the produced mass is introduced with the composites, the binding modifying agents and the fertilizers, mould the mixture under the pressure in the fuel briquettes or the granules, which are then additionally dried up to the humidity of 20-30 %. After that all the dry products are batched and packed and the wastes are routed into the gas generator for the pyrolized burning with the further transformation into the thermal and electric energy. The rotation rate of the centrifuges at the dehydration of the coarse and fine fractions corresponds to the condition of V1 < V3 of no less, than twice. The invention also represents the production complex, which includes the site of the peat production coupled with the modular site of the peat reprocessing, which is supplied with the classifier and at least with two in parallel mounted and interconnected through the classifier lines of the peat reprocessing into the coarse-dispersion fractions and the fine-dispersion fraction. The first line includes sequentially installed and interconnected among themselves by means of the pipeline and the conveyer - the centrifuge, the multimatrix squeezer, the belt dryer and the batching-packing section. The second line of the fine-dispersion fraction reprocessing includes the sequentially installed and interconnected among themselves by means of the pipeline and the conveyer the centrifugal machine, the extruding machine with the spinneret-nozzles, the drum drier and the batching-packing section. The batching-packing sections of the lines are connected to the storage of the wastes, which in turn is connected to the gas generator for the pyrolysis burning of the substandard products and is linked through the drive with the generator for conversion of the heat energy into the electric power. The section of the peat production is connected to the peat reprocessing modular section by the pulp pipeline with the arranged in it the pimp-grinder. The squeezer of the first production line is equipped with the arrays of the various geometrical forms, making it possible to mould the peat-insulation boards, the peat small pots, the substrate blocks, etc. The extruding machine of the second production line is equipped with the spinneret-nozzles for molding the chunks with the diameter of 5-7 mm and the length of 10-15 mm for production of the fertilizers, the fuel pellets, the sorbents-absorbers, and with the diameter of 25-30 mm and 50-60 mm - for production of the fuel bricks of the biofuel. The invention allows to produce the various products, the heat and electric power.EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the various products, heat and electric power.5 cl, 1 dwg
Peat briquette manufacture process // 2289606
FIELD: sold fuel production.SUBSTANCE: in a peat briquette manufacture process involving mixing of peat with oil-slime (binder) until homogenous paste is obtained, which is then molded into peat briquettes in piston screw assembly with casing heated to 65-80°C, after which peat briquettes are partially dried utilizing additional sorption of oil slime-from the surface of peat briquettes. Peat product is characterized by moisture content 30-65°C and peat-to-oil-slime ratio (4-10):1.EFFECT: reduced power consumption in the process.

ethod of production of fuel briquettes // 2278891
FIELD: production of solid fuel; communal-general service; minor power engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes metering of raw materials: peat and carbonic material, mixing them, drying and molding; liquid hydrocarbon component at natural moisture content of up to 50% and temperature above 100°C is fed to mixture of peat and carbonic material; this component is fed in the amount of 5-7% by weight; further mixing of materials is performed simultaneously with drying; dehydrated mixture is subjected to molding. Drying is performed by heating the mixer body or by direct delivery of superheated steam to mixer body at simultaneous suction of water vapor.EFFECT: enhanced resistance to moisture and increased calorific value; reduced power requirements; minimization of process stages.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of the peat fractionation and the device for fractionation of the peat // 2270728
FIELD: peat processing; methods and devices for the peat processing.SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of peat processing, in particular, to the methods and devices for peat separation by fractions, its aeration and drying. The invention may be used for production of a feedstock at manufacture of the different products on the base of the peat. The method of fractionation of the peat includes formation of a vertical airflow, in which the initial peat is fed, its separation into fractions and transportation of the fractions into collectors. Using a vertical wind flow transport the material into the zone of action of the horizontal air flow. At that the fractionation is exercised under action of the two produced air flows with sedimentation of the fractions in the collectors partitioned by septums, made with the variable heights increasing according to the run of the separable material. The method realized by means of the device includes: the chamber with no less than two collectors partitioned by septums made with the variable heights increasing as moving away from the main ventilating blower forming a horizontal air flow and located in the butt wall of one of the collectors; the blower located under the window made in the base of the indicated collector for feeding of the vertical air flow in the chamber and linked with the hopper of the initial peat by means of the transporter. The technical result of the invention is an increased effectiveness of separation of the peat for fractions and the increased quality of the produced fractions.EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased effectiveness of the peat fractionation and the increased quality of the produced peat fractions.2 cl, 1 dwg

Reinforced peat mat production method and device // 2265109
FIELD: building, particularly to produce heat insulation mats.SUBSTANCE: method involves filling mold with peat mixture; arranging reinforcing net in peat mixture; compressing the mixture and drying thereof. Reinforcing net is tightened by superposing two mold halves. Lower mold half is first filled with peat mixture in layers and the peat mixture in lower mold is compacted up to filling the whole volume of lower mold half. Reinforced net is then placed on upper face of lower mold half so that reinforced net is arranged on peat mixture surface. Then upper and lower mold halves are superposed and connected in superposed state with fastening means so that reinforcing net edges are tightened and jammed due to applying load of upper mold half weight and friction force between reinforcing net and mold halves. After that new peat mixture layer is placed and compacted in mold. Device for above method implementation is also disclosed.EFFECT: simplified technology and increased strength.2 cl, 3 dwg

Peat processing method // 2259385
FIELD: peat industry.SUBSTANCE: method of wasteless processing of peat is accomplished by two-step heating of peat to release gaseous and solid constituents. In the first step, peat is dried to moisture content not higher than 15% using portionwise supply of peat with 350-1050 g/s portions and heating to 120±5°C, while treating and withdrawing flue gases. In the second step, solid residue is heated for 1-6 sec to 520-530° without access of oxygen. Resulting pyrolysis gas is condensed into liquid fuel.EFFECT: optimized peat processing parameters, increased productivity of process and selectivity of peat conversion, and reduced power and materials consumption.1 dwg

ethod of manufacturing lump municipal-destination biological fuel // 2255955
FIELD: solid fuels.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of domestic-destination fuel based on peat waste, which may be used in mining industry, local power engineering, municipal economy, metallurgy, railway transport, and environmental protection. Method comprises supplementing peat with additive, mixing the combination, compacting it and drying. In case of milled peat with 40-65% moisture, peat is first separated. Diesel fuel or shale is added to mixture of preliminarily soaked wood waste with coal fines at continuous stirring, resulting mixture is mixed with peat and thus obtained homogenous mixture is charged with sapropel having natural moisture content 85-94%. Finally obtained mixture is stirred and adjusted to 80-85% moisture, after which molded and dried in two steps: first at 150-200°C to 35-50% moisture and then under natural conditions to 25-33% moisture. Percentages of used components are the following, wt %: wood waste 5-10, coal fines 10-20, mazut or shale 5-10, sapropel 10-30, and peat to 100%.EFFECT: improved environmental safety of product and reduced manufacturing expenses.4 cl, 5 tbl

ethod for production of lumpy fuel from high moisture coal // 2252948
FIELD: coal-mining industry; production of lumpy fuel from high-moisture coal.SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the methods of production of household fuel, in particular, to production of fuel from low-calorie high-moisture coal. The method is realized by a coal grounding, coal crumbs loading in stacker, molding, laying, cutting of a mat grooves for bricks, a swathing and removing. After grounding the coal conduct coal charge blending with a peat crumbs with a volume of 20-25 % from the volume of the coal and with moisture of 50-60 %, or with binding consisting of a lignite sodium humate - 25 % and waters - 75 %. Besides the laying of bands is made abut with a space between the grooves of 20-30 mm and dry the bands in a permanent period till formation of flawings of 1-2 mm in width and changeover of black color of coal for brown, Then they apply a binding at the rate of 3 l per 1 m of a laying, age foe 5 hours, compact by a running roller with a soil pressure of 1.5-2 Mpa, dry up to the final moisture and remove. Then the cycles are repeated. Invention allows to reduce power costs of production of lumpy fuel at the expense of simplification of a method of its production.EFFECT: the invention ensures reduced power costs of the lumpy fuel production, simplification of a method of its production.2 cl, 3 dwg

Carbon briquette fabrication process // 2249612
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.SUBSTANCE: carbon briquettes based on ground carbon-containing starting material (peat, coals, and the like) are fabricated by mixing starting material with 30-50% of water, treating the mix on rotary cavitation apparatus in 5 to 50 operation cycles at 15 to 70°С and cavitator rotor speed 3000-12000 rpm, pouring out thus treated mix into special molds, wherein mix is dried in air flow at 15 to 100°С to form ready-to-use briquettes (after cooling, if needed).EFFECT: simplified fabrication process and increased process efficiency.1 tbl
Carbon-containing moldings and a method for fabrication thereof // 2246530
FIELD: solid fuels.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of hydrocarbon moldings in the form of briquettes or granules. Which can be used as natural solid fuel substitutes for municipal and industrial needs but also as fertilizers and/or soil structure improvers. Carbon-containing moldings contain (i) ground peat and/or lignin (5-50%), (ii) wood-vegetable components in the form of sawdust and/or wood chips, and/or bark, and/or straw, and/or chaff, and/or seed shells, and/or oilcake, and/or plant stems and leaves, and/or animal components in the form of poultry dung and/or manure (1-10%), and (iii) binder in the form of burnt lime, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide (balancing amount). Method of fabrication comprises dispensing, mixing, grinding, and activation of peat and/or lignin with binder, after which is added above-indicated wood-vegetable and/or animal components and resulting mixture is remixed. Final mixture is converted into moldings, which are then compacted by lying during 2 to 30 h.EFFECT: extended consumer's market of low-cost and environmentally safe fuel product, enabled utilization of wide range of energy organic wastes, and improved fertility of soil.6 cl, 9 ex

Composition for briquetting fuel // 2228945
The invention relates to the technology of solid carbonaceous fuel, in particular compositions for briquetting fuel, and can be used in everyday life and in industry

The method of obtaining organic humic product // 2209230
The invention relates to technologies for organic product from raw materials of natural origin and can be used in the processing of peat, sapropel and brown coal
The method of manufacturing products, composite material fabrication and installation for the manufacture of products // 2195401
The invention relates to a method of manufacturing products, in particular to the manufacture of environmentally friendly cladding plates, etc

ethod of briquetting lignocellulosic materials and means for its implementation // 2191799
The invention relates to the production of molded articles from lignocellulosic materials and can be used for municipal and industrial needs
 
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