Explosives and matches (C06)
C06 Explosives; matches(2052)
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a chemical method of marking and identifying explosive substances (ES), as well as forensic identification of preparations, which can be used in investigation, expert forensic and legal practice. Method for concealed marking of explosives comprises introducing into an explosive, obtained by mixing certain components, a marking composition containing identifiers, number which is proportional to number of technical parameters, to be marked. Each identifier corresponding to a separate property used is a combination of substances (at least two substances), with available detection of fluorescence. Substances can be moulded into separate sets (units), and information (an a unit) is recorded in a binary code with arrangement of substances when detecting on a spectrogram successively built into circuit in accordance with a scale of capacity of units of a binary code. Marking composition is composed of separate sets (units), each of which by a separate stream is fed into an explosive while mixing latter from separate components.EFFECT: method enables to encode data on an explosive substance, provides high security of marking explosive and reliability of identification of explosive based on its marking when reading a graphical recording of latter.6 cl, 3 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: pyrotechnics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pyrotechnic aerosol-forming compositions, used for smoke screen formation. Aerosol-forming pyrotechnic composition contains, wt%: granulated red phosphorus 55–60, a thermal base of a mixture of aluminium-magnesium alloy powder 12–14 with sodium nitrate 13–15, thiocol 11–9, epoxy resin 2–3, manganese (IV) oxide 0.4–0.6, hexamethylenetetramine 0.1–0.3, diphenyl guanidine 0.2–0.6 and as a processing additive pyrotechnic graphite 1.3–2.5. Increase of content of plasticized epoxy resin of thiocol enables to process disclosed composition based on moulding, which is more productive and safe.EFFECT: proposed combination of components ensures higher screening capacity of generated smoke screen due to increased output in aerosol of dispersion phase.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to throwing explosives, particularly mixed powders. Disclosed are versions of a charge for light-gas gun, containing boron hydride of beryllium, lithium, aluminium, lithium-aluminium or silicon, or tetraborane, or decaborane in combinations with six different oxidants: ammonium nitrate, ammonium dinitramide, boron nitrate, beryllium nitrate, nitrogen pentoxide nitrogen hexoxide. To increase amount of released hydrogen, hydrazine is added to charge. To increase reaction energy, hydrides or borohydrides of metals, as well as boron, can be added.EFFECT: invention provides higher initial velocity of projectiles and bullets by releasing mainly hydrogen, increased gas release of reaction and control of rate of reaction.34 cl
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making charges of a composite rocket propellant, namely, to molding charges by free casting. Charge molding is carried out by free casting of the fuel mass into a housing installed in a pressure chamber. Herewith the pressure chamber or the channel-forming tooling, or both the pressure chamber and the channel-forming tooling simultaneously are subjected to heating.EFFECT: method provides efficient heating of the system of molding tooling – housing and obtaining a stable volumetric average fuel composition temperature at the end of molding the charges and can be used in making large-size solid fuel charges.1 cl, 3 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to impact-igniting compositions for primer to cartridges of small arms. Composition contains lead trinitroresorcinate, barium nitrate, tetrazene and antimony sulphide (nano-antimonyl) with particle size of 70–100 nm, as main component of fuel and sensitizer. Nano-antimonyl provides filling of interporous space thereby releasing ¼ part of weight to increase batch by 20–30 %, increase reliability of capsule and reduce consumption of antimonyl, when making impact-igniting composition in two steps.EFFECT: during combustion of composition large amount of ammonia is produced, which neutralizes acidic combustion products of impact composition causing corrosion of barrel channel of small arms.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to producing explosives, particularly plastic explosive compounds used in explosive charges. Method of producing a plastic explosive compound involves mixing a crystalline explosive substance (ES) with a solution of a plastic polymer in a volatile solvent, further distilling the solvent, granulation and drying. Before mixing the components the crystalline ES from the class of nitroesters or nitroamines is processed by grinding to increase defectiveness of the ES crystals and to obtain a rounded particles shape close to a sphere or an ellipsoid with the average size of 5–10 mcm. Grinding is performed by mechanical processing in a ball or a planetary mill or in an ultrasonic disperser in the form of a suspension. Dispersion liquid used as the suspension for the mills is ethyl alcohol or another liquid comparable with alcohol by viscosity, wettability, volatility and solubility in it of this ES; for the ultrasonic dispersion distilled water is used. Use of rounded particles provides improved rheological properties of the compound; defectiveness of the ES crystals leads to reducing the critical diameter.EFFECT: producing the plastic ES is optimized due to exclusion of the operation of the ES recrystallization from acetone as more complex and dangerous as compared to mechanical treatment of a suspension.1 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of armored solid propellant charges, which coating prevents reserved surfaces burning. Heat-resistant fuel charge armoring is performed in two stages. At first stage on fuel cartridge surface glue EL-20 is applied by brush based on epoxy resin of ED-20 grade and low-molecular polyamide L-20 as adhesive interlayer, on which from above glass fabric or coarse calico impregnated with glue EL-20 is applied in two layers. Drying with simultaneous polymerization at temperature of 20–25 °C for 24–25 h or at 50–70 °C for 3–5 hours. At second stage cartridge is placed in mold in form of metal shell and in gap between shell and cartridge glue EL-20 is poured, which polymerization is carried out similar to first stage.EFFECT: method provides simple and safe method of armor application onto small-sized solid fuel charges.1 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of gun powders, which can be used for charging cartridges for small arms, as well as special-purpose cartridges, for example, construction and industrial cartridges. Method of producing a gun powder with the minimum web thickness comprises production of powder elements with the size of not more than 0.7 mm their preliminary drying to the humidity of not more than 15 %, coating the powder elements with a current-conducting material, rolling the powder elements into plates with the thickness of not more than 0.18 mm on hot rolls, the temperature of which is not more than 100 °C, final drying and averaging of physical and chemical characteristics by blending. At the stage of coating the powder elements may be treated with flame arresters, for example, sulphates of alkali or alkali-earth metals. To obtain elite types of powders after rolling fractionation of the powder elements is performed. To improve quality of powders with the minimum web thickness after the fractionation stage repeated is rolling the coarse fraction of powder particles on the rolls. Obtained gun powders have improved ballistic and operating characteristics of a gun powder with the minimum web thickness due to thermal plasticization of cellulose nitrates forming a mechanical frame of the powder elements at rolling with preliminary coating the powder elements.EFFECT: method ensures uniformity of gun powders with the minimum web thickness regardless of the used raw materials or recycled powders, versatility and process safety of the powders production for any small arms cartridges, including their elite types.6 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: fire safety.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to volumetric fire fighting means and may be used to suppress fire hazards in closed spaces. Aerosol-forming pyrotechnic composition contains, wt%: potassium nitrate 66-68, iditol 18-15, ammonium iodide 9-11, thiocarbamide 3-5 and urotropine 2-3.EFFECT: increased fire extinguishing efficiency by more dynamic achievement of combustion inhibitors required concentration for fire hazards suppression in protected volume.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of solvent stripping from powder elements in production of pellet powder for small arms. After introduction of sodium sulphate into dispersion medium performing solvent stripping by heat carrier temperature raising from 68 °C to 86-87 °C. During temperature raising introducing antifoaming agent of PG-2 or PG-3 grade into reactor. At temperature of 86-87 °C 70-75 wt% of ethyl acetate from its total amount is stripped, and then, raising heat carrier temperature up to 98-100 °C and stripping remaining ethyl acetate. Solvent stripping is performed at strictly definite temperature in bubble boiling mode. Introduction of antifoaming agent enables to completely eliminate formation of foam on liquid-gas phases phase interface.EFFECT: spherical powder obtained in this solvent stripping mode, has preset bulk density and evenly distributed porosity in powder elements.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a mixture of hydrocarbons for emulsion explosive compositions (EEC) and to emulsion explosive compositions obtained based thereon. Combustible mixture of hydrocarbons includes, wt%: surfactant - polyisobutylene succinic anhydride with alkanolamine or mixture thereof 22-33, polymer stabiliser - polyisobutylene isomers 10-30, additional stabiliser mixture - fusible hydrocarbon in form of petrolatum with drop point of 48 °C or 72 °C 16-20 and liquid fuel - industrial oil - balance up to 100. Four versions of emulsion compositions are prepared based on said mixture of hydrocarbons with four types of sensitising agents: aqueous solution of sodium nitrite, glass microspheres, polymer microspheres and polymer microspheres in form of foamed polystyrene.EFFECT: obtained compositions retain stable physical and chemical and explosive characteristics at storage life of not less than 6 months and processing temperature not higher than 85 °C.8 cl, 3 tbl, 15 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of cord explosives, namely, to the manufacturing method of detonating cords. For production of detonating cord aqueous paste based on hexogene or octogene is obtained previously, by mixing the latter with water in the disclosed amounts to obtain a suspension of explosive substances particles in water and sequential addition into the produced mixture of disperser, thickener, an antifoam agent and an emulsifier in said amounts while stirring constantly. Obtained paste with moisture content from 10.0 to 15.6 wt% is extruded at a pressure of 0.15-0.20 Mpa to produce continuous core of the detonating cord with subsequent braiding the latter with polyester threads. Braided core is dried in a drying chamber at a temperature of the heat carrier of 82.1-84 °C and the protective layer on the basis of nylon is applied.EFFECT: invention provides increase in safety of detonating cord production while ensuring high quality and reliability of the finished product.3 cl, 4 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of spherical gun powders (SGP) for small arms, namely, to ethyl acetate recovery after 30-40 cycles of its use in technological process for ethyl acetate further use in process cycle. Used in process ethyl acetate after 30-40 cycles of using undergoes distillation, for this reactor is filled with 1 wt% of water equivalent to powder mass charge, spent ethyl acetate is filled from collector, loaded are soda ash, antifoaming agent PG-2, leather glue. After that, at heat carrier temperature of 86-87 °C ethyl acetate distillation is carried out by partial pressures difference between reactor and refrigerator. Distilled ethyl acetate together with stripped water is used in next process, bottom products are directed to neutralization, and solid residue is disposed by burning.EFFECT: disclosed is method for production of spherical gun powders (SGP) for small arms.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: use relates to plastic explosive compositions (EC) and can be used in heat-resistant systems of initiation and detonation layouts with small sections of channels. Heat-resistant plastic EC consists of a blasting explosive substance (ES) - benzotrifuroxan (BTF), a polymer binder - a composite material based on a mixture of low-viscosity organosilicon (siloxane) rubber and polyisobutylene and a filler - an additionally reinforcing component in the form of polytetrafluoroethylene or fibrous asbestos, at the ratio of components, wt%: filler - 0.5-2.0, binder - 10-15, BTF - the rest.EFFECT: use of a combined binding agent and an additionally reinforcement component enables to obtain a heat-resistant EC suitable for rolling, extrusion at low sections of dies and pressing at low specific pressure without heating the EC and a tool that provides safety, efficiency and environmental friendliness of technological processes of production and processing the EC.1 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat-resistant gas-generating acid-forming high-strength fuels for downhole apparatuses of mechanism of action: cartridge-pressure accumulators, powder generator of pressure, bullet and cumulative perforators, etc. for thermobaric and chemical action on bottom-hole zone in order to increase productivity of oil wells. Heat-resistant gas-generating acid-forming fuel for downhole apparatuses includes an oxidant-ammonium perchlorate or potassium perchlorate, or a mixture of ammonium perchlorate with potassium perchlorate, combustible binder compound having α-oxide cycle-product of interaction of epichlorohydrin with diphenylol propane in its chain, or product of interaction of epichlorohydrin with oligodiene, or a product of reaction of epichlorohydrin with diethylene glycol or triethylene glycol or mixture thereof, as well as a curing agent - amine-type compound. Fuel can also contain dibutyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-sebacinat, di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate or EDOS plasticizer; aluminium; ammonium chloride; compound containing a fluorine atom in the molecule, for example polytetrafluoroethylene, polytrifluorochloroethylene or lithium fluoride; technical carbon; as a process additive, for example, an emulsifying agent of brand N-23 or 1,2-dialkylglyceroholil-phosphate; Silicon oxide; pigment or dye.EFFECT: invention is aimed at creation of heat-resistant gas-generating acid-forming high-strength fuel with improved strength and heat resistance, increased content of acid-producing compounds - chloride and fluoride hydrogen in the combustion products.13 cl, 2 tbl, 23 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial explosive materials (indEM) used in explosive works on sections, open pits when charging wells and chambers in all climatic zones with temperature from minus 50 to plus 50 °C in the rocks and ores of any composition. IndEM contains, wt%: flake or granulated trinitrotoluene - 4.0-35.5, coal powder with particle size of more than 90 mcm in amount of not more than 20 wt% with moisture content of not more than 3.5 wt% - 0.9-5.1, liquid oil product - 0.9-4.1 and granulated ammonium nitrate - the balance up to 100.EFFECT: industrial explosive material preserves friability when storing more than 10 months.1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of monobasic pellet powders for small arms. Powder elements consisting of nitrocellulose, diphenylamine, graphite and moisture, are phlegmatised in a phlegmatisation apparatus phlegmatising emulsion. Water is poured into phlegmatisation apparatus, in turbulent mixing conditions pellet powder is loaded and mixture is heated to temperature of 75-80 °C. Upon achieving temperature of mixture, skin glue and phlegmatizing agent consisting of dinitrotoluene and centralite 1 are added to phlegmatisation apparatus. For 10-15 minutes mixture is heated to temperature of 94-98 °C. Powder is phlegmatised for 40-60 minutes, after which powder is washed.EFFECT: method provides more complete precipitation of phlegmatisers on surface of powder elements during phlegmatisation of powder improves stability of ballistic characteristics of mono-base pellet powder.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of double-base pellet powder for small arms. Spherical elements consisting of nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, diphenylamine, dinitrotoluene, centralite II, graphite and moisture, are phlegmatised in a phlegmatisation apparatus of phlegmatising emulsion. Water is poured into phlegmatisation apparatus, pellet powder is loaded and mixture is heated to temperature of 50-55 °C. Upon achieving temperature of mixture in phlegmatisation apparatus, skin glue and centralite I are added and for 10-15 minutes mixture is heated to temperature of 76-86 °C. Powder is phlegmatised for 40-60 minutes, after which powder is washed.EFFECT: method provides complete precipitation of phlegmatisers on surface of powder elements during phlegmatisation of powder improves stability of ballistic characteristics of double-base pellet powder.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: pyrotechnics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of forming smokescreens, more specifically to pyrotechnic compositions, during combustion of which is generated an aerosol, forming in air an air-dispersed formation of high optical density. Smoke pyrotechnic composition contains hexachloroethane, potassium perchlorate, aluminium powder, zinc oxide, as activating additives - mixture of powdered chlorinated paraffin and chlorinated liquid with thiourea, as process additive - pyrotechnic graphite. Introduction into mixture of powdered chlorinated paraffin and liquid chlorinated paraffin of provides formation of metal chlorides and pyrolysis soot, particles of which have size of half of incident wave of laser (1.06 mcm) and infrared (1.2 mcm) radiation, which enables to generate optically dense screen and provides considerable reduction of reflected signals due to their absorption in volume of screen, as a result, in electronic means of detection and guidance reflected signals are not identified visually with camouflage equipment, with concealed movement with operating motors.EFFECT: composition is technologically safe and enables to make charges by extrusion moulding.1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive works, namely to mixed explosive compositions (MEC) used in explosive works on sections, open pits, combined mines and mines while manual and mechanical charging of blast holes, wells and chambers. MEC contains granulated ammonium nitrate and granulated trinitrotoluene with granule size of more than 1.2 mm in amount of at least 96 wt%, less than 3.2 mm - not less than 85 wt%, more than 5 mm - not more than 0.8 wt% and less than 10 mm - 100 wt%. Composition contains 17.0-56.7 wt% of trinitrotoluene and granulated ammonium nitrate - the balance up to 100. Composition contains moisture and volatile substances of not more than 0.6 wt%.EFFECT: invention ensures minimum concentration of trinitrotoluene in workplace air during charging of blast holes, wells and chambers by pneumatic conveying.1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making moulded explosive (ES) charges. Method comprises filling the body with thin layers of the fused explosive, in series, one after another, after solidification of the previous layer. Process of solidification of each layer of the explosive is performed from the condition of deep mixture supercooling. Forming the explosive charge is performed continuously by means of moving, controlled molding head, its movement in horizontal and vertical planes is set based on the geometry of the charge and explosive charge is formed by thin horizontal layers, according to the mathematical charge model, loaded in the computer software, controlling the process, when each layer is formed, head or platform with the body are moved in vertical direction to the height equal to the layer thickness until the whole charge is formed. Movable controlled moulding head comprises a unit for supply of heated explosive melt and explosive melt cooling unit. Body of the melt supply unit is connected to control mechanism for movement and control of molding head directly in the area of forming layers inside the charge body.EFFECT: in addition to high quality of produced charge, homogeneous structure, high density and absence of porosity, method enables to completely automate the process and increases charge producing efficiency.2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: pyrotechnics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pyrotechnics, and namely to lighting compositions. Pyrotechnical illumination composition contains, wt%: barium nitrate 32-42, aluminium-magnesium alloy powder 27-29, cryolite 27-31, rosin 2-3 and thiourea 2-5 as combustion activator.EFFECT: composition has high efficiency of target action due to stabilization of flammability and high light intensity of flame.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive compounds components mixing, including mixed rocket solid fuels (MRSF). After components preparation, performing dosing of liquid-viscous and powdery components, including explosive and oxidant, and their mixing. Powdered hardener, lead oxide is preliminary mixed with plasticizer at ratio of 0.25:0.05-0.25:0.08, and surface active substance (SAS), lecithin, is dissolved in plasticizer at ratio of 1:10-1:15. Remaining plasticizer is introduced into mixer in parts: one part is after SAS solution loading, and second one is after hardener with plasticizer mixture loading. Hardener with plasticizer mixture is introduced into mixer after last portion of oxidizer dosing and mixing. Explosive and oxidizing agent are introduced via individual leak-tight loading lines by creating carbon dioxide environment in mixer prior to loading explosive, and vacuum at residual pressure from 20 to 50 mm Hg prior to metal fuel powder and each oxidizer portion loading.EFFECT: method provides uniform distribution of powder components in fuel weight, including powder hardener, and high manufacture ability while maintaining required viability.3 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to applied chemistry, specifically to solid fuel for ramjet engines of rocket projectiles. Solid fuel contains organic combustible binder, ultrafine powder of high-energy metal and carborane and/or phenyl carborane. Combustible binder in solid fuel is a mixture of epoxy resin, dibutylphthalate, curing agent and diamine diaoleate in certain ratio of components.EFFECT: composition of solid fuel ensures preservation of integrity of gas-generating elements made therefrom under conditions of high overloads of rocket projectiles during shooting from gun and its operation by improving mechanical properties of solid fuel with simultaneous high power and other characteristics.4 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of porous granulated ammonium nitrate to be used at explosive substances manufacture points on enterprises, conducting blasting operations. Invention can be used in open and underground method of ore and nonmetallic solid mineral resources production, at formation, stockwork, gangue deposits development. Method of porous granulated ammonium nitrate producing involves granulated ammonium nitrate thermal processing, wherein granular ammonium nitrate is treated in two stages, first stage involves granulated ammonium nitrate thermal treatment primary stage by heating in rotary drum to temperature of 32.3-50 °C, thermal treatment secondary stage is carried out at this temperature in drum oscillation mode, and granulated ammonium nitrate heating in drum is performed mainly alternately either in rotation, or in oscillation mode, wherein after nitrate heating and conditioning it is spread with separation into fractions. Device for production of porous granulated ammonium nitrate comprises drum installed at angle α to horizon, with hollow axis, made with jacket for liquid heat carrier and possibility of liquid heat carrier circulation along drum axis, proportioning feeder and loading manifold for supply of granulated ammonium nitrate into drum, distribution head pieces, unloading hatch, unloading device with separate output of fractions, external heat-protective shell with inspection hatch, exhaust devices for air removal from heat-protective shell, and sieve mounted on drum unloading end side, made in form of perforated ring with elliptic shaped discharge opening with ellipse greater axis to smaller ratio equal to 1.7-2.2, and ellipse center offset relative to drum axis of not less than ellipse size by smaller axis, and drum itself is made with possibility of rotation around its axis in at least two modes: either in rotation mode, or in oscillation mode.EFFECT: invention provides improved quality of ammonium nitrate granules structure changing (pore generation), providing elementary explosives with higher stability and improved explosive properties.2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to explosive works for destruction of irregular blocks of rocks of the medium and lower than medium strength. Before the explosive works brand A ammonium nitrate (AN) is prepared: by processing with a surfactant - black neutralized contact (BNC) in the amount of 0.8-1.2 % of the AN weight and stirring until all granules are covered with a thin layer of the surfactant. To obtain dispersed AN the ammonium nitrate treated with the surfactant is milled. In an irregular block a shortened blast hole is drilled at the depth of 0.2-0.25 of the irregular block height. Into the drilled blast hole a linear initiator (type DC - detonation cord) and granulated AN processed with the surfactant are placed all the way down the blast hole. Above the blast hole charge a pressure charge is placed with processed ground AN with the particle size of 0.1-1 mm. Weight of the pressure charge is 1-5 wt% of the blast hole part of the charge, height of the pressure part of the charge is not less than 0.4 of its diameter. Charge can be formed both in a plastic bag and a paper shell or in bulk. Charge explosion is carried out. As the result of the DC detonation an explosion occurs in the blas hole part of the charge, and from the blast hole one - the pressure part of the charge is exploded. Detonation products of the pressure charge close detonation products of the blast hole charge, thereby prolonging the time of pulse loading the irregular block, thus helping its efficient destruction.EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of explosion and reduces power losses.7 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of explosives, particularly of detonating cords (DC), and to equipment. DC is made by forming core from powdered explosive, by performing thread braidings and protective layer of waterproof material. Water-resistant shell is formed either continuously during forming the DC core and performing thread braidings or separately after forming the DC and performing thread braidings. Drive threads are not used. Cord core is formed during uniform filling the first braiding representing a tube ("sleeve") with constant inner diameter with explosive, first braiding is produced from several stretched longitudinal flat threads in the cord core forming device. Explosive is fed into the first braiding by means of a dispenser, performance of which is controlled depending on the explosive charge in the cord. Flat synthetic non-fibrillated threads are used as longitudinal threads of the first braiding of the cord core. Longitudinal threads from the cord core forming device cord and to the receiving station is strongly stretched along the axis to seal the core. At high charges, to avoid certain explosive layers shift inside the first braiding during sealing the cord for reinforcement of the cord core one or several longitudinal threads passed inside the first braiding are used.EFFECT: method and device for production of detonating cord provide stability of explosive dosing, uniform filling of the DC core with explosive, possibility of rapid change of the cord charge, elimination of caving through explosive shells during fabrication, creating stretching force along the entire length along the axis of the cord for sealing the core with adjustment of force value, equality of DC rolling speed on a coil of the receiving station and speed of cord drawing, rapid change of process modes parameters using a feedback mode.16 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: technological processes; weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of spherical powders (SP) for small arms, namely to powder drying. For drying powder with moisture content of 18-22 wt% and graphite is fed via settling cyclone in continuously acting fixed drier, in lower part of which there is a box, divided into three sections for supply of heat carrier. On top of the box in the inner part of the drier grid is installed to create air pressure under screens. On each side of the box is installed in vertical plane at an angle of the wall with blow-out surface. In the first section the powder is dried at air temperature 93±5 °C, in the second section at temperature 70±5 °C, and in the third - 50-60 °C. Drying is performed in boiling conditions. Height of boiling layer powder on the screen is controlled by separation grids. Boiling layer on the screen move due to difference of air supply to the section of the box. Common drying cycle 1.0-2.5 h, efficiency of the dryer 200-300 kg/h at moisture content of dry powder 0.3-0.9 wt%.EFFECT: method provides safe and effective drying of powder and production of powder with preset physical and chemical properties with minimum labor costs and power consumption.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to initiation means and can be applied to development of military ammunition and explosion devices for use in industrial, scientific, and research activities. Detonating cord (Dc) consists of core made of explosive substance (ES), inner metal shell adjacent directly to core, and outer shell. Core contains secondary explosive TEN in amount of not more than 1 g per running meter. Core diameter is not less than critical diameter of detonation of secondary ES, wall thickness of inner metal shell is 0.2-0.5 mm. Between outer surface of internal metal shell and inner surface of outer metal shell there is gap of not more than 0.25 mm. Outer metal shell is made of ductile metal or alloy. At ends of detonating cord upon internal metal shell, bandage is wound of threads impregnated with glue, ensuring fixation with outer metal shell.EFFECT: during detonation of this Dc, there is no effect of adverse factors on surrounding objects; Dc has integrity and resistance to external factors, has simple and safe installation at place of use, and when assembling it is possible to use simple tools and forces applied by hand.1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of heat-resistant gas-generating acid-producing high-strength fuels for downhole devices of different action: borehole powder pressure accumulators, powder pressure generators, bullet and cumulative perforators for thermal gas-chemical and baric effect on bottomhole formation zone in oil and gas wells with simultaneous acid treatment for intensification of resources processing. Fuel includes an oxidant - ammonium perchlorate or potassium perchlorate, or mixture thereof, a combustible binder - a compound comprising α-oxide cycle- a product of interaction of epichlorohydrin with diphenylol propane, or a product of interaction of epichlorohydrin with oligodien, or a product of interaction of epichlorohydrin with diethylene glycol or triethylene glycol or mixture thereof, hydrocarbon oil, as well as it additionally contains a curing agent - an amine-type compound and a process additive - emulsifier of grade N-23 or 1,2-dialkylglycerocholyl-phosphate.EFFECT: technical result is production of a fuel with high strength and heat resistance, increased content of acid-producing compounds - chloride and fluoride hydrogen in the combustion products.13 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to means of ignition, mainly for ignition of propellant charges of grenade launcher rounds, as well as for ejection cartridges of emergency rescue. Cap primer comprises a cylindrical shell and an anvil located in it and resting on a smaller cap. Latter represents a cap with an impact-ignition charge. Anvil has an extending in both directions relative to the cone-shaped anvil vertical cylindrical wall to make two chambers. Chambers are interconnected with one or more ignition holes. In the lower chamber formed by the anvil and the shell bottom there is the smaller cap. In the upper chamber formed by the anvil and rolled up edges of the shell inside the ignition holes there is a reinforcing incendiary charge. Between the reinforcing incendiary charge and the rolled up edges of the shell a prechamber is formed. Ratio of the volume occupied by the reinforcing incendiary charge to the total volume of the upper chamber of the anvil makes 0.3-0.9. Provided is the possibility to vary the cap output pulse power without changing its overall dimensions, sensitivity to impact power. Prevented is overhang or displacement of structural elements.EFFECT: provided is reliable ignition, stability during storage and safe handling and transportation.6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: pyrotechnics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pyrotechnics and specifically to compositions for formation of smoke screen during combustion. Pyrotechnic composition of screening smoke contains hexachloroethane, potassium perchlorate, zinc oxide, aluminium powder, as plasticizer - liquid chlorinated paraffin KHP-470, thiourea and as process additive - pyrotechnic graphite.EFFECT: composition provides absorption and dissipation of electromagnetic radiation in the range of infrared waves that enables to mask with optically intransparent curtain movement of vehicles due to creation of screen with background level of heat radiation.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: pyrotechnics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pyrotechnics, more specifically to incendiary pyrotechnic compositions, initiating ignition and combustion of a functional kit of various articles for civil and special purpose. Incendiary pyrotechnic composition contains potassium chlorate, thiourea, gas-forming agent and aerosil. Incendiary composition comprises urotropin gas-forming agent, at following ratio of components, wt%: potassium chlorate 37-41, thiourea 31-36, urotropin 26-23, aerosil 2-4.EFFECT: import substitution with preservation of properties of composition due to use readily available and environmentally safe urotropin, which during combustion in pyrotechnic composition is involved in formation of ignition force, forms additional gas phase as a working medium for removal of combustion products.1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of spherical gun powders (SGP) for small arms. Production of powder comprises filling reactor with water, loading while stirring nitrocellulose with nitrogen oxide content of 212.7-214.0 ml NO/g, up to 30 wt% recyclable non-process wastes after wet sorting and from 3.0 to 5.0 wt% of process wastes after dry sorting of pellet powder from previous operations, loading diphenylamine and mixing. Then solvent-ethyl acetate is poured and powder lacquer is prepared. After adding a protective colloid - leather glue, crushing of powder lacquer to spherical particles is performed. Sodium sulphate is added and ethyl acetate is distilled from powder elements.EFFECT: method provides effective use of coarse and fine fraction of powder in process and prevents recycling by burning and provides stable physical and chemical and ballistic characteristics in a 7,62 mm sport rifle cartridge.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of spherical gun powders (SGP) for small arms, namely, to a method for gun powder graphitization. After drying lot of non-coated powder is loaded into tight polishing drum, representing a copper rotary cylinder. Along the edge of the drum there are copper ribs, which provide efficient mixing. After loading the powder weighed portion of dry graphite and water is introduced. Then spherical gun powder is graphitized at temperature of at least 15 °C and relative humidity of at least 75 %, during 30-80 minutes.EFFECT: method enables obtaining a uniform coating of powder elements by graphite at serial production of powders, where the weight of powder lots does not exceed 80-200 kg.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: textile.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to producing materials for rigid combustible bags. High heat resistant material of a rigid combustible bag consists of polyvinyl acetate as a binder, fibre of unplasticized cellulose with refining degree of 42-48°SR as a reinforcing component, explosive substance, such as, octogene, hexogene or tetryl, as well as aluminium with corresponded ratio of components.EFFECT: material possesses high thermal stability and low sensitivity to mechanical effects.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: meteorology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid rocket fuels used in articles for active action on clouds in fight with hail and storms, stimulation and intensification of precipitation, scattering of clouds and fogs. Ice-form solid fuel on nitrocellulose base contains trinitrate glycerol, or diethylene glycol dinitrate, or mixture thereof, silver iodide, iodate of copper, oxide or iron hydroxide centralite, vaseline or industrial oil, zinc stearate, technical carbon, dibutyl phthalate, polyacrylamide, salt of trivalent metal (Fe, Cr, Al), oxide or hydroxide of bismuth and cellulose nitrate.EFFECT: developed composition has combustion rate of not less than 7 mm/s at pressure of 15 kgf/cm2, cavity impulse not less than 200 s at Pk/Pa = 40/1, an exponential ν index in the law of combustion is not more than 0,5 at low pressure and output of active centers of crystallization of not less than 1013 1/g at a temperature of minus 10 °C and not less than 1012 at minus 6 °C.1 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of explosives (E) and can be used for charge of shot holes, blast holes, regardless of their water cut, at open mining works and on special blasting operations, as well as during construction. Method of formation of explosive charge is in production of combined charge of two types of explosives, which are located concentrically to each other. For this purpose, a pipe is installed in the charged course, then the space around it is filled with explosive, the stem is made or not, after which the pipe is filled. At that the explosive, placed in the central part of the charge has detonation speed that exceeds detonation speed of the explosive, located in the peripheral part (outside of the pipe).EFFECT: concentric charge design provides to increase efficiency of explosion, to reduce environmental load on environment, to simplify and improve safety of loading operations.8 cl
FIELD: fuel.SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a catalyst of rocket fuel, containing: carrier, manufactured by hot isostatic pressing and having the theoretical density, at least 97 %, which contains hafnium oxide and up to equal part of zirconium oxide by weight, where combined hafnium oxide and zirconium oxide, when present, make at least 50 wt% of the carrier, and active metal on surface of said carrier, wherein the active metal is selected from a platinum group metals including rhodium, ruthenium, palladium, osmium, Iridium and platinum. Described is a method for promoting the reaction of rocket fuel in the reaction products, containing gas in contact with said catalyst. Also disclosed is a gas generator comprises case and the above catalyst inside the housing, rocket fuel inlet and outlet of said body for reaction products, containing gas.EFFECT: technical result consists in producing a catalyst with improved resistance to high-temperature destruction and sintering and extended service life.19 cl, 2 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial explosives and can be used for production of granulated and water-filled explosives at production facilities and at application sites during explosive works in mining and construction industries. Explosive composition contains ammonium nitrate, preliminary mixed with straight entrained water-hydrocarbon emulsion and hydrocarbon fuel. Before mixing with ammonium nitrate entrained emulsion is preliminary obtained by mixing liquid components and additional dispersion using ultrasonic action. When producing water-resistant composition, inverted emulsion based on ammonium nitrate is additionally introduced. Emulsion can also include combustible powdery energy additives, chlorine-containing organic sensitizing agent and other additives. Invention ensures production of highly efficient and safe to use compositions with high completeness of chemical conversions in charges of medium and small diameter, that do not require powerful intermediate detonators, due to more uniform distribution and increased area of contact between fuel and oxidizer.EFFECT: methods of production allow to efficiently control explosive characteristics of charges in dry, drained, and flooded wells when loading into polyethylene hoses.28 cl, 7 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. Explosive marking method is introducing marking composition which contain identifiers in explosive material, the number of identifiers is equal to number of technical parameters subjected to marking. Mixture of polyorganosyloxanes with different molecular chain lengths is used as the identifiers, in each molecular chain each technical indicator matches an identifier in the form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (“retention”) on a chromatogram.EFFECT: so in the composition of explosive element there is formed "chemical bar code", reading of which is carried out on chromatogram on the principle of presence or absence of component at the specified value of time of its "exit" (“retention”).1 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composite solid propellant contains an oxidising agent - potassium or sodium perchlorate, organic fuel: sorbitol or polymerised epoxy resin, and a combustion catalyst metal salt containing a nitrile group: cyanide or permanganate, or thiocyanate. Catalyst additive accelerates fuel combustion, which reduces value of exponents in combustion law.
EFFECT: invention stabilises fuel combustion in range of low pressure 1-30 atm and solves main problem of fuel based on metal perchlorates - lower "minimum pressure of effective combustion".
1 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of explosives and can be used to increase safety of production and use of standard explosive - tetrazene C2H8ON10 (GNGT). When producing tetrazene from pre-heated solutions aminoguanidine sulphate and sodium nitrite, sodium nitrite solution is mixed with modifying additive, which is a mixed aqueous solution of dextrin and gelatin, and a special dosage aminoguanidine sulphate solution to solution of sodium nitrite. Loose tetrazene with sizes and shape of crystals, which provide it with improved processing properties, is obtained.
EFFECT: produced tetrazene has high bulk density of not less than 0 65/100 g/cm3 and relative scatter of weighed portions with volumetric measurement of 5 %.
1 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of spherical powders for small arms. When producing powder dried graphitised pellet powder is fed via settling cyclone by pneumatic transport on inclined for dry screening, which is a set of replaceable brass screen under specified mark of powder, installed on a subframe at an angle of 20-30° relative to horizontal plane. Tray with screens is brought into movement with frequency of 100-120 vibrations per minute, from upper screen coarse fraction of pellet powder is collected, from tray is collected a fine fraction of powder and delivered for recycling, from middle screen is collected target fraction of pellet powder and directed into bag and equipping common batches.
EFFECT: higher stability of ballistic characteristics of pellet powder on bullet flight speed, bullet flight speed spread in series of shots, as well as on powder pressure in bore.
1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: rocket construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of rocket vehicles, particularly to making charges of composite solid propellant (CSP). Method for making charge of composite solid propellant involves successive mechanical mixing of oxidiser and combustible binder mixture based on polymer with plasticiser, metallic fuel, and process additives, and then batch filling up prepared fuel mixture into housing. Before mixing with plasticiser and other components, methyl polyvinyl tetrazolium polymer Included in composition of combustible binder, preliminary dried at temperature 100 to 140 °C to constant weight of polymer. In one particular case, drying polymer is carried out under vacuum at temperature 20 to 100 °C.
EFFECT: method provides minimum gas release from fuel, thereby physical and chemical stability of charge is provided for entire warranty shelf life.
1 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing ammonium nitrate solution, adding to obtained solution of first part of stabilising additive, represented by mixture of phosphoric and sulphuric acid ammonium salts or acids and their neutralisation with ammonia, evaporating obtained solution to state of melt, adding surfactant, porophore additive and second part of the stabilising additive to obtained melt, represented by magnesium nitrates, calcium or iron that is followed by granulation. First and second parts of stabilising additive ingredients, taken in stoichiometric ratio, in granulation form insoluble carrier and ammonium nitrate as a result of exchange reaction.
EFFECT: invention provides high static strength, low caking and residual moisture content, high stability of granules to thermal heating-cooling cycles.
1 cl, 3 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water-containing industrial explosives based on gel-like matrix sensitised with pyroxiline powder or a powerful explosive substance. Method of making explosive composition involves preparation of aqueous solution of oxidants, introduction of polyacrylamide with formation of pregelatinised solution of oxidants, introduction of structuring additive, introduction of powder or a powerful explosive filling of shell, structuring charge. Prior to introduction of powder or a powerful explosive, aluminium powder, whose particles have a hydrophobic coating, is added gel solution of oxidants. Production is performed in a mixer of gravity type. Mixing of pregelatinised solution of oxidants with aluminium powder is carried out until a homogeneous mass is obtained and dust formation stops. Structuring additive used is potassium dichromate and sodium thiosulphate or iron (ii) salt with sodium thiosulphate. One of components of additive is introduced in an aqueous solution of oxidants or pregelatinised solution of oxidants, and second component is added in pregelatinised solution of oxidants after complete distribution of first component in solution.
EFFECT: method provides safe technology of manufacturing of gel-like compositions with improved detonation characteristics.
FIELD: weapons and ammunition.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of spherical gun powders (SGP) for small arms. Method comprises producing powder lacquer, dispersion of its spherical particles, dewatering and ethyl acetate distillation from powder followed by washing, sorting with tap water and drying. On rotating drums of two-stage sorting irrigated water is supplied from water collector through nozzles. Water-powder suspension after sorting is collected in target fraction and back-and-technological wastes (BTW) collectors, where deposition of powder elements is conducted due to forces of sedimentation. Later target fraction is supplied on phlegmatisation phase or drying, and BTW are returned to technological process for subsequent processing. Excess water from powder target fraction and BTW collectors is cleaned of fine micrometre particles of powder in labyrinth, from which waste water enters into water collector for further use in closed cycle with irrigation of rotating drums in two-stage separation.EFFECT: method allows to reduce process water discharge in sewerage and provides re-use of tap water in closed process cycle.1 cl, 1 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: measuring equipment.SUBSTANCE: method for determining characteristics of detonating device actuation relates to measurement equipment, and can be applied to determining characteristics of detonating device actuation that provides for initiation of explosive substance (ES) charges, particularly for determining moment of ES charge initiation by detonating device relative to moment of involve pulse supply. Knowledge of these time moments simplifies design and development of initiation systems, wherein detonating devices are included, for calculation of their gas-dynamic characteristics. Proposed method comprises supply of involve pulse and generation of detonation wave in ES charge of detonating device, which involves ES charge being initiated. Moment of involve pulse supply to detonating device and moment of detonation pulse transfer to initiated charge are determined. Recording of second moment is performed at least by one optical sensor based on fibre-optic line installed perpendicular to axis of detonating device and facing one end towards area of detonation transfer, and another end towards recording equipment. Detecting light flashes of optical radiation is performed by conversion light signal into electric one, whereof moment of transmitting detonation pulse to initiated ES charge is registered relative to moment of involve pulse supply to detonating device.EFFECT: invention increases reliability of information during tests.1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of composite explosive substances (ES) and can be used in detonating charges, lighters, detonators and other explosive devices. Method for explosive substance processing involves obtaining suspension of explosive substance or its mixture with powder of metal in liquid dispersion medium to produce metal film on surface of crystals of explosive substance. Dispersion medium used is presented by metal gallium or its alloys, and mixing is carried out at temperature of not less than 40 °C, but not higher than melting point of explosive substance from class of nitramines or nitroesters. Fraction of liquid gallium or its alloy is from 2 to 50 % of total volume of suspension mix. Explosive substance can contain metal powders of aluminium, zirconium, titanium, tantalum and tungsten.EFFECT: method provides reduced sensitivity to mechanical action of ES, lower toxicity, protection against oxidation of metal particles contained in ES, as well as homogeneity of compositions and fewer process operations in preparation process.4 cl, 2 ex