Inorganic chemistry (C01)

C   Chemistry; metallurgy(318327)
C01            Inorganic chemistry(20787)
ethod of obtaining copper - graphen composite // 2642800
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: water-alcohol solution of copper sulfate is prepared, ethyl alcohol is added to it to a concentration of 37.5-42.5 ml/l, acidified to pH of 1-2 and divided into two parts. A suspension is prepared from one part, in which graphite-graphene mixture is added in an amount of 0.05-0.5 g/l and surfactants Pluronic F-127 or polyacrylic acid in an amount of 25-100 ppm, dispersed for 15-20 min. The electrochemical deposition cell is assembled, placed in a copper solution and the working voltage is fed for 20-30 minutes. Then the two-electrode cell is moved to the obtained graphene-containing suspension with surfactants and the working voltage is fed to the electrodes for 120-180 min. After the specified aging in the solutions, the electrodes are dried, and the resulting composite "copper-graphene" is separated, which has a high uniformity and crystallinity, a small crystallite size, a uniform distribution of graphene in the matrix.EFFECT: increase of the material microhardness.1 cl

Discharge camera for plasma chemical reactions // 2642798
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: discharge chamber includes two coaxial electrodes, a dielectric barrier and removable discharge initiators, installed on one of the electrodes. The dielectric barrier is located between the electrodes with gaps relative to each of the electrodes. The discharge initiators enter the annular grooves made in the electrode. The gap of H size between the dielectric barrier and the electrode with the grooves is filled with a flowing working gas. The discharge initiators are fixed in the paired annular grooves with removable clamping elements in such a way that the distance L between the areas of the above initiators, facing in the direction of the dielectric barrier, and the dielectric barrier satisfies the condition 0.25H≤L≤0.5H. The gap between the dielectric barrier and the other electrode is filled with a circulating electrically-conductive fluid.EFFECT: increase of the maximum capacity of the discharge chamber on the initiated barrier discharge of a repetitively pulsed action.4 cl, 6 dwg
Processed fillers, compositions containing them, and products produced from them // 2642795
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a treated filler comprises treating the suspension containing a raw filler that is not pre-dried using a treating composition containing a treating agent. The treating agent comprises at least one compound selected from an unsaturated fatty acid containing a linear or branched optionally substituted C4-C38alkyl having at least one carbon-carbon double bond; a derivative of the said unsaturated fatty acid, wherein at least one carbon-carbon double bond is reacted to include at least one functional group; and/or salts of the said unsaturated fatty acid. The untreated filler is selected from aluminium silicate, silica gel, colloidal silicon dioxide, precipitated silica, and mixtures thereof. The suspension of the treated filler is dried to obtain a treated filler.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the compatibility of materials with a high specific surface area with the polymer matrix into which they are incorporated, to reduce the process viscosity and to prevent the phase separation of these materials and the polymer matrix.39 cl, 10 tbl, 2 ex
Copper-zinc-chrome-aluminium catalyst production method // 2642788
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for low-temperature methanol synthesis, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene, dehydrogenation of cyclohexanol to cyclohexanone in caprolactam production. A method of producing a copper-zinc-chromium-aluminium catalyst is carried out by mixing a solution of ammonium carbonate complex of copper with zinc and aluminium compounds followed by drying, calcining, and pelletizing the catalyst mass, characterized zinc oxide and powder of aluminium oxide γ-modified with a grinding of less than 100 µm is gradually introduced into the ammonia-carbonate complex solution of copper, the resulting suspension with a ratio of solid: liquid, equal to 1.0:(12.0-15.0) is heated under stirring in the temperature range of 60-90°C to obtain a mass ratio solid: liquid equal to 1.0:(0.01-0.5), then chromic anhydride or an aqueous solution is introduced, the formed chromium-containing mass is homogenized at a temperature in the interval of 70-90°C, dried, calcined at a temperature of generating a catalyst in which chromium is in the oxidation state of Cr3+ and Cr6+, and the content of Cr6+ and Cr3+ is in relation Cr6/Cr3+, equal to 0.13 and 0.8, preferably 0.39-0.55, and pelletized.EFFECT: creation of a simple and economical technology for the preparation of a mixed copper-zinc-chromium-aluminium catalyst, which does not have harmful wastewater and gas emissions, and provides a highly active stable catalyst.2 tbl, 19 ex

ethod and system for lignin processing // 2642787
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of separating lignin from lignin-containing medium, such as liquid made in the method of processing biomass, for example, from a black alkaline solution produced in the enterprise of recycling of pulp, and processing the separated lignin, includes: the precipitation of lignin from lignin-containing liquid medium, followed by exposure of lignin hydrothermal carbonization in the wet state and the removal of carbonaceous material derived from lignin as a result of the carbonization after the implementation of the hydrothermal carbonization, the method further includes: the regulation of the particle size of the carbonaceous material by bringing the pH value of lignin in the wet state before the hydrothermal carbonization to a value exceeding 7, preferably exceeding 8. The system, a carbon-containing product and the application of the product are also declared.EFFECT: obtaining a hydrocarbon product with a controlled particle size and increasing the profitability of the process.17 cl, 2 dwg
ethod for production of porous granular ammonium nitrate // 2642669
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves the introduction of a stabilizing additive into the ammonium nitrate solution with simultaneous neutralization with ammonia. Further, the solution is evaporated to form a melt and a dispersant and a pore-forming additive are added to the resulting melt. Granulation of the melt is carried out by dispersing in the cooling air flow and conditioning of the resulting granules. Nitrogen gas is used as the pore-forming additive.EFFECT: increased absorbing and retaining capacity of ammonium nitrate granules in relation to diesel fuel, increased static strength, increased thermal stability of granules.5 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex

Improved cleaning from sulfur dioxide // 2642668
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes providing the off-gas of the melting furnace, separating sulfur dioxide from the exhaust gas to produce concentrated sulfur dioxide and exhaust gas for venting, mixing the concentrated sulfur dioxide with the fuel gas, heating the resulting mixture of fuel gas and sulfur dioxide by burning the fuel gas, contained in a mixture of fuel gas and sulfur dioxide, with oxygen so that the concentrated sulfur dioxide and fuel gas are reacted to form a mixture of gaseous products containing sulfur and hydrogen sulphide and removing most thereof, preferably substantially all of sulfur and substantially all of hydrogen sulfide from the gaseous product mixture, with the remaining mixture of gaseous products being post-burned prior to release into the atmosphere.EFFECT: invention provides a high efficiency of the sulfur extraction, the ability to use the remaining mixture of gaseous products, to reduce the fuel consumption and the absence of losses.26 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
ethod of producing silicon carbide // 2642660
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: silicon carbide is obtained from a charge comprising nanopowder of silicon-containing (SiO, SiO2, H2SiO3) carbon-containing (a carbohydrate of the general formula Cn(H2O)m, where n ≥12; m=n-1, a polyhydric alcohol of the general formula CnH2n+2On, where n≥2, aldehyde or ketone derivatives of polyhydric alcohols of the general formula (CH2O)n, where n≥3, components, prepared in deionized water, with the subsequent stepwise heating in three stages: up to a temperature of 145-195°C with the maintaining for 1.5-3 hours, up to 800-1000°C, with the maintaining for 0.4-1 h, and up to 1450-1650°C, with the maintaining for 1-1.5 hours.EFFECT: increasing the purification degree and the yield product of the order of 80-85% 3 etc.3 ex

Improved method of mass production of phosphoric acid with application of rotation furnaces // 2642651
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: (1) primary processing of raw materials, (2) preparing internal areas of the granules, (3) forming composite pellets, (4) restoring composite pellets on heating method, and (5) hydrating and absorbing phosphorus.EFFECT: energy-saving, environmentally safe and highly efficient process, which allows to produce high-quality phosphoric acid.13 cl, 20 dwg

ethod of bone processing for producing hydroxyapatite // 2642634
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method of bone processing to produce hydroxyapatite is proposed. The method includes grinding and defatting of the bones and their heat treatment. Prior to the heat treatment, a furnace with an offtake pipe is heated up to a temperature of 700-1000°C and heat treatment at the given temperature is performed. The resulting pyrolysis gases are discharged through the offtake pipe and condensed. Grinding is done to obtain fragments with a thickness of 3-8 mm, and defatting is done in boiling water, with the addition of a carbonate salt and an organic acid.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to carry out the process without the use of additional consumables, in one step, while maintaining the quality of the product obtained.2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex
ethod for producing water dispersion of carbon nanoparticles from shungit // 2642632
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: first the shungite rock is chopped. The obtained shungite powder is poured with water at a ratio of the weight of the shungite powder to the mass of water of 1: 2 and left to stand for three days, after which it is filtered. The remaining powder of shungite is dried and dispersed in water using grinding bodies with a diameter of 1-3 mm at a ratio of the mass of the shungite powder to the mass of water and the mass of grinding bodies 1: 4: 3 for 60 minutes. Then the mixture is filtered, the shungite powder is dried. Then dispersing and filtering the shungite powder is carried out in water by ultrasound in the ratio of the mass of the shungite powder to the mass of water 1:20, a frequency of 22 kHz and power of 1000 W for 35 minutes. The resulting water dispersion of carbon nanoparticles is centrifuged for 15 minutes at 10000 rpm.EFFECT: increasing the stability of water dispersion of carbon nanoparticles during storage.2 tbl

ethod of leaching wastes of enriched amorphous magnesite with solution of nitric acid // 2642577
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of leaching the wastes of enriched amorphous magnesite with a solution of nitric acid is described, in which serpentinite-magnesite screening of fraction of 2 mm was ground in a vibratory mill for 0.5 h, the resulting powder in an amount of 10 kg was loaded through a metering hopper into the leaching reactor, where after addition of 40% of the solution of nitric acid in the ratio of 1/3 g/ml, mixing with ultrasound and heating to 90°C are carried out, the leaching reaction of serpentinite was carried out for 2 hours.EFFECT: increasing the leaching efficiency.1 dwg,1 ex
ethod for stabilizing alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide // 2642571
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: components in the following amounts (mole of substance/mole of hydrogen peroxide) are sequentially added to the aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution: magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) - 0.0008÷0.0035; orthoboric acid (H3BO3) - 0.0008÷0.0035. Orthoboric acid is introduced into a solution of hydrogen peroxide after complete dissolution of magnesium sulfate. Alkali metal hydroxide is then introduced into the resulting solution in two portions at intervals of not less than 20 minutes.EFFECT: increase in the stability time of the alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide up to 1921 minutes with the use of smaller amounts of stabilizers, as well as decrease in the loss of active oxygen.3 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
ethod of clearing water from sulphates by reagent method // 2641930
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: water is treated with lime and an alumina-containing component, after which water is treated with calcium hydroxy aluminate in an amount necessary to effectively bind the sulfates, and aluminium hydroxide, which co-precipitates calcium sulfate and calcium hydroxy aluminate in an alkaline environment. The water is clarified by settling and filtration.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of water purification from sulfates with effective water softening, which leads to a significant decrease in the level of mineralization of the treated water.2 tbl,1 ex
ethod for hydroxiapatite obtaining // 2641919
FIELD: pharmacology.SUBSTANCE: to produce hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(HE)2, 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine succinic acid is added to an aqueous solution of calcium nitrate at room temperature. An aqueous solution of monoammonium phosphate is added to this mixture, dropwise, at constant stirring. The precipitate is aged for 1 day, filtered and dried.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain an environmentally friendly product with minimal power consumption and raw material costs.1 tbl, 2 ex

ethod for obtaining nanocarbon // 2641829
FIELD: nanotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying into the reaction chamber made in the form of a trunk, which is periodically closed at one end and opened at the other end, on the side of the closed end through a system of fast-acting valves and a mixer tap in the flowing mode of clean acetylene or with addition of oxygen, and then easily detonating acetylene-oxygen mixture, initiating detonation at the closed end of the chamber and after passing a detonation wave forming nanocarbon as a result of the detonative decomposition of the acetylene, wherein at the end of the cycle of nanocarbon production blowing the trunk with a gaseous hydrocarbon with a general formula CnH2n+2 or CnH2n, implementing frequency repetition of cycles in an automatic mode, and the obtained nanocarbon is collected in the manifold.EFFECT: obtaining nanocarbon of the required degree of purity by a high-productive method with increased efficiency of raw material use and explosion safety.2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of purifying waste water from molybdenum ions // 2641826
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: treatment is performed with the reagent - waste of production, which is used as iron-containing clay with an iron content of 2 to 20%, or waste of metalworking in the form of chips of non-alloy steel with an iron content of 45 to 85%, pre-treated with sulfuric acid with a concentration of 0.01 to 0.1 N for 0.5 to 1 hours, followed by standing for 16 to 24 hours. The resulting sorption paste or sorbent is introduced into the waste water, continuously mixed for 50 minutes, then left to stand for 3 to 5 hours, and the precipitate is removed.EFFECT: invention allows with a high degree of the purification to remove molybdenum ions from wastewater using natural materials and wastes with a high iron content.2 dwg, 9 tbl, 6 ex
ethod of disposing production waste containing fluorosilicates // 2641819
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: fluosilicates are treated with sodium hydroxide and/or sodium carbonate at a temperature of 80-100°C. The resulting sodium fluoride and sodium silicate solution are separated by filtration. Sodium fluoride is either isolated or treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature of 130-150°C and hydrogen fluoride is separated off, which is absorbed by water to form hydrofluoric acid. The residue obtained after extraction of hydrogen fluoride is treated with a hydroxide and/or sodium carbonate to form sodium sulfate. A solution of sodium silicate is subjected to carbon dioxide treatment and silica is recovered.EFFECT: disposal of production wastes generated during the production of phosphorus fertilizers and processing of aluminium ores is ensured, with the production of pure products from them.6 tbl, 10 ex

ethod of synthesis of new iron-containing beta zeolite for recovery of nox // 2641771
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: proposed method of synthesis of iron-containing beta zeolite with the mole fraction ratios of silica and aluminium oxide (SAR) comprising from 5 to 20, without organic structure-forming agent (SDA), except for any seed material. Beta zeolite has a silica utilisation factor of more than 30% with respect to the synthesis mixture. Iron is present in an amount of, at least, 0.5 wt % with, at least, 60% of iron present as an isolated cation at the center of the exchange.EFFECT: producing zeolite effective in the processes of catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gases.15 cl, 13 dwg, 3 tbl
ethod of cleaning melt surface when growing germanium monocrystals // 2641760
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: essence of the invention consists in extraction of slags (oxide films) from the melt surface, and from crucible walls below the level of germanium melt in the crucible. The method consists in collecting the most part of all available oxide films on the melt surface and below melt level in the zone where it adjoins the crucible by sticking thereof to a preliminarily grown crystal. The result of efficient melt cleaning is achieved by adjusting the rotation speed of the crucible, crystal, the crucible position in a heat unit, as well as consumption of working gas (argon), wherein maximum high concentration of slag on the melt surface of crystal growth zone is achieved, and it facilitates their extraction on the preliminarily grown crystal. The preliminarily grown crystal is subjected to 2-5 cycles of sharp pulling with separation of the preliminary crystal from melt and then its subsequent complete immersion into the melt, which provides separation of slag impurities from the crucible below the melt level with subsequent floating thereof on the melt surface. Subsequent drawing up the preliminary crystal in each cycle provides collection of oxide films from the melt surface onto crystallisable surface of the ingot.EFFECT: yield of monocrystals with significantly lower dislocation density, reduced risk of twinning and polycrystallisation of the ingot during the growing process and reduced average time of the growth plant working cycle.2 cl, 2 ex

Leak-tight product of high-temperature composite material, reinforced with long-length fibers, and method of its manufacture // 2641748
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: leak-tight product of one-piece structure is made of high-temperature composite material (CM), reinforced with long-length fibers, and includes the inner 1 and outer 2 shells. The airtight coating 3, compatible with the material of the inner 1 and outer 2 shells by the thermal coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE), is placed between them. The shells 1 and 2 are made of high-modulus high-strength carbon-carbon and/or carbon-silicon carbide composite material, and/or composite material, the open pores of the carbon-silicon carbide matrix of which is filled with an oxide matrix with the same composition as the composition of the airtight coating 3 material, which has Y2O3×Al2O3×SiO2 or Y2O3×Al2O3×HfO2×SiO2 composition. There is a barrier coating 4 between the coating 3 and outer 2 shells. It excludes the direct contact of the coating 3 material with carbon and/or silicon. The barrier coating is thermodynamically compatible with the said coating. There is either a barrier coating 4 too between the inner 1 shell and coating 3 or the inner shell 1 is made of carbon-silicon carbide composite material, which does not contain free silicon. The barrier coating 4 is formed on the inner shell 1 prior to the formation of the oxide coating 3, and the outer 2 shells is formed on top of the oxide coating 3. The airtight coating can be applied on the side of the outer 6 and/or inner surface of the product.EFFECT: finished products have a large thickness and high strength at reduced weight.6 cl, 2 dwg, 6 ex
ethod for producing nanocrystalline powder of molybdenum oxycarbide // 2641737
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing nanocrystalline powder of molybdenum oxycarbide includes evaporation of oxygen-containing compounds of molybdenum at a high temperature in an atmosphere containing an inert gas, followed by the condensation upon cooling. The powder of molybdenum trioxide is used as the oxygen-containing molybdenum compound, the evaporation is carried out in the presence of urea taken in the ratio of molybdenum trioxide: urea = 1:1, in terms of the plasma precondensation in the low-temperature nitrogen plasma at a temperature of 4000÷6000°C with the power of the plasma torch 2.4÷3.6 kWh at a flow rate of plasma 50÷55 m/s and a feed rate of powder of 150-200 g/h, and cooling is carried out in a stream of nitrogen, followed by the vortex cycloning and capture on the fabric filter.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain molybdenum oxycarbide with a structure of the NaCl type without foreign impurities with a particle size of not more than 30 nm in an environmentally safe manner.2 ex, 2 dwg

Beta-molecular sieve, method for its production and hydrogenation catalyst containing this sieve // 2641702
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: beta-molecular sieve, a process for its production, and a hydrogenation catalyst containing this sieve are provided. Beta-molecular sieve is characterized by the following properties: molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 is 30-150, the amount of non-frame aluminium is not more than 2% of the total aluminium amount, and the number of silicon atoms, coordinated in the Si(0Al) structure is not less than 95% of the number of silicon atoms in frame structure. The production method comprises contacting of the initial zeolite powder β with moving water vapour of normal pressure at a temperature of 500-650 °C for 5-10 hours and subsequent contacting with ammonium fluorosilicate.EFFECT: beta-molecular sieve of this invention is characterized by a homogeneous frame aluminosilicate structure, suitable acidity and appropriate pore structure, is suitable as an acid catalyst component of hydroforming and hydrocracking catalyst for diesel fuel.18 cl, 2 dwg, 9 tbl, 8 ex

ethod of producing methanol from carbon dioxide // 2641306
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: process comprises the following stages: feeding a first feed stream with high content of carbon dioxide to at least one methanisation stage and converting the first feed stream with hydrogen under methanisation conditions into high content methanisation stream, supply of high content methanisation stream to at least one production stage of synthesis gas and converting it together with a second feed stream with high content of hydrocarbons to a synthesis gas stream containing carbon oxides and hydrogen, under conditions of synthesis gas production, supply of synthesis gas stream to methanol synthesis stage integrated in synthesis cycle, and converting it into the stream of methanol-containing product under methanol synthesis conditions, separating methanol from the stream of methanol-containing product and optionally, purifying methanol up to the stream of the final product of methanol and isolation of purge stream containing carbon oxides and hydrogen from the methanol synthesis plant.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to dispose greenhouse gas with carbon dioxide to produce methanol using simple technology.15 cl, 4 dwg
ethod of producing bismuth ferrite nanopowder // 2641203
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the production of a single-phase nanocrystalline bismuth ferrite powder BiFeO3 with ferromagnetic properties. The method comprises mixing bismuth nitrates Bi (NO3)3, iron nitrates Fe (NO3)3, glycerol, and water to form a solution, evaporating the resulting solution to form a gel and heating it to the flash point to form a powder. Mentioned bismuth nitrates and iron nitrates are used in the calculated amount required for obtaining bismuth ferrite, and glycine - in the amount of 35-50% less than the estimated amount. Evaporation of the resulting solution and heating to the temperature of the gel formed are performed at continuous mixing, and powder produced after flash is heated to 350-400°C over a period of time up to 30 min.EFFECT: obtaining a pure powder uniform in dispersion.8 dwg, 4 ex
ethod for obtaining isotope variety of elementary germanium with high isotope and chemical purity // 2641126
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the development of the method of obtaining isotope-enriched germanium, which can be used in microelectronics, infrared optics, nanophotonics, fundamental physical research. The source material for the production of monoisotopic 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, 76Ge is monogermane enriched with one isotope germanium obtained in the enriched condition by the consistent separation in a centrifuge separation of monogermane with a natural isotopic composition. Germanium is isolated by monogermane pyrolysis at a temperature of 350-450°C and a pressure of 1050-1100 mbar. It is carried out in a quartz tube reactor, the inner walls of which are covered with a layer of pyrolytic carbon. After precipitation of polycrystalline germanium, it is fused directly into the reactor in a compact ingot.EFFECT: obtaining isotopes of germanium with a high degree of isotopic and chemical purity with a high yield of the product.3 cl, 4 ex

Carbon bodies and ferromagnetic carbon bodies // 2641124
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: ferromagnetic carbon body containing partially graphitized activated carbon and metal particles of a ferromagnetic metal selected from the group consisting of iron, nickel, cobalt and/or their alloys and combinations thereof is provided. The size of the ferromagnetic body is from 100 nm to 20 mm, calculated by the BET method, its surface area ranges from 300 to 1000 m2/g, the total pore volume is 0.1 to 0.6 ml/g, the average pore diameter is 3 to 8 nm. The ferromagnetic carbon body contains 10-70 wt % of graphitized carbon. A method of producing and using a ferromagnetic body is also proposed.EFFECT: producing partially graphitized body with improved characteristics, in which the number and location of graphitized carbon may be manageable.16 cl, 17 dwg, 6 tbl, 6 ex

ethod for regenerating spent sulfuric acid solution // 2641121
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: spent sulfuric acid solution is withdrawn from the circulation system and fed into a container. Mixing is carried out with simultaneous dechlorination by bubbling with compressed air for 15-20 minutes at a volume flow of compressed air of 80 m3/h per 1 m3 of the spent solution. The homogeneous acid suspension is then separated by centrifugation or filtration to a purified sulfuric acid solution and a precipitate. The purified solution is fed to a vessel for purified sulfuric acid and mixed with oleum at a ratio of 1:(0.54-0.96). The resulting concentrated sulfuric acid concentration of at least 97 wt % is fed to the circulation system. Sediment is disposed in the treatment plants.EFFECT: elimination of the discharge of a spent sulfuric acid solution containing dissolved chlorine into waste water.3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex
ethod for forming composite for obtaining electrode material of devices emerging electric energy // 2641118
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: in the flow reactor the treatment temperature is set in the range (500-900)°C, including the indicated values, ensuring the decomposition of the carbon precursor and the deposition of carbon into template uniformly distributed in the precursor preliminarily prepared by passing the inert gas flow. Then the flow of a gaseous mixture is fed from the gas-reducing agent and the carbon precursor, precipitating carbon on template and forming a graphene layer, the thickness of which is equal to 1-2 monolayers or more, is selected based on the conditions of participation of the total volume of graphene in the formation of the electrical double layer in the interaction with the electrolyte. A powder of nanoscale metal oxide particles of the second group with a transverse size of 100 nm or less is used as an inorganic template. Ready-made template can be used or produced from a precursor when preheating and when passing an inert gas stream before setting the above temperature in the reactor. Hydrocarbon of a number of alkanes, or alkenes, or alkadienes is used as a carbon precursor. Carbon deposition and graphene formation are carried out for 2-60 minutes, including the indicated values, after which the supply of the gaseous mixture is stopped and the reactor is cooled to room temperature while passing the inert gas. Argon or nitrogen is used as an inert gas at all stages. The choice of graphene thickness is combined with the choice of the specific surface of template in the range (500-1000) m2/g, including the indicated values.EFFECT: increasing the amount of stored energy per unit of weight, discharging rate, charging, prolongation of stability during the charging cycles, discharging.22 cl, 1 dwg, 5 ex
ethod for obtaining doped diamond monocrystal // 2640788
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of growing diamond single-crystals doped with nitrogen and phosphorus at high pressures of 5.5-6.0 GPa and temperatures of 1600-1750°C is carried out on the seed crystal, which is pre-pressed into a substrate of cesium chloride and separated from the source of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus with the metal-solvent, which is used as an alloy of iron, aluminium, and carbon. Between the source of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus and the seed crystal, a temperature difference of 20-50°C is created. The alloy of iron, aluminium, and carbon in the metal-solvent is taken with the following component ratio, wt %: iron 92.5-95.0; aluminium 2.5-0.5; carbon 5.0-4.0. The mixture of the source of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus is taken with the following component ratio, wt %: carbon (graphite) 95.0-97.0; phosphorus 5.0-3.0; adsorbed nitrogen 0.001±0.0005. Heating is carried out up to the initial temperature in a zone of growth at 100-250°C higher the melting temperature of the alloy of the metal-solvent, the exposure is produced at this temperature for 50 to 150 h. The mass flow rate of crystal growth is more than 2 mg/h. The technical result consists in the controlled doping the diamond single- crystal grown on the seed with impurities of phosphorus and nitrogen in the conditions of influence of high pressure and temperature.EFFECT: resulting large diamond single-crystals contain a nitrogen admixture in the concentration of 0,1-17,8 parts per million of carbon atoms and phosphorus in a concentration of 0,5-5 parts per million of carbon atoms.2 dwg, 3 ex

ethod for producing xenon concentrate and krypton from natural or associated petroleum gas // 2640785
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method is implemented by feeding natural or associated petroleum gas into the reactor. Together with natural or associated gas, dispersed water is supplied into the reactor and thermal baric conditions are created by pressure in the range from 0.1 to 20 MPa and temperature in the range from -50 to +50°C to form a concentrate of ethane gas hydrates, propane, isobutane and krypton. They are further subjected to decomposition with formation of xenon concentrate and krypton.EFFECT: increased yield of the end product.2 dwg, 3 ex

Nanotubular materials crystallising in system of k2o-tio2-x-h2o (x=nio, mgo, al2o3, cr2o3, co2o3, fe2o3) and method of their synthesis // 2640766
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: nanotubular materials crystallising in the system of K2O-TiO2-X-H2O (X=NiO, MgO, Al2O3, Cr2O3, CO2O3, Fe2O3) are characterized by the fact that in their composition up to 10% of ions Ti4+ is replaced by doping two- or trivalent metal. The method of synthesis of nanotubular materials is characterized by the fact that the synthesis of the samples is carried out by hydrothermal treatment of a pre-prepared mixture of hydroxide in KOH solution, to produce the initial mixtures of hydroxides, a solution of titanyl chloride synthesised by reaction of TiCl4 with chilled distilled water, is mixed with aqueous solutions of salts of finished elements in a predetermined ratio, and then the precipitation of hydroxides is produced by adding NH4OH to the aqueous solution mixture at pH=9-9.5 followed by washing with distilled water, drying at 70-90°C and mechanical crushing, then the crushed precipitate is mixed with 10 M KOH solution and subjected to a hydrothermal treatment at 170-180°C for, at least, 24 hours, after which the resulting product is washed with distilled water.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to synthesise potassium-titanate nanotubes with an average outer diameter of 5 to 12 nm.2 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
ethod for producing porous graphene // 2640765
FIELD: nanotechnology.SUBSTANCE: carbon source obtained from biomass, selected from the cellulose and/or lignin, is dried over a catalyst selected from a group consisting of manganese chlorides, iron compounds, cobalt compounds and nickel compounds, to obtain the first intermediate product. The weight ratio of the catalyst to the carbon source is (0.01-2):1. The obtained first intermediate product is heated in a protective atmosphere from (20-40)°C to (300-400)°C at a speed of (5-20)°C/min and held at this temperature to obtain the second intermediate product. The resulting second intermediate product is heated in a protective atmosphere to (800-900)°C at a speed of (30-40)°C / min and held at this temperature to obtain the third intermediate product. The resulting third intermediate product is heated in a protective atmosphere to (1100-1300)°C at a speed of (50-60)°C/minute and held at this temperature to obtain the fourth intermediate product. The resulting fourth intermediate product is cooled in a protective atmosphere to (900-1000)°C at a speed of (30-50)°C/min. Throughout all stages one or more gases selected from nitrogen and inert gases are used as a protective atmosphere. Agricultural and forestry wastes, for example, corn stalks or cobs, sorghum stalks, beet pulp, oilcake, plant wastes, wastes of corn cobs, wood chips, stalks of cotton and cane are used as a biomass resource at the first stage.EFFECT: method for producing porous graphene from cheap and affordable raw materials is simple, highly productive and provides improved electrical conductivity of the target product.23 cl, 5 dwg, 10 ex
Optical material of infrared range and method of its production // 2640764
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: optical material is a single crystal indium InI monochloride of rhombic syngony with a spectral transmission region of up to 51 mcm. A method of producing InI includes a pre-treatment of the initial charge by rectification, the growing of the single crystal by Bridgman method at a speed of broach of not more than 2.0 mm/h in a quartz ampoule made of glass "Pyrex", the separation of the muddy part from the end part of the grown crystal and the fourfold crystal-physical clearance obtained at the previous stage of the high-purity material by re-growing the crystal with the intermediate separation of the end muddy part of the crystal after each cleaning.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain single crystals of InI, transparent from the visible to the far infrared range of the spectrum, non-hygroscopic.2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex

Cryptocrystalline zsm-5, its synthesis and application // 2640759
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: molecular sieve contains crystals having an outer surface area of more than 100 m2/g and a unique X-ray diffraction pattern that includes: (i) the first peak with 2-theta maximum at 8.90 (±0.30) degrees, which has intensity relative to the background of ImaxA and which crosses the second peak, which has 2-theta maximum at 7.96 (±0.30) degrees, with the formation of a local minimum, which has intensity relative to the background of IminA, and the relation of IminA/ImaxA is >0.33. The X-ray diffraction pattern also contains (ii) the third peak, which has 2-theta maximum at 24.0 (±0.30) degrees.EFFECT: high catalytic activity in the processes of conversion of organic compounds.18 cl, 22 dwg, 31 ex

System and method of greenhouse gas processing // 2640616
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: system includes a collection subsystem configured to collect a gas mixture containing carbon dioxide and methane, a combustion subsystem configured to burn specified methane in the said gas mixture and to output a gaseous combustion product stream, wherein the said combustion subsystem generates electrical energy, water and specified quantity of carbon dioxide; a blower configured to introduce ambient air to the specified gaseous combustion product stream downstream of the combustion subsystem, wherein ambient air cools the gaseous combustion product stream and dilutes the specified carbon dioxide in the gaseous combustion product stream, thus forming a mixture of ambient air and combustion products, wherein the specified gaseous combustion product stream has the first concentration of carbon dioxide, and the mixture of ambient air and the combustion products has the second concentration of carbon dioxide, wherein the second concentration of carbon dioxide is less than the first concentration of carbon dioxide, wherein the said second concentration of carbon dioxide is in the range of, at least, 5 wt % to a value less than the first concentration of carbon dioxide and the branch subsystem configured to separate the specified carbon dioxide from the mixture of ambient air and the combustion products and comprising: a heat exchanger arranged to contact with a mixture of ambient air and the combustion products and capable of lowering the temperature of the mixture of ambient air and the combustion products, thereby forming a cooled mixture, a dehumidifier arranged to contact with the cooled mixture and configured to remove, at least, a part of water, thus forming a cooled and dehumidified mixture, and a material for the physical absorption, arranged to contact with the cooled and dehumidified mixture and configured to remove, at least, a part of carbon dioxide from the cooled and dehumidified mixture.EFFECT: improved processing method.19 cl, 3 dwg

ethod for building-up barrier coating on soldered aluminium electrodes of ozone generator // 2640586
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method of building up barrier coatings on soldered aluminium electrodes of an ozone generator, including the preparation of the electrode surfaces for soldering, assembly of the structure in an assembly-and-soldering device, aligning the flat surfaces of the electrode due to the directional thermal elongation of the ribs of the heat-exchanging nozzle at a temperature below the solder melting point, soldering, in the process of which under appropriate temperatures they perform metal homogenization and vacuum etching of the electrode surfaces for the subsequent creation of a dielectric barrier on them. The creation of the dielectric barrier in the form of an ordered nano-sized cellular pore structure of aluminium oxide with high dielectric permeability and tangent of an angle of dialectic losses is done by electrochemical method in 3-5% solution of oxalic acid at the anode current density of 2 A/dm2, oxidation time of 3 h and temperature of 20-25°C.EFFECT: improving the quality, reliability and efficiency of the ozone generator in production and operation based on the application of soldered aluminium electrodes with a dielectric barrier coating, formed by electrochemical method, in the synthesis of ozone.2 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of extracting metals from polymetallic raw material with regeneration of basic (nh3) and acidic (hcl) reactants // 2640552
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: to implement the method, the extraction of metals from the polymetallic raw materials is carried out by leaching with hydrochloric acid solution, the deposition of metals from hydrochloric acid solutions is carried out by ammonia, and salt NH4Clsol is crystallized from the solution. The separate production of gaseous basic (NH3) and acidic (HCl) reactants is carried out by the reaction of salts (NH4)2SO4 and NH4Cl according to the scheme: Step 1 - (NH4)2SO4sol.=NH4HSO4liq.+NH3gas (1); Stage 2 - NH4HSO4liq.+NH4Clsol.=(NH4)2SO4sol.+HClgas (2). The process is carried out cyclically with regeneration of salt (NH4)2SO4 by reaction 2 and NH4Cl - in process cycles using the said gaseous reactants.EFFECT: method provides an efficient and economical technology with a high degree of metal recovery with simultaneous regeneration of the reactants used.2 dwg, 2 ex
Compositions containing ammonium hydroxo-zinc compounds // 2640237
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ammonium compositions comprising, at least, one hydroxo-zinc compound and, at least, two compounds of the elements of the 3-rd main subgroup. The said composition can be used to make electronic components and to obtain a layer applied to a substrate followed by the thermal conversion.EFFECT: high electron mobility of electrons, favourable hysteresis and unlocking voltage.14 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

ethod for obtaining mfi zeolite // 2640236
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: MFI zeolite synthesis method involves the preparation of a precursor having a composition corresponding to the crystallization region of zeolite. The precursor is prepared by impregnating the solid particles of silica gel with a reaction mixture providing in the precursor a molar ratio of SiO2:Al2O3 not less than 30, a molar ratio of MeOH:SiO2 less than 0.3, where Me is an alkali metal, a molar ratioH2O:SiO2 in the range of 2.2 to 3.3. The precursor is then crystallized at an elevated temperature in the absence of free water. Immediately after the crystallization step, the resulting solid particles having a particle shape identical to that of the original silica gel particles are treated with water to form a slurry of zeolite crystals in water. After isolation of the zeolite particles, they are dried and, if necessary, calcined and ion exchanged.EFFECT: simplifying the process by reducing the process operations, reducing the water consumption and increasing the process efficiency while maintaining high performance characteristics of MFI zeolite.9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex

ethod for producing carboborides of rare-earth metals // 2640121
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: initial blank is shaped as a stoichiometric powder charge of low hydride phase of metal, carbon and boron, after that the initial blank is annealed in vacuum at 1100°C for 10 minutes, the blank is cooled, ground and pressed into a rod, which is annealed at 1100°C for 10 minutes in vacuum, then the produced rod is cooled, ground and pressed into a rod, then it is subjected to arc remelting on a cooled copper hearth in argon atmosphere to produce a sample containing carboborides of rare-earth metals, after which the produced sample is heated in a vacuum up to 950°C and kept at such temperature for 12 hours with subsequent hardening of the sample in water.EFFECT: production of single-phase samples of carboborides of rare-earth elements is provided.2 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex

Chemical compression reactor // 2640079
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: chemical compression reactor contains a crank mechanism, a chamber-body pair that is a reaction chamber and a body located therein for compressing a mixture of reagents as it moves between the zones of the top and bottom dead points, delimiting it when it is in the zone of the bottom dead center, the working volume in chamber, a channel for the introduction of reagents into the working volume and a channel for the withdrawal of the processed product from the working volume. The crank mechanism is made with connecting rods, which are connected with the camera-body pair, with the possibility of reciprocating movement to the zones of the top dead center and the zones of the bottom dead point of the body in chamber. In the chamber-body pair, the pressure sensors in the working volume and the sensors for withdrawal of processed product from the working volume are made. The input channel of the camera-body pair is configured to communicate with the working volume when the body is in the area of bottom dead center. The withdrawal channel of the camera-body pair is configured to communicate with a part of the working volume equal to the volume of the working volume minus the volume located between the zones of the top and bottom dead points. In the introduction and withdrawal channels control valves are installed, respectively, introduction and withdrawal. The chamber-body pair is provided with a quenching chamber configured to communicate with the working volume through a controllable withdrawal channel valve. To control the operation of reactor, a software and hardware complex is implemented, with which controllable valves, a pressure sensor, a processed product withdrawal sensor, and a crank mechanism with connecting rods are connected.EFFECT: invention ensures the continuity of processing reaction during compression, the ability to adjust the position of the top dead center, improve the purity of processed product, improve the environmental friendliness of processing process, and reduce energy costs for processing.22 cl, 7 dwg
Ferrierite with small size of crystals and method of its production // 2640072
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a crystalline microporous material having a ferrierite-type framework is proposed. For the production, a reaction mixture containing silica and alumina is used, the silica to alumina molar ratio (SAR) varying from 10 to 60. The average crystal size of the resulting material is 200 nm or less. The method includes the stage of forming the mixture for the synthesis containing a source of silica, a source of alumina, a source of alkali metal, and organic structure-forming agents. In the reaction mixture, the first organic structure-forming agent (OSDA-1) containing tetramethylammonium cation and the second organic structure-forming agent (OSDA-2), which stimulates the formation of ferrierite structure, are used. OSDA-2 includes pyrrolidine, ethylenediamine, 1,3-diaminopropane, 1-methylpyrrolidine, piperidine, pyridine, and 1,4-diaminobutane. The molar ratio of OSDA-1 to OSDA-2 is from 0.2 to 1.0.EFFECT: material is characterized by high specific surface and volume of micropores, has a high catalytic activity.15 cl, 22 dwg, 11 ex

Rotary furnace used for reduction of phosphorus-containing ore during sintering process in furnace for producing phosphoric acid and method to keep ring-shaped moulding in rear part of furnace in during sintering process for producing phosphoric acid // 2640069
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: furnace consists of a body, a box of unloading end, a box of loading end and a drive actuating the body of the furnace. At the unloading end, there are nozzles for burning fuel. A loading pipe and a flue connected to hydration tower are built in the box of the furnace loading end. There is no air duct in the upper part of the furnace body, the flue is in the zone of the furnace body radius, in which the center of the furnace is an axial line of the furnace. The direction of the flue gases in the flue is parallel to the direction of the axial line of the furnace or passes at an angle of less than 45°. During operation of the furnace, according to the technology for production of phosphoric acid by furnace method, the material is supplied in the box of the furnace loading end. The nozzles for fuel combustion are ignited, the system is heated, the material of the phosphoric ore is heated under conditions of elevated temperature, having reduced, it produces furnace flue gases. When flue gases enter the flue outlet they do not deflect significantly and prevent centrifugal physical settling at the loading end of the furnace. The metaphosphoric acid in the air enters the hydration tower immediately after the furnace flue gases.EFFECT: invention effectively solves the problem of sealing rings at the loading end of the furnace.10 cl, 8 dwg
ethod for obtaining crystalline chromium-potassium alum // 2639913
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: crystalline chromium-potassium alum is the result of the interaction of the solution of chromium-potassium alum with the solution of chromium sulphate (II) obtained by the interaction of chromium metal with sulfuric acid. The mixture of solutions is maintained until chromium-potassium alum is crystallized. The content of ions of Cr2+ is 2-3% of the total chromium content in the mixture of alum solution and chromium sulfate (II) solution.EFFECT: invention allows to produce chromium-potassium alum.1 tbl, 2 ex

Plant for hydrogen-sulphide-containing gas cleaning process // 2639912
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: plant for cleaning process of hydrogen-sulphide-containing hydrocarbon gases from hydrogen sulphide with production of elemental sulphur comprises a reactor 1 of direct oxidation of hydrogen sulphide with catalyst, a sulphur condenser 2, a sequential bubbler 3 filled with liquid sulphur, a washing counter current string 4.EFFECT: high degree of continuous cleaning of hydrogen-sulfide-containing hydrocarbon gases from hydrogen sulfide.1 dwg, 2 tbl, 6 ex
ethod of producing carbide powder // 2639797
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: carbide powder is produced under isothermal conditions in an inert gas atmosphere in an alkali metal halide ion melt, into which a carbide-forming element compound, salt or complex salt thereof, and carbon powder are introduced. Pure powders of metal carbides are produced from the series including Ti, W, V, Ta, Zr, Cr, Mo, Al, Nd, or boron carbide or silicon, ranging in size from about 10 to a few hundred nm of the stoichiometric composition with a low content of trace gases.EFFECT: increased degree of purification.1 cl
ethod for producing solution of chromium nitrate (iii) // 2639782
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for producing a solution of chromium nitrate (III) involves the reduction of chromic anhydride in a nitric acid medium. In the first step, the reduction of chromic anhydride is carried out with sugar taken with 10% deficiency from the stoichiometric amount of chromic anhydride. The subsequent reduction of the residual chromic anhydride is carried out with hydrogen peroxide. Sugar is used as a solution with a concentration of 250±5 g/l.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce the content of organic impurities in the preparation of a solution of chromium nitrate, to reduce the intensity of the reduction process of chromic anhydride, thereby reducing the formation of gaseous nitrogen oxides.2 cl, 1 ex

ethod and device for obtaining high-module liquid glass // 2639779
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology for obtaining high-module liquid glass (HMLG), which can be used as a binder in zinc-silicate formulations (paints, primers) for corrosion protection of steel structures during their contact with the atmosphere, soil, marine and fresh water, oil and oil products, in the range of acid-alkaline environments with pH ranging from 4 to 12. High-module liquid glass (m=3.8-4.5, density 1.18-1.22 g/cm3) is produced by hydrothermal processing of slurry of fine silica (10-100)⋅10-6 m and caustic alkali in a stoichiometric ratio of initial components with a simultaneous hydrodynamic cavitation treatment of the solution. Glass is produced in the device in the form of a cylindrical vessel, the bottom of which is made with a "jacket" with a heat carrier and heating elements containing a circulating system for mixing the solution. The circulation system comprises an electric motor mounted on the device cover and connected to a stirrer(s), and hydrocavitrone attached to the side wall of the vessel is built in to create the cavitation zone.EFFECT: invention allows to reduce melting high-module liquid glass, to reduce the energy costs with improved physico-chemical characteristics of high-module liquid glass, as a binder, and zinc-silicate coatings on it.2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl
ethod of producing magnetic fluid // 2639709
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a magnetic fluid consists in preparing an aqueous solution of iron and ammonia salts from iron chloride-III iron sulfate-II and adding (5-15) vol. % of aqueous ammonia, before the addition of tetraethoxysilane, at least, five times the solution of magnetic particles is purified from excess ammonia by forming a precipitate by applying a magnetic field to a solution of magnetic particles, separating the precipitate from the solution of magnetic particles, placing and distributing the precipitate in distilled water, adding tetraethoxysilane in an amount of (1.5-2.5) vol. %, and sonication of the obtained solution of magnetic particles is carried out for (2.5-7.5) min by means of a dispersant.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to shorten the duration of the process and reduce the cost of obtaining a magnetic fluid.5 dwg
 
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