Cements and concrete and artificial stone and ceramics and refractories (C04)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C04            Cements; concrete; artificial stone; ceramics; refractories(27297)
Thermal insulating glued arbolite // 2642757
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: heat-insulating glued arbolite comprises a binder -amino-formaldehyde glue - at the following ratio of components: aggregate with a fraction up to 3 mm from hardwood - 44%; amino-formaldehyde glue - 56%.EFFECT: reduced material consumption, reduced duration of holding wood particles mixed with glue in moulds.1 cl
Glaze // 2642755
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates and in particular to glaze compounds, that can be used to cover products made of porcelain, faience, majolica and other ceramics. Glaze contains the following in % wt: SiO2 33.0–35.0; CdO 13.0–15.0; B2O3 33.0–35.0; K2O 1.0–2.0; Al2O3 16.0–17.0.EFFECT: high heat resistance of glaze.1 cl, 1 tbl
ethod of preparing limestone construction rubble // 2642754
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method of preparing limestone construction rubble includes preheating limestone construction rubble to a temperature of 50-60°C, impregnating the heated rubble in an aqueous solution of lignosulfonates at the ratio of lignosulfonates: water, respectively, 1:(8-12) at intensive stirring for 20-30 mines, followed by drying the rubble at a temperature of 100-110°C to a constant weight.EFFECT: increasing the strength characteristics of limestone construction rubble while reducing the impregnation time and reducing energy costs.1 tbl, 3 ex

ethod of creating water-resistant filling mass // 2642750
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: method includes production of filling mixture by mill technology based on clinker and zeolite as binding agent, feeding it by gravity through a pipeline system and placing in mined-out space with its preliminary partial reinforcement. At that, successive supply and placement of two solutions is performed in mined-out space on level of an excavation located below pressure water-bearing horizon: first the solutions with water-resistant properties for height of not less than 1.5 m with embedding into the host rocks, and from the top of the base layer is the low-clinker under the roof of the excavation, then a drainage drift (DD) is developed in the filling mass on the contact with the host rocks along the contour of the water-resistant layer in its lower part and drainage holes (DH) are drilled out from the drainage drift into the filling mass above the water-resistant layer for complete interception and diversion of brines.EFFECT: provision of safe conditions for development of underlying mineral reserves due to complete interception and diversion of filtered brines.18 cl, 4 tbl, 3 dwg
Crude mixture for manufacturing fine-grained concrete // 2642749
FIELD: construction materials.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to the production of fine-grained concrete. Crude mixture for manufacturing fine-grained concrete contains, by weight: portland cement – 23.0–27.0; quartz sand – 60.0–64.0; superplasticizer C-3 – 0.6–0.8; technical lignosulfonate – 0.15–0.25; biocide – 0.0001–0.0002; synthetic vanillin – 0.001–0.002; water, heated to a temperature of 48–52 °C, is the rest.EFFECT: technical result is high frost resistance.1 cl, 1 tbl
Drying-type seam sealant with low water content // 2642742
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method for obtaining a granular composition of a drying-type seam sealant for joints of drywall panels, including the stages of: providing and mixing at least one binder and at least one filler, providing water, the content of which is 12-18 wt % relative to the total weight of the composition obtained, separately mixing dry and wet ingredients, combining the wet and dry ingredients and stirring them for 90 seconds with obtaining a granular mixture, 75-95% of which go through sieve No. 4. The composition of the drying-type seam sealant for joints of drywall panels, represented by a granular composition obtained by the above method, to which water is added as needed at a work site with obtaining a required consistency or viscosity. The invention is developed in the dependent claims of the formula.EFFECT: increasing the effectiveness of seam sealing.6 cl, 1 tbl
Product from chromium oxide // 2642739
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: sintered refractory product consists of an aggregate bound by a matrix, and contains oxides in percentage by weight: more than 65 of Cr2O3, less than 35 of Al2O3, 1 or more of ZrO2, at least 20 wt % of which is stabilized in the cubic and/or tetragonal form, 0.1 or more of Y2O3, acting as a stabiliser of zirconium oxide ZrO2, less than 1.9% of HfO2, wherein the total content of chromium oxide, aluminium oxide, and zirconium oxide Cr2O3+Al2O3+ZrO2 is more than 90 wt %. The product contains a coactivator that is active or inactive as a zirconium stabiliser selected from CaO, MgO,TiO2, and mixtures thereof, wherein the total content of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and titanium oxide CaO+MgO+TiO2 is less than 6.0 wt % and more than 0.5 wt %, and more than 50 wt % of yttrium oxide and co-activator are present in the matrix.EFFECT: improving the stability of refractory materials for slag corrosion and temperature changes.24 cl, 16 ex, 2 tbl

Loose mixture to form thermal insulating layer // 2642702
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: loose mixture to form a thermal insulation and levelling layer, in particular for the construction of floors, thermosetting at hydraulic hardening, wt %: from 5 to 30 of foamed polystyrene (EPS) in granular loose form, from 25 to 40 of water, from 40 to 60 of dry mixture of the mineral binder. The dry mixture of the mineral binder contains, wt %: 90 to 96 of white cement, 2 to 6 of silicic acid as a substance increasing adhesion between the EPS particles and the white cement, from 1 to 3 wt % of inactivated kaolin. The invention is developed in the dependent claims of the invention formula.EFFECT: obtaining a mixture with improved fluidity, creating from it a layer having improved physical properties in strength, thermal conductivity and sound insulation.23 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 4 ex
Phosphate compounds as adhesion promotors // 2642661
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of a phosphate derivative to promote adhesion between bitumen and aggregates in an asphalt composition. The composition contains bitumen and a phosphate derivative. The phosphate derivative is obtained as a result of: i) etherification of a polyhydric alcohol containing at least three hydroxyl groups with a carboxylic acid containing 8-24 carbon atoms or a derivative thereof, wherein at least one, but not all hydroxyl groups undergo etherification, provided that if the polyhydric alcohol contains 5 or more hydroxyl groups, then at least two, but not all hydroxyl groups will be subjected to etherification, followed by introduction of the resulting ester into the reaction with a phosphating reagent; or ii) carrying out transetherification of triglyceride under the action of glycerine, followed by reaction with a phosphating reagent. Moreover, the said composition is not a "bitumen in water" emulsion.EFFECT: proposed additive increases bitumen adhesion to acidic and basic aggregates, and demonstrates good ecological characteristics.19 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex
ethod of producing silicon carbide // 2642660
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: silicon carbide is obtained from a charge comprising nanopowder of silicon-containing (SiO, SiO2, H2SiO3) carbon-containing (a carbohydrate of the general formula Cn(H2O)m, where n ≥12; m=n-1, a polyhydric alcohol of the general formula CnH2n+2On, where n≥2, aldehyde or ketone derivatives of polyhydric alcohols of the general formula (CH2O)n, where n≥3, components, prepared in deionized water, with the subsequent stepwise heating in three stages: up to a temperature of 145-195°C with the maintaining for 1.5-3 hours, up to 800-1000°C, with the maintaining for 0.4-1 h, and up to 1450-1650°C, with the maintaining for 1-1.5 hours.EFFECT: increasing the purification degree and the yield product of the order of 80-85% 3 etc.3 ex
Raw mixture for artificial porous aggregate production // 2642616
FIELD: construction materials.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of artificial porous aggregates for concrete. Raw material for the production of an artificial porous aggregate contains by weight: a low-melting clay of 95.0–99.5, ground and sieved through a No. 2.5 kyanite sieve of 0.5–5.0.EFFECT: technical result is the simplification of the technology of a porous aggregate production.1 cl, 1 tbl
Raw mixture for manufacture of fine-grained concrete // 2642615
FIELD: construction materials.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction materials industry, in particular to the production of fine-grained concrete. Raw material mixture for the production of fine-grained concrete contains, by weight: Portland cement 24–26, quartz sand 74–76, soaked in water and sodium polyacrylate sustained before swelling, ground to form a gel-like mass, 0.01–0.1, water 11–15.EFFECT: technical result is higher strength of fine-grained concrete.1 cl, 1 tbl
Crude mixture for making bricks // 2642613
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of construction materials and compositions of crude mixtures for making bricks, which can be used to build low-rise buildings. Raw material mixture for making bricks includes, % by weight: screened sieves No. 5 sawdust 5.0–7.0; quartz sand 62.75–69.8; Portland cement 25.0–30.0; lignosulfonate technical modified LSTM-2 or LMG 0.2–0.25, at water-cement ratio 0.5–0.55.EFFECT: technical effect: high frost resistance of bricks.1 cl, 1 tbl
Glaze // 2642608
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of silicates, in particular to glaze compounds that can be used for applying to articles made of faience, majolica. Glaze contains the following, wt %: SiO2 3.0–4.0; Al2O3 52.5–53.4; K2O 5.0–6.0; B2O3 7.0–8.5; Cr2O3 15.0–20.0; SnO2 4.0–5.0; ZnO 7.0–10.0. Finely dispersed components weighed in the required ratios (residue on sieve No. 008 is not more than 5 %) are mixed. Resulting mixture is sprayed onto the surface of ceramic products in a stream of low-temperature plasma, and a glass-crystalline coating with small structure defects (micropores, gas inclusions) is formed.EFFECT: technical result is higher heat resistance of coating.1 cl, 1 tbl
Concrete mixture // 2642607
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the industry of construction materials and particularly to the production of light concrete wall blocks. Concrete mixture contains, by weight: Portland cement 1.0, foam glass treatment waste crushed to a fraction allowing to pass through No. 014 sieve – chipping, offcut – 0.15–0.25, quartz sand – 0.25–0.5, granulated foam glass with granule size of 2–40 mm and bulk density of 100–350 kg/m3 – 0.15–0.25, water – 0.75–0.85.EFFECT: technical result is higher strength of concrete.1 cl, 1 tbl

Part made of ceramic material with base and wall // 2642606
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: ceramic material part comprises a part forming a base and a part forming a wall. The base is made of ceramic material of low porosity, and the wall contains a low-porosity shell and a core inside the shell. The porosity of the core is greater than the porosity of the base increasing with distance from the base. The base and the wall are obtained by ceramic powder sintering. The wall is formed in a powder-containing vessel by selectively sintering the powder by successive layers by a laser beam or an electron beam.EFFECT: reduced level of stresses in the part base.11 cl, 5 dwg
Crude mixture for making foamed concrete // 2642586
FIELD: construction materials.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials, particularly to production of foam concrete used in low-height construction. Crude mixture for creating aerated concrete comprises, by weight: portland cement – 270–290, quartz sand – 270–290, aluminum powder – 2–2.5, sodium metasilicate – 0.1–0.15, 1 n. solution of NaOH – 1–1.5, synthetic vanillin – 0.01–0.03, water with at a temperature of 55–75 °C – 180–220.EFFECT: technical result is a simplified technology of aerated concrete preparation, increased frost resistance.1 cl, 1 tbl
ethod for production of composite carbonized products // 2642573
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method for production of composite carbonized products includes mixing of killed calcium or dolomite lime and carbonate filler in the form of waste from extraction and processing of limestones fractions up to 5 mm with to produce moulding mass, the carbonization of the products with carbon dioxide. In addition, the cutting of the products is carried out. And the moulding mass is prepared by extrusion method. Provide the extrusion moulding of the products from the moulding mass under the pressure of 55-75 kg⋅s/cm2. At the same time the wastes from stone sawing of the shelly limestones or nummulite limestones, or crushing and processing wastes of calcareous rock for break stone, or crushing and processing wastes from volcanic rocks for break stone are used as the carbonate filler.EFFECT: product strength increase.12 ex
Composition for producing heat-insulating products // 2641933
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: composition includes a binder and a light filler and further comprises carbamide-furane resin of the brand FK and a curing catalyst of the brand OK in the amount of 10 wt % of resin. Wherein an aluminium-chromium-phosphate binder is selected as a binder, and hollow aluminosilicate microspheres with a particle size of 150 to 280 microns are selected as a lightweight filler in the following ratio of components, wt %: an aluminium-chromium-phosphate binder 25-34, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres 55-69.5, a curing catalyst of the brand OK 0.5-1, carbamide-furane resin of the brand FK 5-10.EFFECT: increasing the mechanical properties of refractory lightweight heat-insulating products and reducing the heat losses from a heat-insulated surface.3 tbl, 12 ex
Gypsum composites used in fire-resistant building elements // 2641872
FIELD: fire safety.SUBSTANCE: composite product contains gypsum in the amount of 60-90 wt %, fibre in the amount of 1.5-26 wt %, essentially, uniformly distributed in the composite, and rheology modifier in the amount of 0.5-6 wt %. The composite is cured or allowed to solidify to form a cured composite. The cured composite is a fire-resistant element used in a fire-resistant core of a door, a fire-resistant door or a fire-resistant structural panel. The fire-resistant element may be a structural panel, a door panel, a door core, a door rail, a door stile, a door lock, a door frame or a door insert.EFFECT: increased fire resistance.52 cl, 30 dwg
High-strength fine grain concrete // 2641813
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: mixture for modified concrete containing portland cement, sand, nanosilica sol, white carbon, superplasticizer and water, characterized in that as a superplasticizer, a Linamix PK additive is used, with the following ratio of components wt %: sand: 66.3-67.8, portland cement 22-22.5, water 5.8-6.1, Linamix PK 3.38-3.45, microsilica 0.225-3, nanosilica sol 0.084-0.351, white carbon 0.045-0.158.EFFECT: obtaining a mixture for modified concrete of the brand by mobility P2 with a minimum consumption of cement.4 tbl

System and method of producing in situ- foam material used in place // 2641755
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: system consists of the following components: 50 to 98 wt % of one or more inorganic fillers A), 2 to 10 wt % of one or more water-soluble cationic polymers B), 0.5 to 48 wt % of one or more surfactants C), 0.01 to 1 wt % of one or more cross-linking agents D) reactive with respect to polymers B, 0 to 10 wt % of one or more additives E). The amounts of components A) -E) in weight percent are indicated in terms of anhydrous components, and the total amount of components A) -E) is 100 wt %. The method for producing in-situ foam materials includes the use of system components and foaming by means of gas or a gas mixture. In-situ foam material is used for thermal insulation, for filling cavities and hollow products and as a fire shutter or part of a fire shutter.EFFECT: producing the foam material with little propensity for shrinkage, low emission of harmful substances, suitability for cutting resulting from a short time later after foaming, a low calorific value, small smoke and lack of dripping melt when burned.16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 16 ex

Leak-tight product of high-temperature composite material, reinforced with long-length fibers, and method of its manufacture // 2641748
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: leak-tight product of one-piece structure is made of high-temperature composite material (CM), reinforced with long-length fibers, and includes the inner 1 and outer 2 shells. The airtight coating 3, compatible with the material of the inner 1 and outer 2 shells by the thermal coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE), is placed between them. The shells 1 and 2 are made of high-modulus high-strength carbon-carbon and/or carbon-silicon carbide composite material, and/or composite material, the open pores of the carbon-silicon carbide matrix of which is filled with an oxide matrix with the same composition as the composition of the airtight coating 3 material, which has Y2O3×Al2O3×SiO2 or Y2O3×Al2O3×HfO2×SiO2 composition. There is a barrier coating 4 between the coating 3 and outer 2 shells. It excludes the direct contact of the coating 3 material with carbon and/or silicon. The barrier coating is thermodynamically compatible with the said coating. There is either a barrier coating 4 too between the inner 1 shell and coating 3 or the inner shell 1 is made of carbon-silicon carbide composite material, which does not contain free silicon. The barrier coating 4 is formed on the inner shell 1 prior to the formation of the oxide coating 3, and the outer 2 shells is formed on top of the oxide coating 3. The airtight coating can be applied on the side of the outer 6 and/or inner surface of the product.EFFECT: finished products have a large thickness and high strength at reduced weight.6 cl, 2 dwg, 6 ex

ethod of producing ceramic products of complex volume form // 2641683
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method includes manufacture of a matrix, casting of a product by means of the matrix and heat treatment of the produced product. A 3D model is produced from the thermoplastic mass by additive moulding, immersed in a silicone mass to make a silicone shell, which is the product matrix. A heated ceramic slip is cast into the silicone matrix. The heat treatment of the product includes: preliminary sintering for 6 hours at a temperature of 300oC with holding for 1 hour, then the heating is continued up to 1100oC for 11 hours with holding for an hour, cooling and machining, after which the final sintering is carried out at 1450-1700oC with holding for 1 hour in air for VK-95 and in vacuum for VK-94 to produce a ceramic product.EFFECT: producing ceramic products of a complex volume form with high technical and functional characteristics.4 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
ethod of concreting at negative temperatures and ferromagnetic admixture for concrete // 2641680
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method of concreting at negative temperatures consists in adding particles of sludge from steelmaking, coated with a polyethylene shell, into construction mixture in an amount from 2 to 10% of the total weight of the construction mixture, and the impact of pulsating electromagnetic field on said particles; the exposure time depends on the ambient temperature and the volume of the construction mixture. A ferromagnetic admixture for concrete contains particles of sludge from steelmaking, coated with polyethylene shell.EFFECT: increasing the strength of structures and reducing the negative impact of concrete admixtures on the environment.2 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of calcining disperse limestone // 2641678
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method comprises homogenizing a mixture of raw components containing finely divided limestone, granulating the mixture of raw components, calcining them, and decarbonizing the granules. The granulation of a mixture of raw ingredients comprising 2-4 wt % of quenched calcium lime, 89-91 wt % of finely divided limestone, and 7 wt % of water is carried out by pressing in hydraulic presses to obtain granule-cylinders with a height and diameter of 20 mm. The granules are loaded into the carbonization chamber and the exhaust gases of calc-calcining furnace containing not less than 20% of CO2. An artificial carbonization of the granules and their calcination to a decarbonization temperature of limestone of 950-1100°C.EFFECT: improving the quality of lime and improving the environmental situation of the territories.5 ex
Reinforcing additive for concrete // 2641676
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: additive including zinc-twisted strands twisted into a bundle with a right Z-twist is described, in the form of a strip, by extruding a melt of a mixture of polypropylene-PP and low pressure polyethylene-LPPE, where the twisting is performed at a number of 40-45 twists per one running meter of fibre at a ratio components of the mixture, wt %: PP 67-73, LPPE 27-33 with additional subsequent corrugation of the said fibre. The invention is developed in dependent claims of the invention formula.EFFECT: bulk reinforcement of cement products with high strength characteristics.4 cl, 2 tbl
Wood-cement mixture with modificator // 2641548
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: wood-cement mixture with a modificator is proposed that contains crushed wood in the form of sawdust of coniferous species, portland cement, liquid glass, calcium chloride, polypropylene fibers, amorphous silicon dioxide with a nanoporous structure and a specific surface of 120 to 400 m2/g at the ratio of these components, wt %: portland cement 35.0-50.3; sawdust 45-60.3; calcium chloride 1-4; liquid glass 2-8; the said silicon 0.05 to 1.0; polypropylene fibers 0.1-0.2.EFFECT: increasing the strength and environmental friendliness of the material.2 tbl
ethod of producing raw mixture for decorative wall ceramics // 2641533
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a raw meal mixture containing slagy iron ore beneficiation waste, clay raw materials and vanadium slag including drying components, grinding the said slag and raw materials, and then mixing them, granulating to produce a granular press, its semi-dry pressing and firing is described, where the moistening of the said slagy part and granulating it in a turbolopast mixer-granulator is carried out to produce granules of an advantageous size of 1-3 mm at a rotational speed of the blades of 20-25 s-1, followed by dusting them with a mixture of clay raw material and vanadium slag with the following ratio of components, wt %: slagy part of iron ore beneficiation waste 80-88, clay raw materials 10-15, vanadium slag 2-10.EFFECT: increasing the strength and frost resistance, reducing the water absorption, producing decorative products.1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
ethod of manufacturing products under pressure from high-strength fibrous concrete // 2641363
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing products under pressure of high-strength fibrous concrete, by which reinforcement is installed (if necessary) and concrete mixture is laid in the mould cavity. Thereinafter, the mould is closed and pressure is created inside the mould by means of a press, whereby the concrete mixture is pressed out. After the concrete has gained strength, the product is released from excess pressure and removed from the mould. Wherein the concrete mixture is filled with metallic or non-metallic fibres before the concrete mixture is laid in the mould, whereby fibrous concrete is obtained. The concrete mixture laid in the mould is held therein at a pressure of not less than 2.5 MPa before gaining the stripping strength, but not less than for 240 minutes. The hardening concrete mixture is heated to a temperature of not more than 80°C due to feeding a coolant inside the mould cavity. Wherein the coolant temperature for heating up the products to be moulded should not exceed 95°C, and the temperature increase rate should not exceed 35°C per hour.EFFECT: improving the technical characteristics of products, reducing the reinforcement consumption, reducing the labour intensity and the work implementation time.4 dwg
ethod of obtaining technological trainings of ceramic articles from silicon nitride // 2641358
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing the charge by mixing in a disk mill silicon nitride with additions of yttrium oxide and aluminium oxide at a ratio of 3:5 oxides. The total amount of yttrium oxide and aluminium oxide is 15 wt % of the total amount of the charge. The obtained batch is subjected to cold isostatic pressing at a pressure of 200 MPa in silicone elastic moulds with an exposure time of 90 s. Sintering of the preform is carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 525°C/h and further exposure for 1 hour at a sintering temperature of 1650°C.EFFECT: method allows you to obtain blanks of complex shape and large size, it is possible to achieve the planned indicators.3 dwg, 1 ex
Pregelatinised starch with average viscosity range, and product, suspension and methods related to specified starch // 2641350
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: slab contains: a core of hardened gypsum, located between two covering sheets. The core is derived from a slurry containing a construction gypsum, water and at least one pregelatinized acid-modified starch. The said pregelatinised acid-modified starch has a viscosity of about 20 to about 500 cps. The viscosity is measured when the pregelatinised acid-modified starch is in the conditions according to the VMA method. The pregelatinised acid-modified starch is present in an amount of from about 0.5 to about 3% by weight of the construction gypsum. For suspension requires increased water consumption to maintain fluidity of suspensions at the same level, which would be without pregelatinised acid-modified starch. The increase was less than the increase in water consumption required for the otherwise identical suspension containing starch having viscosity higher than 500 centipoises depending on VMA, instead of pregelatinised acid-modified starch, and plate core has a hardness of at least 11 pounds (5 kg), measured according to ASTM standard with 473-10. The invention is developed in the dependent claims of the invention formula.EFFECT: improving the operational properties of the slab.18 cl, 2 dwg, 25 tbl, 15 ex
Polydisperse wood-cement mixture with nanomodificator // 2641349
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the wood-cement mixture with a nanomodificator that contains crushed wood in the form of sawdust of coniferous species, portland cement, liquid glass, calcium chloride, basalt fiber in the form of segments, amorphous silicon dioxide with a nanoporous structure, and a specific surface of 120 to 450 m2/g, with the component ratio, wt %: portland cement 35.45-50.85; sawdust 45-60.4; calcium chloride 1-4.05; liquid glass 2-8; amorphous silicon dioxide 0.05-1.0; basalt fiber 0.1-0.2.EFFECT: increasing the strength, decreasing the density and thermal conductivity of the material.2 tbl
Glass coating // 2641336
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the silicates technology, namely to glass coating compositions for articles made of ceramics and metals. The coating contains, wt %: SiO2 20.0-30.0; Al2O3 10.0-20.0; B2O3 4.0-6.0; ZrO2 31.0-34.5; CaO 2.0-6.0; Na2O 2.0-3.5; HfO2 13.0-15.0; CuO 1.0-2.0. Raw materials in the form of fine powders are mixed, the mixture is applied to the surface of ceramic or metal products in a stream of low-temperature plasma.EFFECT: high heat resistance of the coating.1 tbl
ethod of producing bismuth ferrite nanopowder // 2641203
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of a single-phase nanocrystalline bismuth ferrite powder BiFeO3 with ferromagnetic properties. The method comprises mixing bismuth nitrates Bi (NO3)3, iron nitrates Fe (NO3)3, glycerol, and water to form a solution, evaporating the resulting solution to form a gel and heating it to the flash point to form a powder. Mentioned bismuth nitrates and iron nitrates are used in the calculated amount required for obtaining bismuth ferrite, and glycine - in the amount of 35-50% less than the estimated amount. Evaporation of the resulting solution and heating to the temperature of the gel formed are performed at continuous mixing, and powder produced after flash is heated to 350-400°C over a period of time up to 30 min.EFFECT: obtaining a pure powder uniform in dispersion.8 dwg, 4 ex

Filling empty building brick with porous material // 2641154
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: building brick consists of clay or cement and has a cellular structure that contains a porous material. The porous material comprises 25 to 75% by weight of silica, 75 to 25% by weight of calcium hydroxide, and 0 to 5% by weight of magnesium oxide. The microstructure of the brick is composed of pellets and/or needle-shaped crystals to form pores with an average diameter D50 ranging from 0.1 to 10 mcm. The porous material has a porosity in the range of 60 to 95% and is contained in at least a portion of the cells of the cellular structure. The method for manufacturing a building brick comprises the following successive steps. In stage a), the open porosity of the cellular structure of the cellular brick is neutralized. In step b), a mixture containing silica, quicklime and water is produced, such that the weight ratio of water/(CaO+SiO2) is in the range of 2 to 60 and a weight ratio of CaO/SiO2 is in the range from 0.8 to 1.2. The inner surface of the honeycomb brick obtained as a result of step a) is then impregnated. Fill the brick cells with the mixture obtained in step b). Conduct a hydrothermal synthesis of bricks by heating at temperature within a range from 80 to 200°C and at a pressure of saturated water vapour that is in the range of 1.105 to 25.105 Pa, during the time of from 1 to 40 hours from the receipt of the ceramic mass. Dry the brick at a temperature ranging from 100 to 450°C, for a period of 1 to 30 hours. The block includes one or more building bricks.EFFECT: increase the thermal stability of products due to minimization of convection effects while maintaining high mechanical strength.14 cl, 11 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

ethod of processing filaments from silicon carbide // 2641045
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes the step of chemical processing the filaments with an aqueous acid solution containing hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid at a temperature of 10-30°C to remove the silicon dioxide that is present on the surface of the filaments and to form a layer of microporous carbon. This aqueous solution contains hydrofluoric acid in an amount of 0.5-4 mol/l and nitric acid in an amount of 0.5-5 mol/l, wherein the molar ratio of HF/HNO3 is less than 1.5. The invention also relates to a method of producing a fibrous preform comprising forming a fibrous structure comprising treated filaments of silicon carbide and applying the said blank to produce a part made of a composite material.EFFECT: improving the surface of the filaments for subsequent binding to pyrolytic carbon.12 cl, 2 dwg, 6 ex
Plasticiser for ready-mixed concrete mixtures // 2641040
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the compositions of additives for concrete and mortars based on portland cement. The plasticiser for ready-mixed concrete mixtures contains disodium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate and sodium lignosulfonate, with the following component ratio, wt %: disodium hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate 30-35, sodium lignosulfonate 65-70.EFFECT: increased mobility, water reduction, water resistance and preservation time of the concrete mixture.3 tbl

Composite material based on zirconium oxide // 2640853
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a ceramic composite material comprising a matrix of the tetragonal phase of zirconium oxide and a secondary phase. The secondary phase is contained in the composite material in an amount of 1-49 vol. % and can be selected from the following components: strontium hexaaluminate (SrAl12O19), fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2), yttrium-aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12), talc (Mg3Si4O10(OH)2), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), pyrophyllite (Al2Si4O10(OH)2), potassium feldspar (KAlSi3O8) leucite (KAlSi2O8), and lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3).EFFECT: increasing the mechanical properties of the composite material.12 cl, 8 dwg
Processing of fly ash and manufacture of products containing compositions based on fly ash // 2640684
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: composition based on fly ash is formed from a mixture based on fly ash, containing more than 70% of fly ash on a composition dry weight basis, a plasticiser used for binding particles of fly ash in the composition, and optionally, one or more ceramic additives. The mixture is ground so that the average particle size of the composition is less than 35 microns. A raw product of the desired shape, having a thickness of less than 40 mm, is formed from a mixture of water and the mentioned powdered composition based on fly ash and the plasticiser by pressing the mixture at a pressure of more than 200 kg/cm2, after which the water content in the raw product is less than 12% of the total mixture weight, and the bending strength of the raw product is greater than 1.5 kg/cm2. The method can optionally comprise a preliminary fly ash screening operation or a fly ash decarbonization operation, so that the fly ash has a value of POI (percentage of other impurities) less than 2%.EFFECT: products have low water content and have sufficient strength in raw state, so that they can be transported and processed using industrial equipment.17 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 5 dwg

Compositions containing furnace dust and wollastonite and methods for using thereof in underground formations // 2640621
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: method for cementing includes: providing a hardening composition containing furnace dust, wollastonite, and water. The content of wollastonite in the hardening composition forms about 1% to about 75% by weight relative to total number of cementing components contained in the hardening composition, in this case, the content of furnace dust in the hardening composition is from 5% to about 90% by weight relative to the total number of cementing components, in the hardening composition, providing possibilities for setting of the composition. The hardening composition is intended for introduction into the underground formation. The invention is defined in the dependent claims.EFFECT: decreased cost of slurry for cementing.18 cl, 4 tbl, 3 dwg
ethod of manufacturing ceramic wall products and tiles // 2640437
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: initial saponite product is subjected to electrochemical separation to obtain a concentrate - a condensed saponite product and deslimed technogenic waters. The resulting concentrate of electrochemical separation is the thickened saponite product, it contains 580-620 g/dm3 of the solid phase. The humidity of the condensed saponite product is adjusted to 7-9% by means of drying at 100-110°C for 7-8 hours. Semi-dry pressing is carried out at the pressure of 16-24 MPa. Firing the products is carried out at the temperature of 800-900°C for 1.0-1.2 hours.EFFECT: increasing the compressive strength and the bending strength of ceramic construction materials, increasing the efficiency of extracting the saponite product and desliming the circulating waters of diamond mining enterprises, expanding the raw material base and improving the environmental situation due to the use of technogenic waste.1 tbl, 8 ex
ethod of producing quartz ceramics and articles thereof // 2640326
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention for producing quartz ceramics and products thereof, including the preparation of an aqueous slurry of quartz glass, moulding of ceramic blanks by the method of slip casting in plaster moulds, the impregnation of phosphoric acid with an aqueous solution and heat treatment (sintering) of the material, characterized in that the heat treatment is carried out in two stages: first at a temperature of 1150-1220°C after moulding and drying of the workpiece, and then at 900-1100°C after impregnation with 25-35% aqueous solution of phosphoric acid.EFFECT: technological advantages, low temperature coefficient of linear expansion and high heat resistance, stability of dielectric characteristics in a wide range of temperatures, and moisture when attainment of high strength characteristics.3 ex, 1 tbl
Universal all-seasonal composition uac "vollaplast" // 2640323
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of polymer-cement compositions used as protective, finishing and decorative coatings for concrete, reinforced concrete, metal, asphalt and wood substrates during the construction, repair and reconstruction of buildings and structures of various purposes. A universal all-seasonal composition for the protective coating of building structures containing a portland cement, an aggregate, a tempering component and modifying additives comprises a mixture of polyvinyl chloride chlorinated alkyd and epoxy resins as a tempering component, a natural wollastonite as a filler, and an aluminium hydroxide, a polyamide curing agent and a naphthenate drier as modifying additives, and is prepared by adding a hardener to the mixture of the mentioned resins, stirring, then adding a mixture of a portland cement, wollastonite and aluminium hydroxide, stirring, and injecting drier and additional stirring until preparation in the following ratio, wt %: portland cement 20-30, natural wollastonite 23-27, aluminium hydroxide 10-15, mixture of polyvinyl chloride chlorinated alkyd and epoxy resins 25-35, polyamide curing agent 5-8, naphthenate drier 2-4.EFFECT: ensuring the possibility of using high strength characteristics, plasticity and adhesion properties to various building materials, including bitumen-based ones, at sub-zero air temperatures.2 tbl
Acrylic composition from two parts containing ability to cure // 2640234
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: composition comprises the liquid first part stable at storage and the liquid second part stable at storage which react with each other upon mixing with the formation of cement which hardens. The composition further comprises an acrylic monomer component and an amount of an initiator component for polymerizing the monomer component. The monomer component and the initiator component are typically in the separate parts of the two parts of the composition, so that the monomer component is stable at storage. The liquid first part contains, in a liquid carrier, acrylic polymer particles obtained by emulsion polymerization. A method for the preparation of a curable, two-part acrylic composition is also described. The composition is particularly useful when used in a syringe or a compression seal gun having at least two cylinders. A solid cement composition of bone cement, obtained by curing the acrylic composition consisting of two parts is porous and permits controlled release of antibiotics and medicines into the surrounding bone and tissue.EFFECT: low temperature of the exothermic effect during curing, the adhesion of the composition of bone cement that prevents, in particular, tissue necrosis, and the provision of the porous bone cement provides the cement mechanical properties matching the characteristics of the surrounding bone.28 cl, 16 tbl, 79 ex
Glaze // 2640215
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: glaze comprises, wt %: SiO2 59.0-61.0; Al2O3 9.0-11.0; MgO 12.0-13.0; CuO 1.0-1.5; K2O 1.8-3.0; ZrO2 2.0-3.0; 3Al2O3⋅2SiO2 10.0-13.0.EFFECT: increase in the thermal stability of glaze.1 tbl
Compositions of adhesives cured by low temperatures // 2640077
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to curable adhesive compositions, in particular for securing elements in a building shell exhibiting a degree of curing at a low temperature of, at least, 50% or more compared to that at a standard temperature. The compositions include, in the first component, a reactive resin, a monomer with a functional acetoacetoxy group, and a silane monomer. When used in phthalate-free constituents, after curing at low temperatures, an additional increase in strength and resilience of the resin can be achieved by 10% at standard temperatures. A method for delivering adhesives and the first component of a curable adhesive composition for fixing elements in a building shell or for securing structural materials in concrete or masonry are also described.EFFECT: providing the adhesive compositions, in particular, phthalate-free, cured at low temperatures.43 cl, 3 tbl

ethod of hydrochemical processing of nepheline sludge // 2640071
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method consists in hydrochemical processing og nepheline sludge for the production of portland cement clinker by the impact on the sludge with carbon dioxide in an aqueous medium at a temperature of 25-95°C for 2-6 h and subsequent treatment in an alkaline solution. Herewith the original flow of nepheline sludge is divided into two parts, one of which is subject to hydrochemical processing to obtain the product that meets a molar ratio CaO/SiO2>3, and then mixed with the second part of nepheline sludge to achieve the composition of the raw mixture required to obtain alite clinker.EFFECT: reduction of the flow of nepheline sludge entering the hydrochemical processing and materials entering the auxiliary technological operations for product separation and washing of the sludge, which results in a reduction in the costs of their implementation.12 ex, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
Carbon-carbon composite material // 2640068
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: carbon-carbon composite material contains a pyro-carbon or coke-pyro-carbon matrix and a carbon filler of the layered or layered-piercing structure based on tissue obtained by weaving high-modulus carbon fibre in their single-layer mix and piercing carbon filaments or without it. Carbon fibres in fabric have a twill or satin weave and consist of 2500÷3000 filaments with a diameter of about 8 mcm.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of the carbon-carbon composite material and the dimensional accuracy of products manufactured from it.3 tbl
Ceramic particles and method of their production // 2640057
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: proppant used to break geological formations is produced from bauxite ores and a calcium-containing compound. The proppant contains, wt %: 25-75 Al2O3, 0-70 SiO2, at least 3 CaO and less than 0.1 of cristobalite, as well as at least 5 (preferably more than 10) wt % of the calcium-containing crystalline phase constituting anorthite.EFFECT: improved resistance to crushing of proppant.19 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
 
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