Guiding or controlling apparatus, e.g. for attitude control (B64G1/24)

B64G1        Cosmonautic vehicles(2160)
B64G1/24                     Guiding or controlling apparatus, e.g. for attitude control (jet-propulsion plants f02k; navigation or navigational instruments, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. g01c; automatic pilots g05d0001000000)(201)

Spacecraft accomplished by a deorbit device, comprising a detonation engine // 2628549
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: spacecraft (SC) comprises at least one rocket propellant main tank, main drive motor, powered by a rocket propellant from the main tank, and a deorbit device. A deorbit device comprises a detonation engine powered by a rocket propellant from the main tank. A spacecraft launch vehicle comprises at least one stage formed by the noted spacecraft. In the spacecraft deorbit way the deorbit action is carried out after the main drive motor stoppage with the application of the detonation engine fueled by a propellant from the main tank under a pressure less than or equal to 10 bar. In the spacecraft deorbit way, that forms a deorbit device stage, the mentioned stage is detached from a launch vehicle after the main drive motor stoppage.EFFECT: guarantee of the spacecraft deorbit with the application of the propellant from the main tank and, hence, spacecraft weight-saving.12 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of space vehicle orbital movement correction action // 2624889
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: in the method of space vehicle (SV) orbital movement correction action during the application of test and corrective actions, the beginning of the engine combustion chamber wall heating steady-state conditions is fixed, the number of the solenoid valves actuations at the inlet to the pressure stabilization unit is recorded, the average rate of the solenoid valves operations and acceleration from the correction engine are determined. Based on the results of working off the correction plans, a set of reliable values of accelerations for further work with the space vehicle is obtained.EFFECT: providing reliable and operative correction of orbital movement with increasing its accuracy.1 dwg

Earth remote probing spacecraft control method // 2621933
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: method includes the construction of the inertial solar orientation of the space vehicle with a system of power gyroscopes, measurement of vectors and their kinetic moments, maintenance of this orientation with simultaneous unloading of gyroscopes. At the same time, in certain parts of the orbit, the operations of spinning the spacecraft, measuring and comparing with the maximum permissible level of the accumulator battery (AB) charge, monitoring the power balance of the spacecraft, unloading the power gyroscopes, charging the accumulator batteries from solar batteries are carried out in a certain combination with each other. These operations are linked to the processes of planned and unplanned Earth surface survey.EFFECT: increase of the spacecraft resource.6 dwg
ethod and device for determining orientation of space or air crafts // 2620448
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to orientation control of the space (SC) and air crafts (AC) by means of sensing elements. The device comprises orientation sensors (S) relative to the inertial coordinate system and relative to the astronomical objects positioned on the base. Each orientation S is equipped with at least six distance measurement S which arehingedly attached with ends to the orientation S and to the device base. Wherein parallel misalignment of measured segments is ensured. Distance S comprise mechanical length standard and a displacement S. S is connencted to their data processing unit. Management of orientation S displacements (in the data processing unit) is intended to eliminate the influence of errors in these S position in body-fixed coordinate axes of AC or SC (e.g., due to deformation of the structure) on the measured parameters of the craft orientation.EFFECT: increased orientational accuracy of the spacecraft or aircraft without increasing the rigidity and thermal stability of their structure.18 cl, 4 dwg
ethod and device (versions) for determining orientation of space or air crafts // 2620149
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to orientation control of the space (SC) and air crafts (AC) by means of sensing elements. The device comprises orientation sensors (S) relative to the inertial coordinate system and relative to the astronomical objects positioned on the base. Wherein each of the mentioned S is equipped with several S of measuring distances between this orientation S and the base (at least 6 S), as well as (in the version) between this S and another one (or several) orientation S. Hinge support of proximity S ends is carried out to provide parallel misalignment of measured segments. Proximity S comprises a mechanical length standard and a displacement S. Management of these displacements (in the data processing unit) is intended to eliminate the influence of errors in orientation S position in body-fixed coordinate axes of SC or AC (e.g., due to deformation of the structure) on the measured parameters of the craft orientation.EFFECT: increased orientational accuracy of the spacecraft or aircraft without increasing the rigidity and thermal stability of their structure.15 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of spacecraft spatial orientation control and control system for its implementation // 2618856
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: in the method of spacecraft orientation control a reference vector of the orientation output angular velocities are formed, the vector of the orientation output angular velocities is increased and sum it up with control signals vector. The spacecraft orientation control system contains a controller block model, actuators block model, spacecraft model without cross feedback, angle sensor block model, angular velocity sensors block model, amplifier module, summing amplifier, angle selector block output through the series-connected regulators block model, actuators block model, spacecraft model without cross feedback, angular velocity sensors block model. Summing amplifier and amplifiers module are connected to the fourth input of block regulators, angle sensor block module output is connected to the second controller block module input, the third input of which is connected to the angular velocity sensor block model output.EFFECT: increase of control accuracy of orientation, step response quality and reduction in energy consumption for orientation control.2 cl, 7 dwg
Spacecraft control method for flying around moon // 2614464
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: method comprises undocking the SC from Earth orbital space station (OSS) and transferring to flight path to the moon. Then SC is placed into selenocentric orbit. After being there a specified time the SC is transferred to the flight path to Earth in a plane coinciding with the plane of the original OSS low earth orbit at a specified docking point. In order to accomplish that, SC orbital plane change is performed on the selenocentric orbit at a predetermined angle. Further, SC drifts down until the height of the OSS orbit by several brakings in the Earth's atmosphere. Then the SC is docked again with OSS.EFFECT: possibility of multiple flights, for example, between near-earth and near-lunar OSS at relatively low reference speed input and in a time of about 15 days.6 dwg
Spacecraft control method for flying around moon // 2614446
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: method comprises undocking of the spacecraft (SC) from the low-Earth orbital space station (OSS) and transferring to flight path to the moon with returning back. SC drifts down until the height of the OSS orbit upon returning to Earth by several brakings in its atmosphere. Node line of SC orbit is turned for plane alignment of the OSS and SC orbits after the first passage of the atmosphere at the point of intersection of these planes. In order to accomplish that, corresponding impulse is applied to the spacecraft perpendicular to the plane of the arrival orbit. Then the SC is docked again with OSS. The method will allow to fly around the moon and return to the initial low-Earth orbit in 6.5 days with reference speed input of about 1.7 km/sec.EFFECT: final adjustment of spacecraft designed for multiple flights between low-Earth orbit and lunar OSS.5 dwg

ethod and system for aircraft piloting control with rear-mounted propulsion unit // 2614432
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the traffic control of non-rigid aircraft (1) with the motor (2). Piloting control is implemented by the control system with measuring device (3A), located near the rear end (1R) of the aircraft. The device (3A) determines the orientation (θM) of the aircraft, as well as measures the angle (δθM) and linear (δyM) aircraft deformations at the point (M) near to the rear end. Based on the latest mentioned, the aircraft orientation is improved and the engine (2) orientation (β) is corrected.EFFECT: increasing of the control accuracy, with the weakening of the requirements to the aircraft design stiffness.4 cl, 5 dwg

ethod for orientation of orbital spacecraft with software-controlled solar panels // 2613097
FIELD: aviation.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the apparent motion control of spacecrafts (SC) with predominantly monoaxially rotating solar panels (SP). SC oriented along the local vertical during the flight rotates continuously on course, the SP are simultaneously and continuously turned to the sun with the normal. The algorithm of the SC and SP control is implemented by mathematical relations received in the final form. SC and SP angular spin rates at the moment of sunset are stored and saved to maintain SP orientation to the sun in the shadow areas of the orbit.EFFECT: simplified and increased self-sufficiency of the spacecraft and solar battery controlling means.2 cl, 3 dwg

Artificial satellite // 2612312
FIELD: physics, navigation.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the means of spacecraft motion control, namely to electric (plasma) rocket engines for orbit correction for artificial, mostly low-orbit satellite of a planet with atmosphere. The small capacity rocket engine uses a high density metal wire as the working medium. The wire is placed on the inner surface of the satellite body, providing together with the sheath the necessary rigidity at the satellite insertion stage.EFFECT: invention provides an artificial satellite with a long service life in orbit and optimal weight characteristics.2 dwg

Autonomous satellite orbital system of deviation from space debris // 2608899
FIELD: space.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to control over artificial satellites in order to prevent their collision with space debris. Onboard system of the satellite by radar means determines the probability of such collisions from all directions inside a spheroid around the satellite. At sufficiently high probability the system calculates the deviation path basing on ephemeris data for the satellite and the debris generated by itself. Path is implemented by low-thrust engines when following the requirement of minimum change of the satellite orbit.EFFECT: technical result of the group of inventions is improved reliability and simplified procedure of deviation from the satellite collision with space debris in autonomous or semi-autonomous mode.32 cl, 4 dwg

ethod for controlling spacecraft motion on active section of placing it into the orbit of planet artificial satellite // 2596004
FIELD: space.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling spacecraft (SC) motion by jet and aerodynamic means. At the final stage of the method implementation - after reduction of aerodynamic force to value of smaller order than gravity force - controlling is performed by engine thrust vector from conditions of minimizing the required power consumption and providing high accuracy of forming the given orbit. First condition is ensured by minimum possible attack angles, providing placing into the orbit. Second condition is ensured by using adaptive algorithm, forming control action depending on current and final positions of the SC.EFFECT: technical result is higher efficiency of controlling spacecraft motion by placing SC into the orbit of planet artificial satellite by improving energy indicators, higher accuracy and stability.1 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of controlling spacecraft motion when landing in a given region of the planet surface // 2590775
FIELD: astronautics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control spacecraft (SC) in the atmosphere. Method involves the change of aerodynamics of spacecraft, which provides its seating in preset area of planet surface. Spacecraft descent path is divided into two conditional sections. At the first of them intensive turning of spacecraft course in a position where its speed vector falls in vertical plane passing through the given point of landing. Then the spacecraft flight in formed vertical plane, where by controlling the angle of attack to achieve the required longitudinal range descent.EFFECT: high accuracy of landing in a given region of the surface of the planet.1 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of manoeuvring deviation of spacecraft on orbit from collision with other bodies // 2586920
FIELD: astronautics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to protection of space vehicles (SV) against collision with other orbital bodies, in particular, space debris. Method consists in pulse repulsion and separation of cable connected modules forming SV, to their exit from dangerous zone. After cable deployment and fixation of its length modules ligament is switched to associated pendulum motion mode. At its end is mutual approach modules by cable is performed, and further docking. Cable supply and pulling are made with constant tension force, overload of which is proportional to modules repulsion velocity pulse value.EFFECT: simple technique, facilities and control algorithms over such SV evasive action.1 cl, 4 dwg

Propulsion system of space object and hydraulic condenser therefor // 2583994
FIELD: space.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and can be used in propulsion units of space objects. Propulsion unit of space object comprises a cryogenic tank with a delivery valve and booster by a turbo pump, high-pressure cylinder with gaseous cryogenic component for booster turbopump turbine spin-up, cruise engine with turbo pump unit, hydraulic capacitor. Hydraulic condenser comprises casing with damper pipe with wall with holes directed along flow of liquid cryogenic component from cryogenic tank in cruise engine.EFFECT: invention improves energy and weight characteristics of propulsion units of space objects.2 cl, 2 dwg

Control method of preparation and launch of carrier rocket and system for its implementation // 2583733
FIELD: cybernetics.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in automated control systems of preparation for starting and conducting launches carrier rockets space different class, as well as in automated control systems for assembly processes and testing complex technical objects. Method allows visualising controlled parameters of the object, work stroke with the object and prompt formation of control and information message. System in addition to the imaging unit of controlled parameters and storage unit for scheduled, actual and archive charts of operations on the object includes a unit of manual, automated and automatic generation of control messages.EFFECT: technical result consists in providing parallel control parameters of the object and running operations with the object, which reduces probability of emergency situation.8 cl, 4 dwg

ethod of connecting space objects in space // 2583255
FIELD: space.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of creating link between spacecraft and space object in space. Method includes controlling position in space of a cable (2), deployed on board spacecraft (1), using video sensors (4) on spacecraft and/or position sensors (5) on cable. Method includes entering into spacecraft control system a model of a cable describing its configuration and its change over time. Method includes moving spacecraft on a trajectory M0, M1, M2 ... Mn its center of mass using orientation motors (6) and traction (7), forming a node configuration (8) around space object (3). End of cable (2) can be attached to space object (3). Tightening node to space object is carried out by further movement of spacecraft, for example, similar towing.EFFECT: technical result consists in broader capabilities of cable systems when solving conventional and new tasks of controlling movement of various space objects.2 cl, 7 dwg

ethod of generating control signals for outer propulsion system of unmanned aerial vehicles in carrying out maneuvers on spatial ballistic launch phase // 2581791
FIELD: space.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and can be used when generating control signals for switching engine of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) when performing spatial manoeuvre on ballistic flight path segment. Method includes storing up to start of a multi-stage launch vehicle (LV) an electronic-digital flight mission, measuring kinematic parameters of active portion of flight path of last stage of multi-stage rocket, storing measured parameters of active portion of flight path of a multi-stage rocket flight of the last stage, measuring and storing kinematic parameters of centre of mass of cosmic movement UAV and time since formation of control signal for separating space UAV from the last stage of launch vehicle, comparing measured values of kinematic parameters of motion of centre mass of space UAV with calculated values of flight task, generating a signal of possible discrepancy between measured and given in flight task kinematic parameters of space UAV motion centre of mass towards its reduction to zero, generating a control signal of flight task for switching correction engine of space UAV to perform an avoidance manoeuvre.EFFECT: generation of control signals for switching engine of space unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in spatial manoeuvre on ballistic flight path segment.1 cl, 1 dwg.

ethod of spacecraft orientation when conducting experiments with scientific equipment for the study of convection // 2581281
FIELD: spacecraft.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft (SC) attitude control. Method includes spinning of spacecraft, measuring the distance from the scientific equipment of spacecraft for the study of convection to the spin axis, measuring and fixing the temperature in the equipment, as well as the angular velocity of the spacecraft. Velocity of the spacecraft spin is changed, taking into account interrelated changes in these measured parameters.EFFECT: technical result of the invention is to provide opportunities to study the effect of microgravity on the level of the process of convection in controlling the orientation of the spacecraft.1 cl

Correction method and orbital gyrocompass device designed for controlling spacecraft angular motion // 2579406
FIELD: space technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and can be used for spacecraft (SC) controlling. Device of orbital gyrocompass (WGC) for spacecraft angular motion control contains device for orientation by Earth, adders, integrators, newly introduced adders and integrators, correction modules, modules for compensation of interference between channels, gyroscopic angular velocity metering unit. These devices measure signals and WGC output signal in channels of roll, add autocompensation signal defined depending on new and existing correction signals, roll signal from device for orientation by Earth, WGC output roll signal, integration factors, correct readings of gyroscopic angular velocity metering unit simultaneously in roll and heading channels, provide in roll and heading channels with data of SC orientation.EFFECT: invention improves accuracy of spacecraft angular motion control.2 cl, 4 dwg

ethod of orienting spacecraft using gimballess orbital gyrocompass and system therefor // 2579387
FIELD: astronautics.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for orientation of spacecraft. Spacecraft orientation system using gimballess orbital gyrocompass (BOGK) comprises a device for orientation on ground (POZ), a unit of gyroscopic angular velocity meters (BIUS), program control module (PMU), eleven adders, three amplification modules (MU), five integrators, four module interference compensation channels (MKVK), cosine converter (KP), sine converter (SP), two switches. In steady-state orientation is measured signal difference of POZ and output signals BOGK in channels of roll and pitch, to correct readings and BIUS in channels of roll and heading, pitch, course turn by 90 degrees with substitution of bank gyrocompassing channel with pitch gyrocompassing channel, continued oriented orbital flight is in signal correction in pitch channel signal error autocompensation POS pitch BOGK correction signal is calculated in pitch channel, is waited for completion of transition processes in circuit of orientation, stored accumulated signal value autocompensation in pitch channel and is switched off its accumulation is rotated back spacecraft course, reverse substitution of roll and pitch channels BOGK, BOGK correction channel is added to pitch signal value autocompensation as correction for deterministic BOGK orientation error in pitch channel, calculating correction signal in pitch channel, introduced into difference signal for channels of roll and heading signal autocompensation deterministic errors POS bank, new BOGK correction signal is calculated in channels of roll and heading.EFFECT: compensation for errors in spacecraft orientation relative to orbital coordinate system.2 cl, 2 dwg

Navigation satellite orientation method // 2569999
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling orientation of navigation satellites with antennae and solar panels. The method includes orientation of the electrical axis of the antenna (first axis of the satellite) towards the Earth and orientation of solar panels towards the Sun. The latter is achieved by turning the satellite along with the solar panels around said first axis and turning the solar panels around a second axis, perpendicular to the first. Predicted satellite motion is facilitated when passing through special parts of an orbit, which include eclipse portions and portions with large Sun-satellite-Earth angles (greater than 175°). This is achieved through preemptive programmed turns around the first axis of the satellite, which are symmetrical relative to points of the orbit responsible for maximum and minimum Sun-satellite-Earth angles.EFFECT: reduced error when predicting the movement of the centre of mass of a satellite and the error in knowing the position of the phase centre of an antenna.4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Spacecraft stabilization system // 2568527
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: claimed system comprises engine plant with spherical oxidizer and fuel tanks, rocket engine, pitch and yaw control channels with angle, linear departure and speed transducers, summation amplifier, servo units, integrators, two logical units, valves and low thrust engines.EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency of spacecraft stabilization.3 dwg

Control over space object motion after separation from other space object // 2568235
FIELD: physics, control.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control over motion of space object, for example, manned spacecraft, after its separation from the other space object, for example, carrier rocket. Spacecraft turn to required orientation is started at time moment ∆t counted down from spacecraft separation from carrier rocket. Spacecraft initial orientation is defined by carrier rocket nominal orientation at the moment of separation. After activation of spacecraft control system pickups in time moment ∆t received are data on spacecraft current angular velocity. Spacecraft angular motion model based on Euler equation is used to evaluate by back integration the spacecraft angular velocity at the moment of separation from carrier rocket. Then, initial conditions obtained with the help of said angular motion model are used to define (by forth integration) the spacecraft current orientation parameters. Train of pulses are applied to spacecraft their magnitude being defined by the difference between current and required orientation of spacecraft.EFFECT: accelerated orientation after spacecraft separation from carrier rocket irrespective of light-and-shadow conditions in orbit.6 dwg

ethod of spaceship bank orientation and device to this end // 2567312
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: claimed device comprises eleven adders, five amplifiers, five integrators, three NC switches, four memory units, model of the main orientation circuit, flywheel engine, airship, two units of net delay, astrotransducer and main orientation circuit. Setting signal is generated to measure bank angle. Error signal and bank angle evaluation signal are defined. Angular speed evaluation signal and error evaluation signal are defined. Control is generated from error signal and angular speed evaluation signal. Control is generated from error evaluation signal and angular speed evaluation error signal. Determined is the signal of first difference in control evaluation signal and control signal. Control signal is summed up with the difference signal first integral to define the second bank angle evaluation difference signal. First correction signal is memorized and summed up with error evaluation signal. Second correction signal is memorized and summed up after astrotransducer failure with the error correction signal. Bank angle evaluation signal is summed up with error signal.EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of spacecraft orientation and device to this end // 2565426
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: claimed process involves the increase in calculation and change on control signals to spacecraft actuators. Note here that spacecraft angular motion parameters are measured, their boundary magnitudes as well as angular acceleration magnitudes and durations being calculated. The latter at two-time actuation of actuators at stabilization make characteristics of intermittent and continuous control modes comply. Moments of angular motion parameters decrease to magnitudes not exceeding noise components of errors in their measurements, hence, they cause the decrease in durations of the next control accelerations. Orientation system comprises angular velocity meter, outer data transducer, actuator and computer with orientation definition unit and extra units: actuator IN-state duration calculator, angular acceleration execution and damping factors setters.EFFECT: lower load at computer, higher accuracy of evaluation of angular motion parameters.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of spaceship bank orientation and device to this end // 2564936
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to orientation of spacecraft. Claimed spacecraft orientation device comprises ten adders, four amplifiers, flywheel engine dummy, flywheel engine, two memory units, N.O. switch, three N.C. switches, celestial sensor, the main orientation circuit, spacecraft and main orientation circuit simulator.EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.1 dwg

Deployment of space rope system at delivery of lander from orbital station to ground // 2564930
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control over displacement of space objects tied by the rope. Proposed process comprises disconnection of said objects to impart to the lander of initial velocity of blowup against orbital velocity vector. Then, the rope is released at invariable tension force at lander ejection to change the bundle into tail pendulum motion mode in shockless manner to fix the rope length. Said rope is cut when lander passes the local vertical of orbital station. Acceleration of said rope tension force at separation of lander from orbital station is J¯=0,0534⋅ΔV¯, where ΔV¯ is the magnitude of transversal impulse of repulsion velocity. These data are related to appropriate parameters of starting circular orbit.EFFECT: ruled out sections of lander return motion with the rope, simplified control over descent.4 dwg

Low-thrust modular engine unit // 2563923
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: this unit comprises load-bearing frames with spherical fuel tanks secured thereat and inclined to unit axis and deformable metal webs to divide said frames to liquid and gas chambers. Besides, it includes compressed gas tanks, liquid-propellant jets of orientation and stabilisation, correct-and-decelerate jet, ACS units, pipelines interconnecting the elements of systems secured at load-bearing frames. This unit is composed of three self-contained modules, i.e. fuel tanks module, module of supercharging and correction deceleration jet system module and orientation and stabilisation engines module. First and second modules are connected by pneumatic lines and fluid lines incorporating breakage membranes and split joints.EFFECT: enhanced operating performances, higher reliability and safety.6 dwg

Control over spacecraft deorbit from earth artificial satellite orbit // 2561490
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering, particularly, to control over spacecraft. Craft onboard means are used to define coordinated of power plant activation, magnitude and orientation of pulses of the spacecraft characteristic speed. Note here that engine thrust vector rational control is optimised. Proposed method consists in sequential feed of two pulses of characteristic speed. First pulse is fed in spacecraft flight plane against the vector of its velocity for deorbiting. Second pulse is fed in direction perpendicular to the flight plane for control over lateral range.EFFECT: power saving, optimised control, higher accuracy of landing on small-size sites.2 dwg

Spacecraft control system // 2560204
FIELD: physics; control.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automatic control systems for aerospace objects primarily operating in extreme environmental conditions. An automatic control system comprises series-connected sensor array, information collection unit, control computers and channel switch, controlled by a control unit. The control computers are connected to actuating elements of the control object. The automatic control system also includes a gimballess inertial navigation subsystem with corresponding sensors and (neural) computers. The automatic control system has, connected to the information collection unit, standard satellite navigation equipment and an original optical correction subsystem with sensors of different spectral ranges, microprocessor and other elements. The automatic control system includes a storage device which stores restart arrays for restoring operating capacity of control computers after a pulse of ionising or electromagnetic radiation. Parametric failures are fixed by a secondary (constant and pulsed) power supply controlled from the control computers by field-effect transistor circuits. All means of fixing catastrophic failures have internal backup with monitoring of operation thereof and switching to a properly operating channel.EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy of operation of an automatic control system for a long period of time in conditions of external destabilising factors and wider field of use of the automatic control system.28 cl, 30 dwg

ethod of independent collocation in geostationary orbit // 2559371
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and can be used for independent collocation in geostationary orbit. Inclination and eccentricity vectors are changed to boundaries of aiming areas spaced apart relative to each other. Spacecraft orbit parameters are measured to define current orbital parameters of every spacecraft. Spacecraft with self-collocation is brought to preset retention area in latitude and longitude Pattern of control over adjacent spacecraft gravity centre control is revealed. Aiming area centre position is refined relative to adjacent spacecraft inclination. Inclinations of self-collocation spacecraft orbit in phase plane with allowance (current direct Sun climb), adjacent spacecraft orbit nodes lines and centre are corrected. Low-thrust engines are used to correct period of orbit revolution, inclination and eccentricity, or deviation in the case of dangerous approach.EFFECT: ruled out radio interferences, self-collocation by control centre.4 dwg

ethod for monitoring collocation at geostationary orbit // 2558959
FIELD: physics; control.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling movement of a group (cluster) of spacecraft, primarily geostationary satellites. According to the method, the nodal lines and apsidal lines of orbits of monitoring spacecraft and adjacent spacecraft are kept orthogonal. The sum of eccentricities of the orbits must approximately 0.0004, and the inclination of the orbit of the monitoring spacecraft relative to the orbit of the adjacent spacecraft must not be less than (14-15) arcseconds. To this end, regular adjustments are made to keep the ends (phase) of inclination and eccentricity vectors in the required aiming regions. Longitudes (orbital periods) are also adjusted so that the origin of the coordinate axes (deviations along the orbit and on the radius vector) coincides within given boundaries with the centre of the distancing ellipse from the adjacent spacecraft. The centres of the aiming regions are redefined when adjusting the strategy of controlling movement of the centre of mass of the adjacent spacecraft. When the reception level, at the monitoring spacecraft, of radiation of antennae mounted on the adjacent spacecraft falls, a switch is made to a mode for receiving information from ground-based antennae for the adjacent spacecraft. In case of consistent reception, at the monitoring spacecraft, of signals of said antennae of the adjacent spacecraft, direct around-the-clock monitoring of the adjacent spacecraft with two monitoring spacecraft is carried out within 12 hours. Said monitoring spacecraft are located at diametrically opposite sides of said distancing ellipse.EFFECT: maintaining spacecraft at an operating position without interfering with other spacecraft and monitoring of adjacent spacecraft.3 cl, 6 dwg

Reservation of spacecraft in geostationary orbit // 2558530
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control over geostationary spacecraft during reservation and timely putting into operation. At passive spacecraft draft from starting position of reservation (SPR) to working orbital position (stay point) minimizes power consumption of spacecraft onboard systems. For this spacing between SPR and stay point is selected with due allowance for guaranteed term of vacant spacecraft and time for placing of spacecraft to SPR. Spacecraft is changed over to duty mode and, then, to hardware spin-up mode. Reservation terminated, spacecraft us removed from spin-up mode.EFFECT: correction system working fluid saving, decelerated replacement of spacecraft.1 dwg

ethod of correcting orbital motion of spacecraft // 2558529
FIELD: physics; control.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling spacecraft motion using a correction jet engine. The method includes applying test and corrective action to the spacecraft. For each said actions, the rate of heating of the walls of the combustion chamber of the correction engine is determined. A transformation coefficient is determined from test data (trust and rate of heating). The thrust of the correction engine is calculated by multiplying said coefficient with the rate of heating for corrective action. A set of accurate correction values for further operation of the spacecraft is obtained by processing correction plans.EFFECT: high quality of maintaining (including reliability and rapid correction) spacecraft in a given region, particularly on a geostationary orbit.

Power supply and control method for spacecraft correction system // 2549318
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to space engineering and may be used for spacecraft correction by means of electric propulsion plasma engines (EPPE). EPPE are selected for switching on, required time of EPPE operation is selected, used and unused electrodes of the engines are selected and connected to the power supply sources by means of contactors, the power supply sources are switched on and off for EPPE start-up and operation within the required period, high-ohmic resistive network if formed for discharge of electric charge from EPPE electrodes to the spacecraft frame, two modes are formed for commutation of the engine electric circuits, the main and reserve power supply sources with capacitive filters are connected to electrodes of non-operating EPPE, electric circuits of the selected EPPE remain connected to the used power supply sources, electric circuits of the other EPPE are switched off from the used power supply sources and still left connected to the unused power supply sources, the used power supply sources are switched on and off in compliance with the defined algorithm.EFFECT: invention allows increasing reliability of spacecraft correction system.4 dwg

ethod for orientation of artificial earth satellite // 2544021
FIELD: physics, control.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling orientation of artificial earth satellites with solar panels. An artificial earth satellite (3) further includes a self-contained circuit for controlling orientation of the artificial earth satellite relative to the direction towards the sun (2). Upon violation of accuracy of said orientation, orientation of the artificial earth satellite is stopped using an on-board computer simultaneously relative to the direction towards the sun and the earth (1). Said self-contained circuit is turned on, and the solar panels (5) are installed in a fixed position relative to the body of the artificial earth satellite to achieve maximum illumination thereof. Resumption of orientation of the artificial earth satellite using the on-board computer is carried out at a radio command from the earth. The accuracy of orientation of the artificial earth satellite towards the sun can be evaluated from current parameters of the power supply system of the artificial earth satellite. A sign of violation of said orientation can be the beginning of operation of the power supply system in discharge mode of on-board batteries when flying outside shadow portions of the orbit (4).EFFECT: providing longevity of an artificial earth satellite during prolonged self-contained operation thereof in space.3 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of control over program turn of accelerating unit // 2541576
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for control over program turn of accelerating unit with the help of fixed constant-thrust engines of orientation. Angular velocity is increased at acceleration and inertial flight and decreased to zero at deceleration and pulsed initiation of orientation engines. Level of fuel component in the tank that brings about the most tangible effect on turn dynamics is measured Angle mismatch and acceleration unit angular velocities are intermittently measured at turn as well as deflection of said fuel level from acceleration unit lengthwise axis Orientation engine are shut down at the ends of acceleration path and switched on at deceleration start path.EFFECT: acceleration unit turn with damping of fuel components oscillations at ramming engine operation path section.6 dwg

ethod of control of orientation of space transport cargo ship with stationary solar battery panels during works in conditions of rotary motion // 2539271
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to control of orientation of a space, in particular, a transport cargo ship (TCS) with stationary solar battery panels (SB). The method includes the rotation of TCS around a normal to the working surface of SB facing towards the Sun with an angular speed of at least 1.5 deg/sec. Meanwhile within the time interval of at least one round the components of the angular speed of TCS in a structural coordinate system are measured. Using the measured values, directions of the main central axes of inertia of TCS are determined. Among these axes an axis other than the axis of the minimum moment of inertia and making the minimum angle with the normal to the working surface of SB is found. The angle between the direction towards the Sun and the plane of the TCS orbit is determined. If this angle exceeds a certain value depending on the specified minimum angle and also - on the minimum and maximum SB currents, TCS is turned. Meanwhile the named found inertia axis is combined with the direction, perpendicular to the orbit plane and making a sharp angle with the direction towards the Sun. TCS is rotated around this axis towards the direction opposite to orbital rotation. During the rotation the current from SB is measured. At the achievement by the current of the minimum value TCS is again turned until the alignment of the named found axis of inertia of TCS with the named perpendicular direction and again the named rotation of TCS is performed.EFFECT: ensuring of the necessary power return of SB in the mode of TCS rotation around one of its actual main central axes of inertia at maintaining of the axis of the minimum moment of inertia in the orbit plane.1 dwg

Control over orientation of supply spaceship with stationary solar battery panels at jobs under conditions of spinning // 2539266
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Angle between direction to the Sun and spaceship orbit plane is defined. Spaceship orbit height is defined to determine the half-angle of the Earth disc visible from spaceship. In case said angle exceeds said half-angle the spaceship gravity orientation is constructed at aligning the axis of its minimum moment of inertia that makes the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface, with direction to the Earth centre. Spaceship gravity orientation is maintained by spinning it around the axis of minimum moment of inertia at angular velocity defined from the condition of stability of the given gravity orientation of spaceship.EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.1 dwg

Control over orientation of supply spaceship with stationary solar battery panels at jobs under conditions of spinning // 2539068
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering. Proposed method comprises supply spaceship spinning around perpendicular to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun at angular velocity of at least 1.5 degree/s. During said spinning at time interval of duration making at least one circuit supply angular velocity components are measured in structural system of coordinates. Measured magnitudes are used to define the directions of the main central axis of inertia of supply spaceship. Spaceship is turned to alignment of the central axis of inertia making the minimum angle with perpendicular to solar battery working surface with direction to the Sun. Spaceship is spun around spaceship around said axis to measure solar battery current. After current reaches minimum permissible magnitudes spaceship is, again, turned to align said axis of inertia with direction to the Sun. Again, spaceship is spun around said axis.EFFECT: higher power yield of solar batteries owing to radiation reflected from the Earth at spaceship gravity orientation with spinning with allowance for actual main central axes of inertia.1 dwg

Spacecraft power plant // 2539064
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and can be used in spacecraft engines. Power plant comprises cryogenic tank with shield-vacuum heat insulation and channel with heat exchanger, flow control valve, booster pump, intake with capillary accumulator with heat exchanger and throttle and hydropneumatic system with pipeline. Channel cross-section sizes comply with maximum outer sizes of heat exchanger cross-section.EFFECT: cooling of cryogenic component in capillary accumulator.3 dwg

ethod of control over spacecraft descent in atmosphere of planets // 2537193
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft control in atmosphere of planet by adjusting its aerodynamics. Spacecraft velocity in atmosphere at initial flight part increases (spacecraft flies toward conditional orbit pericentre). Atmosphere density is low yet to cause notable spacecraft deceleration. As spacecraft reaches atmosphere dense layers its velocity decreases to reach atmosphere enter velocity for angle of roll (γ) γ=π to be changed to γ=0. This manoeuvre allows changing the spacecraft to flight part with maximum aerodynamic performances. In flight with γ=0 continuous skip path is maintained whereat spacecraft velocity decreases monotonously. Maximum skip height reached, angle of attack o spacecraft increases, hence, spacecraft intensive deceleration occurs.EFFECT: decreased final velocity at soft landing system operation, fuel savings.1 dwg

ethod of control over spacecraft descent in atmosphere of planets // 2537192
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to spacecraft control in atmosphere of planet by adjusting its aerodynamics. Proposed method consists in selection of conditions for changing the angle of roll to zero at changing the spacecraft from isothermal descent section (IDS) to skip path. With spacecraft in IDS, angle of roll (γ) is, first, increased to decrease aerodynamic performances and to maintain constant temperature at critical area of spacecraft surface. As flight velocity decreases angle (γ) is decreased from its maximum. In IDS, increase in aerodynamics does not cause further temperature increase over its first peak. Therefore selection of the moment of changing to γ=0 allows efficient deceleration of spacecraft at the next step of flight. The best option is the descent of spacecraft of IDS when γ reaches its maximum. Here, angle of attack is set to correspond to maximum aerodynamic performances. This increases the duration of final flight stage and deceleration efficiency. Increase in angle of attach after descent from IDS and completion of climb results in increased in drag, hence, decrease in velocity at initiation of soft landing system.EFFECT: minimised final velocity and maximum temperature at surface critical area, lower power consumption.2 dwg

ethod of controlling orbiting spacecraft // 2536765
FIELD: physics; control.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling movement of a spacecraft fitted with a heat radiator and a solar panel. The method includes flying the spacecraft on an orbit around a planet and turning the solar panel in a position corresponding to the alignment of the normal to the working surface of the solar panel with the direction towards the Sun; performing orbital orientation of the spacecraft, where the plane of rotation of the solar panel is parallel to the plane of the orbit of the spacecraft and the solar panel is located relative to the plane of the orbit on the side of the Sun; determining the maximum value of the angle between the velocity vector of the spacecraft and the perpendicular to the transverse axis of rotation of the solar panel, passing through the surface of the radiator; determining the orbital altitude of the spacecraft and the angle between the direction towards the Sun and the plane of the orbit of the spacecraft; based on the orbital altitude and the angle, determining the orbit passes where the duration of the illuminated part of the pass exceeds the difference between the orbiting period of the spacecraft and the required duration of the heat release by the radiator on the pass; on the said orbit passes, when the spacecraft passes through the illuminated part of the pass, the solar panel is turned around the transverse axis of rotation until the intersection of the line passing through the region of the surface of the radiator facing the Sun and directed towards the Sun with the solar panel; turning the solar panel around the longitudinal axis of rotation until the angle between the normal to the working surface of the solar panel and the direction towards the Sun assumes a minimum value. The said solar panel rotations are performed within a calculated time interval.EFFECT: high efficiency of the radiator by creating conditions for natural cooling thereof during eclipse of the solar panel for any altitude of an almost circular orbit of the spacecraft.5 dwg

Development and twisting of space cable system relative to centre of gravity with help of gravity and internal forces // 2536611
FIELD: transport.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space cable systems (SCS) and can be used for the transfer of SCS to a spinning mode in the orbit plane without the application of jet engines. SCS development is executed from its initial compact state in the circular orbit by the repulsion of objects at a low relative speed. SCS end weights are connected by a cable, its length being varied by a cable feed-haul-in device arranged on one of the end objects. The objects are separated by a vector of local peripheral speed, for example, by a pusher. The objects are driven by a start pulse to separate the objects in practically free paths at the free feed of the cable. The cable development is terminated by the SCS transfer to a stable mode of associated pendulum motion at the stretched preset-length cable. At a definite range of angular phases of this mode the SCS objects are stretched by hauling in the cable at a definite constant speed. This results in changing the SCS into the spinning mode at a preset power integral and fixed final end of the cable.EFFECT: relaxed weight-size constrictions of SCS, enhanced performances.8 dwg

ethod of orientation of space vehicle and device for its implementation // 2536010
FIELD: physics, navigation.SUBSTANCE: group of the inventions relates to control of angular motion of space vehicle (SV). The method includes additional generation of signals for assessment of orientation angle and angular velocity of rotation of space vehicle. Also the reference signals of the orientation angle, angular velocity and control assessment signal are generated. For the named orientation angle and angular velocity their differences with their assessed signals, and also the difference with their reference values are determined. The difference of control signal and its assessed value and, at last, the signal of correction of the signal of assignment of mathematical model and the signal of assessment of external noises using the respective formulas are determined. On this base the signals of assessment of orientation angle and angular velocity of space vehicle are determined, which are used for space vehicle control. The device in addition contains the reference model of the basic circuit of orientation of space vehicle and other necessary devices and connections.EFFECT: improvement of orientation accuracy and operational reliability in case of failures of orientation angle sensor and sensor of angular velocity of space vehicle rotation.2 cl, 2 dwg

Navigation satellite orientation system // 2535979
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to controlling orientation of an artificial earth satellite with solar panels. The disclosed method includes performing necessary turning of the artificial earth satellite along with solar panels and, separately, the solar panels about a first and a second axis. The antenna of the artificial earth satellite is directed towards the earth and the normal to the solar panels is directed towards the sun. Independent programmed turns about the first and second axes of the artificial earth satellite are performed in intervals of uncertainty of orientation of the artificial earth satellite on shadow orbits. In different versions of said turns, after the first turn, the artificial earth satellite is held in an intermediate position and normal orientation of the artificial earth satellite is then restored. This improves the accuracy of predicting movement of the artificial earth satellite on shadow orbits and accuracy of measuring the range to the artificial earth satellite.EFFECT: high accuracy of determining navigation-time data on navigation artificial earth satellites by consumers.4 cl, 12 dwg

Control over orbital spacecraft // 2535963
FIELD: aircraft engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to in-flight control over spacecraft equipped with heat radiator and solar battery. Proposed process comprises spacecraft flight in orbit around the planet with solar battery turn to position corresponding to normal to solar battery working surface directed to the Sun. Spacecraft orbital orientation is constructed whereat solar battery spinning plate is parallel with spacecraft orbit plane while solar battery is located on the Sun side relative to orbit plane. Spacecraft orbit altitude and angle between direction to the Sun and spacecraft orbit plane are defined. Magnitude of said angle (β*) is defined whereat duration of turn shadow section equals the necessary time of radiator heat release in said turn. Orbit turns are defined wherein current magnitude of said angle is larger than β*. In said turns, solar battery is turned around crosswise and lengthwise rotation axes unless shadowing of solar battery radiator. Note here that minimum departure of orientation of solar battery working surface to the Sun. Spacecraft orbital flight is conducted in near-circle orbit at altitude not exceeding a definite design value.EFFECT: higher efficiency of radiator with solar battery shadowed at whatever position of spacecraft on orbit turn.3 dwg
 
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