By boring or cutting (B23K26/38)

ethod of cutting billet, executed of magnesium or magnesium alloy // 2641443
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method of cutting materials with a laser beam can be used in engineering for cutting magnesium alloys. In the cutting process, the products of destruction are removed from the cutting area by means of gas. As a process gas, an inert gas of high purity is used. Process gas is supplied at an acute angle to the surface of the front cut directly to the surface of the billet, angle 2-10° to the axis of the laser beam under pressure not less 6 bar.EFFECT: possibility is provided to cut magnesium and its alloys with a laser beam without igniting the metal at the front and the surface of the cut, and its particles removed from the cutting zone.1 dwg
ethod for micropatterning surface of transparent materials // 2635494
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for micropatterning a surface of transparent materials by forming holes, channels and other structures by the action of a focused laser beam on the boundary of a transparent material and an absorbing liquid and can be used, for example, for manufacturing elements of micro-optics, fibre and integrated optics, plasmonics, microfluidics. The method includes the action of the focused pulsed laser radiation on the back surface of a sample of a transparent material in contact with a laser radiation absorbing liquid represented by precursors of noble metals. Under the influence of laser radiation, the precursors are reduced to atoms of the corresponding metal, which collect into nanoparticles and aggregates, forming an area of increased absorption at the boundary with the processed material.EFFECT: when overlapping the wavelength of the laser radiation with the band of plasmon absorption of nanoparticles and aggregates, the mentioned processes are resonantly enhanced, which ensures effective etching of the surface of the processed material, in particular, a significant increase in the etching depth.3 cl, 1 dwg
ethod and device for laser cutting of materials // 2634338
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: pulsed laser radiation (1) is focused alternately on the front and back side of the object (5), which is moved along the predetermined processing path. When processing the front side, the laser radiation is directed by the mirror (3) and focused with the focusing system (4) on the front side of the object. When processing the back side of the object, the laser beam is directed to the opposite side by means of the mirror (2) and the mirrors (7, 8) and focused with the focusing system (6). The process parameters are set to achieve the maximum cutting speed, and the laser radiation is modulated to provide an optimum process at any given speed. If necessary, the cutting cycle of the front and back sides of the object is repeated until a through cut is obtained. The device comprises a laser (1), a frequency-pulse laser modulator, a two-coordinate table, on which the processing object is fixed (5), optical systems for focusing the laser beam on the front and back sides of the object (4, 6), a telescoping mirror (2) directing laser radiation by the mirrors (3 and 7, 8) into the beam focusing systems (4 and 6) on the front or back sides of the object (5). The device uses a copper vapour laser with a telescopic unstable resonator, the output mirror of which is made in the form of a meniscus with enlightened sides with a central mirror region.EFFECT: providing high-performance cutting of various non-metallic materials, including sapphire, ceramics, and glass, along a specified trajectory with optimal control of the cutting parameters.3 cl, 4 dwg

ethod and device for holes making in part using laser pulses // 2628503
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: defining multiple values of working parameters of the laser generator to run a predetermined diameter of holes in the detail. Defining resonator laser temperature set value depending on the characteristics of the generator running holes and/or material details which perform holes, and regulate the temperature of the resonator on this specified value during the holes making time. The device comprises a laser generator comprising a resonator, in which a solid rod for generating laser pulses is mounted, a cooling system of the resonator by circulating the cooling fluid adjacent to or inside the resonator and a means for controlling the laser operating parameters. The device contains means of automatic temperature control at the specified value generator resonator depending on the characteristics of running holes by changing flow and/or temperature of cooling fluid medium.EFFECT: geometry of the holes is improved.10 cl, 6 dwg

Device and method for laser cutting with automatic gas pulse control by frequency or by pressure // 2617301
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser cutting with the injection of a purge gas flow to the cutting area for removing slag and gases produced during the cutting process. The purge gas injection into the cutting zone is carried out by means of gas pulse, wherein the intensity of the laser radiation reflected from the cutting zone is measured continuously, and the purge gas flow rate is regulated by changing the frequency, pressure, or both frequency and pressure of the gas pulse, depending on the measured intensity which is maintained at a predetermined minimum.EFFECT: invention use allows to improve the quality of the cutting process.9 cl, 8 dwg

Laser perforating machine // 2611619
FIELD: optical system; manufacturing technology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser machines for creation of perforations in filters of combined cigarettes formed of two cigarettes with double filter between them. Machine (10) comprises left-side laser beam radiating unit (28), which brings in one point laser beam (BL) supplied to right part (16R) of double filter (16) with formation of perforations (H), inclined to axis of cigarettes (12) with double filter and right-side laser beam radiating unit (30), which brings in one point laser beam (BR), incoming to left part (16L) of double filter (16) with formation of perforations (H), inclined to axis of cigarette (12), when it is located in position of perforation (PP) located on track for transportation.EFFECT: invention provides simplified design of laser perforating machine.8 cl, 12 dwg

ethod of pipe scanning intended for processing at laser cutting machine, using sensor for measuring radiation reflected or emitted by pipe // 2608868
FIELD: pipes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pipe scanning method, intended for processing at laser cutting machine. Method includes stages, at which: a) emitting focused laser beam by cutting head (50) of laser cutting machine so, that to prevent pipe material (T) cutting or etching; b) moving cutting head (50) along scanning specified direction (x); and c) during cutting head (50) movement along scanning direction (x) detecting by means of corresponding radiation sensors (56), reflected or irradiated by pipe (T), and install successively point by point, based on signal provided by sensors (56), presence or absence of pipe material (T).EFFECT: invention enables to measure cutting point position on pipe surface regardless of pipe position on laser cutting machine and from pipe shape.6 cl, 8 dwg

Laser nozzle having moving element // 2607889
FIELD: laser engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in laser cutting, in particular, using a fibre or disc laser. Nozzle (1) housing is made with axial cavity (5), having first outlet hole (11) on front side (1a). Movable element (2) is configured for translational movement in axial cavity (5) in direction of first outlet hole (11) under pressure of gas until front part (2a), forming inner cylindrical wall of movable element (2), does not protrude from axial cavity (5) through first outlet hole (11). Elastic element (8) is located in axial cavity (5) between nozzle housing (1) and movable element (2).EFFECT: elastic element (8) generates elastic return force to movable element (2) and tends to counteract translational movement in axial cavity (5) in direction of first outlet hole (11).11 cl, 4 dwg

ethod for controlling a laser cutting process and laser cutting system implementing the same // 2607502
FIELD: laser engineering.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to method and a laser cutting system. According to the invention, a laser cutting process is controlled, using as reference signal one or more emission lines, which are characteristic of the radiation, emitted by a assisting gas or a contaminant gas, present in the material volume, irradiated by the laser beam, focussed by laser head (12), based on the detected signal, at least one of the following process control parameters: power of the laser, frequency and the duty cycle of the laser pulse, pressure of an assisting gas, emitted by nozzle (16) forming part of laser head (12), relative speed of laser head (12) with respect to workpiece (P), distance between laser head (12) and surface (S) of workpiece (P), and the distance between focal point (F) of the laser beam and surface (S) of workpiece (P) are being adjusted.EFFECT: technical result is improved quality of laser cutting.12 cl, 12 dwg

Device for laser processing and method for laser processing, containing singlet lens for focusing // 2607500
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser processing method and devices and can be used for material melting, evaporation or cutting under action of laser radiation. In device unfocused light (A) from light output point (B) is emitted on singlet lens (8). Lens (8) focuses laser light (A) and directs it to part (7) processing point. Distance (ma, mb) between lens (8) and light output point (B) and distance (la, lb) between lens (8) and part (7) processing point and distance between light output point (B) and said processing point may vary.EFFECT: wherein, achieved are expanded operating performances of device and method, consisting in processing of parts with various thickness, and higher accuracy of laser processing.40 cl, 6 dwg

ethod of drilling combustion chamber wall // 2599320
FIELD: aircraft; machine building.SUBSTANCE: method (100) includes a step for preliminary calculation (101) of mechanical stresses, which act on wall (12, 13) part of the turbomachine operation, and drilling (102) at least one hole (21) in the zone of said wall (12, 13). Note here that said drilling (102) is made with at least one cutting tool with cross section corresponding to calculated mechanical stress.EFFECT: invention can be used for drilling walls (12, 13) of turbomachine parts.12 cl, 15 dwg

Combined machine for punching and laser cutting of flat metal sheet // 2596540
FIELD: machine building; technological processes.SUBSTANCE: machine comprises fixed base (1), fixed punch head (7), laser cutting head (10) and manipulator (4) for movement of metal sheet (6) in plane (XY) of Cartesian coordinate system. Laser cutting head (10) is retained by structure (9) in form of a compass with a variable aperture, which can move along linear guide (8).EFFECT: disclosed is a structure of combined machine for punching and laser cutting of flat metal sheet.5 cl, 7 dwg

ethod, system and computer program for machine cutting several parts from workpiece material using control rules and variable for cutting // 2594921
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: during radial cutting several parts (31, 32, 33, 34) of workpiece material, method includes control of cutting using a set of control rules and variables for cutting of two-dimensional shapes or patterns. One rule or combination of several rules are used for cutting depending on shape or pattern to be cut, wherein said shape or a pattern forms part (31, 32, 33, 34) of workpiece material. Set of control rules includes rules for generating a cell cluster (3A) of parts with various configurations. Said parts can be located close to each other so that distance between adjacent parts is thickness of only one slit from cutting beam every time when shape of said parts allows such possibility. Different set of rules and variables enables to achieve reliable cutting of any configuration parts of workpiece material.EFFECT: invention relates to a method (versions) and a system for machine cutting material into parts and computer-readable medium.18 cl, 11 dwg

Cutter of plastic articles arranged in continuous plastic band to be applied in medicine // 2575891
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: claimed device comprises the laser, laser control device and optical device for data collection and data processor. Laser control system incorporates the adjustable focusing optical system, adjustable deflector and beam-forming device. This device can detect the shrinkage of articles but by the laser beam at their cooling for adjustment of said laser beam.EFFECT: simplified separation of plastic articles.12 cl, 2 dwg

Cutting of plastic articles arranged in continuous plastic band for application in medicine // 2575521
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cutting of plastic articles arranged in a continuous plastic band for application in medicine. First, positions of interrelated plastic articles built in continuous plastic band are defined with the help of optical device for data acquisition and cutting pattern is calculated. The laser is adjusted by appropriate control system composed of adjustable focusing optical system, adjustable deflection device and beam-forming device. Subject to defined position parameters of said focal point position and intensity of the laser are adjusted. Interrelated plastic articles in said plastic band are cut in compliance with calculated cutting pattern. Plastic articles or plastic article packages are cut at their temperature of 60-155°C.EFFECT: higher efficiency of cutting.12 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of laser perforation of multi-layer roll materials, and device for its implementation // 2561580
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method and device of laser perforation of the multilayer roll materials, and is intended, in particular, for use in space engineering to manufacture screen-vacuum thermal insulation of the space vehicles. Tension of the perforated layer of the roll materials is set individually for each layer depending on the material and structure. Initially the perforated layers of the material are subjected to ionisation radiation creating at the adjacent layers of the opposite electrostatic charges. After perforation polarity and residual electrostatic charge are determined on the manufactured multilayer roll material, and parameters of the ionisation radiation are determined to neutralise the residual electrostatic charge. Its neutralisation is performed by action on the multilayer material by the neutralising ionisation radiation.EFFECT: invention use increases quality of the perforated roll materials and capacity of the process.5 cl, 4 dwg

Polar plate laser cutter // 2556186
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine for production of polar plates by laser cutting. This machine comprises bed, laser cutting assembly, cutting manipulator to drive laser cutting assembly, control system and at least one strip feeder. Strip feeder comprises manipulator for gripping, means for strip feeding to preset length and strip release means. Cutting and gripping manipulators are arranged at the bed. Means for strip feeding to preset length is arranged between gripping manipulator and strip release means. Control system is connected with cutting manipulator, gripping manipulator and means for strip feeding to preset length.EFFECT: production of plates for lithium-ion storage batteries and super capacitors by laser technology, higher quality of plates.10 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of sublimation and laser profiling or drilling of translucent substrates // 2556177
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: first, masks of absorbing material are applied on substrate surface at the points of recesses or holed thereon. Then, substrate is irradiated with the train of laser nano- and subnanosecond-long pulses, pulse length being smaller than the time of substrate heating wavelength by half the spacing between adjacent masks. Temperature at locations of said masks is brought to the substrate material sublimation level.EFFECT: laser micro processing and profiling or drilling of plates and diamonds and other translucent dielectrics.4 cl, 1 dwg

Laser-focusing head with zns lenses having peripheral thickness of at least 5 mm and laser cutting apparatus and method using one such focusing head // 2553152
FIELD: physics, optics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a laser beam focusing head for laser cutting, a method and an apparatus for laser cutting of a metal component. The focusing head comprises a collimating lens (13) and a focusing lens (14). The collimating lens (13) and the focusing lens (14) are made of ZnS and have peripheral thickness of at least 5 mm. A deflecting mirror (15) operating at an inclination angle (α) from 40° to 50° is placed between the collimating lens (13) and the focusing lens (14) on the path of the laser beam. The laser cutting apparatus comprises a solid-state laser device (SL) emitting a laser beam with wavelength of 1.06 mcm to 1.10 mcm and power of 0.1 kW to 25 kW, said focusing head and a conveying fibre (CF) connecting the solid-state laser device (SL) and the focusing head.EFFECT: invention provides a stable focusing position of a laser beam during cutting.13 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod and device for forming precision holes in optically transparent film with ultra-short laser radiation pulse // 2551043
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: film is placed in a liquid medium which is transparent for laser radiation, having a refraction index of not less than 1.5 and pulses are focused by an optical system with a lens with a numerical aperture of not less than 0.33 or the film is placed behind a plate made of material which is transparent for laser radiation, having a refraction index of not less than 1.5 and pulses are focused by an optical system with a lens with a numerical aperture of not less than 0.5. The film is placed at a distance from the lens which is greater than the focal distance of said system during paraxial approximation. Said film is placed in a focal constriction with overlapping of the film and a hole is formed in said film. The energy of the ultra-short laser radiation pulse is set based on a condition of providing energy density of the laser radiation which is higher than the breakdown threshold of the material of the film in the region of the focal constriction.EFFECT: device enables to form a hole with a diameter of up to 5 mcm in a film with thickness of up to 100 mcm using a single ultra-short laser radiation pulse.7 cl, 5 dwg

Low-inertia robot for laser cutting of flat sheets // 2546269
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to low-inertia robot for laser cutting of flat sheets. Robot comprises support appliance (15) for laser cutting head (14) displacing in axes X and Y. Said support appliance is provided with two sliding units (5, 6) actuated by independent drives (7, 8). They serve for their displacement in axis Y to vary their mutual spacing while bars (9, 10) intended for swivelling said sliding units (5, 6) with laser cutting head (14).EFFECT: higher quality of cutting.4 cl, 8 dwg

ethod of making hole using different laser positions // 2542871
FIELD: physics, optics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of making complex holes using a laser beam, particularly a through hole for film cooling of a turbine component. At the first step, the internal part (7) of the hole (1) is made from the surface (12) to the opposite internal surface (13) of the substrate (4) using a laser (22) located in a first angular position (1) and simultaneously making a diffuser (10) part. The diffuser (10) residue (16, 18, 28) is removed at the next second and third steps. At the second step, the angular position of the laser (22) is changed to a position (II), different from angular position (I), and the laser is moved to the angular position (II) until the lateral side (17a) of the diffuser (10) is open and part of the volume (18) of the residue (16, 18, 28) remains. At the third step the angular position of the laser is changed from the angular position (II) at the second step so as to remove said residue (18). The angle in the angular positions (I, II, III) is defined as the angle between the middle line of the laser beam (25) and the surface (12) around the film cooling hole (1).EFFECT: using a laser in three different angular positions relative to the processed substrate significantly simplifies the making of complex holes in the substrate.13 cl, 12 dwg

ethod of fragile non-metallic material laser cutting and device to this end // 2528287
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser cutting of fragile non-metallic materials, glass in particular, and can be used for cutting of large-sized flat and 3D-shape articles. Proposed method comprises controlled through heat crushing by focused laser beam in curvilinear path. Cutting is performed by oval laser beam, its oval axes lengths being adjusted in cutting. This beam cuts off machining allowance by stopping the cutting process and is diverted back through 50-80 mm to cut the separated allowance off. Then, laser beam is returned to main cut stop point to make it displace in cutting path. Proposed device comprises laser, focusing system, coolant feeder, focusing lens, lens drive, article holder composed by suction cups arranged at adjustable-length holders and ball-and-socket joints. The latter ensure parallelism of suction cup surfaces and article surface. Lens drive is composed of six-axis robot-manipulator. Laser optical fibre end is secured to manipulator output link, laser being equipped with collimator and lens.EFFECT: automated cutting, higher quality of cutting and articles, accelerated processing.7 cl, 2 dwg

Production of spur gears // 2518213
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and instrument making and can be used in production of cylindrical involute gears with inner and outer rims. Proposed method consists in cutting the gear rim by laser beam at NC machine tool at positioning of said beam in X and Y axes in path set by control program. Note here that the blank is pre-tempered and cooled while it is laser-quenched at cutting the rim.EFFECT: higher efficiency of cutting and hardness of gears.1 dwg, 2 ex

Laser beam cutting system with variable cutting speed // 2516155
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser cutting of parts (3) at variable cutting speed (v) along cutting line (L1, L2). Proposed system comprises moving head (10) for laser beam positioning the laser beam (5) on part (3), user's interface (45) to set cutting line (L1, L2) and to set required laser beam (5) path precision (ΔB) and device (20) to control displacement of laser beam head (10) along said lines (L1, L2) in compliance with set of processing parameters (LL, DF, D0, ΔB, DS, DD, PG). First subset (G1) is composed of parameters (LL, DF, D0, ΔB, DS, DD, PG) and comprises solely one parameter (LL) or more of them (LL) that influences laser beam power available for cutting. Second subset (G2) is composed of parameters (DF, D0, ΔB, DS, DD, PG) and comprises parameters that do not influence laser beam power available for cutting. At least one parameter of said second subset can be controlled by device (20) subjected to at least one variable control parameter (S20, S21, S22, S23, S24, S25, S26, S27) subject to processing head recorded speeds (vg1, vg2).EFFECT: uniform cut surfaces at high cutting speed.15 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod of making asymmetric diffuser with different position of processing laser // 2505387
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: at least one laser is used to make through opening with inner symmetric part and asymmetric diffuser with cross-section departing from that of said inner part. Laser angular position relative to substrate is varied only five times. At second angular position polyhedron is removed, in particular, polyhedron with five surface while at third angular position polyhedron with five surfaces is removed.EFFECT: ruled out damaging of opening side surface by laser beam.32 cl, 11 dwg

ethod of crystalline silicon separation by thermoelastic strains // 2497643
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser cutting of anisotropic materials and can be used in electronics engineering and other industries that required precise machining of crystalline materials. Proposed method comprises selection of cutting direction along crystalline silicon crystal-lattice [crystallographic] orientation, making the notch along cutting line, laser heating of cutting line to temperature not exceeding that of thermoelastic strain relaxation and local cooling of heating zone by displacement of heating and cooling zones over processed surface. Young modulus is defined subject to cutting direction relative to said crystal-lattice [crystallographic] orientation. Heating intensity is measured by varying relative displacement of laser radiation and material and/or laser radiation power in proportion with Young modulus perpendicular to separation plane.EFFECT: efficient and reliable cutting.2 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of punching micro holes by pulled laser radiation // 2492036
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laser processing and may be used for punching 10-30 mcm-dia micro holes for optical diaphragms, spatial filters and screens. Micro holes are punched by pulsed laser radiation focused to processed workpiece. Workpiece represents a plate of mother material with its both surfaces coated with layers of auxiliary material. Laser radiation of fs-band is used and displaced over workpiece surface in mutually perpendicular lines at intersections of which forms micro holes. Auxiliary layers are removed after processing.EFFECT: micro holes with high quality of walls.

ethod of boring // 2490105
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to boring a hole with restrictive lateral sides. Proposed method comprises directing laser beam 4 to part surface and making a hole 2 by evaporating the part metal. Said hole is produced in several passes of laser beam 4. Every pass of laser beam 4 makes a part 2a, 2b of the hole. Laser beam 4 is directed so that it makes the angle larger than 8 degrees with lateral side 3a, 3b.EFFECT: hole with sound lateral sides.11 cl, 4 dwg

ethod of laser engraving of metals or alloys // 2479396
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal or alloy laser engraving and may be used in various branches of machine building, medicine, etc. First, laser radiation power sufficient for structural alteration of metal or alloy surface sections. Plotted is calibration curve of metal or alloy fraction sprayed by laser radiation at definite power level trapped by fluid, in fact, translucent for laser beam and dependent upon depth of engraved metal or alloy surface in fluid. Then metal to be cut is dipped in fluid to depth defined by said calibration curve. Laser beam is spatially swept over metal or alloy surface in, at least, one coordinate. Said laser beam is translated and, at a tone, rotated with radius R. Said radius and angular rotation speed ω are defined from relationship: R=d/2-r, mcm and 2πR·ω>V, m/s, where: D is width of laser beam cutting width, mcm; r is laser beam radius, mcm; V is translation speed, m/s.EFFECT: higher quality, no harmful effects to environments.9 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

ethod of laser cutting of metals or alloys // 2479395
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal or alloy laser cutting and may be used in various branches of machine building, medicine, etc. Plotted is calibration curve of metal or alloy fraction sprayed by laser radiation at definite power level trapped by fluid, in fact, translucent for laser beam and dependent upon depth of engraved metal or alloy surface in fluid. Then metal to be cut is dipped in fluid to depth defined by said calibration curve. Metal or alloy is penetrated in line of cutting by laser beam. Said laser beam is translated and, at a tone, rotated with radius R. Said radius and angular rotation speed ω are defined from relationship R=d/2-r, mcm and ω>V/2r, kHz, where: D is width of laser beam cutting width, mcm; r is laser beam radius, mcm; V is translation speed, m/s.EFFECT: higher quality, no harmful effects to environments.8 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of making plated holes in printed-circuit board // 2472325
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method involves making holes in a substrate by moving the focal spot of focused laser radiation and plating said holes. The laser radiation is in form of a cone with a focal spot at its vertex. The focal spot is moved vertically downwards from the upper surface of the board to the lower surface of the board, under which, before piercing, a substrate of electroconductive material which reflects laser radiation is placed. Reflected laser radiation is used when piercing. The holes are then plated via electric gas discharge by applying voltage with one pole to the substrate and another pole to a ring which encircles the laser radiation and which is placed over the printed-circuit board.EFFECT: simple and faster process of plating laser-pierced holes in a printed-circuit board.1 dwg

ethod of gas laser cutting of large-sixe parts from composite materials and device to this end // 2471600
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to gas laser cutting of composite materials. Proposed method comprises feeding laser beam to machined surface and process gas, aligned therewith, collimating laser beam, embedding it in machined article and displacing by preset program in the presence of process fluid. Fluid jet is fed as swirled coaxially with laser beam into cutting thermal effect zone. Proposed device comprises laser cutter case wit focusing lens, union to feed process gas, nozzle, and cylindrical vessel with annular channel to feed process fluid. Said annular channel incorporates hollow tapered adapter with inner surface representing helical grooves to swirl fluid flow.EFFECT: higher quality of cutting.4 cl, 3 dwg

Unit for laser cutting of materials // 2468903
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to cutting of metals by laser. Its use allows expanding operating performances by application of independent operation of two or more laser heads at one machine tool. Laser cutting machine tool comprises: bed 1, at least, one longitudinal guide 2, at least, two transverse guides 3, at least, two laser heads 4 and computer. Every transverse guide 2 is mounted on longitudinal guide 2 for independent displacement while every laser head 4 is mounted on transverse guide 3 for independent horizontal and vertical displacement. Drives of transverse guides and laser heads are connected to computer for independent program control thereof.EFFECT: six-axis control over laser heads.1 dwg

ethod of laser gas bonding and plant to this end // 2466842
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: laser beam of short-wave laser 1 is directed to reflecting rotary mirror 13, reflecting mirror 14 and, therefrom, into lens 10 on focusing lens 15, and, via central conical nozzle 5, in pulse mode with amplitude equal to thickness of material being cut, into cutting zone 17. Laser annular beam of long-wave laser 2 is directed to reflecting mirror 13 and, therefrom, to focusing lens 10, wherein beam is reflected by annular mirrors 11, 12 and, besides, directed via central conical nozzle 5 into cutting zone 17. Simultaneously, process gas is fed from gas feed system 8 into annular converging-diverging supersonic nozzle 6 with skewed edge 7 at outlet to effuse therefrom onto material being cut.EFFECT: required cutting depth and high surface quality.3 cl, 2 dwg

etal or alloy laser cutting method // 2460620
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: preliminary construction of calibration curve of dependence of cutting depth of specimen of the specified metal or its alloy on parameters of incident laser radiation to surface is performed at monotonic increase in specific power of laser radiation from value of 0.1 J/cm2·s to the value at which through cutting occurs. Then, metal or its alloy is molten-through along cutting line with laser beam by moving the laser beam progressively at speed V, and at the same time its rotation with radius R is performed. Radius R and angular rotation speed of laser beam ω is chosen considering the cut width and radius of laser beam.EFFECT: high cutting speed at effective use of laser beam energy.4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

ethod of separating surface layer of semiconductor chip (versions) // 2459691
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to separation of semiconductor chip surface layer. In compliance with first version, focused laser beam is directed onto chip so that its focus is located at layer separation plane perpendicular to beam axis and displaced to scan layer separation plane in direction of chip exposed side surface and deep down to make continuous cutout. In compliance with second version, focused laser beam is directed onto chip so that focus is located in layer separation plane perpendicular to beam axis and displaced in said plane to produce non-overlapping local regions with disturbed chip structure topology and weakened atomic bonds. Said local regions are distributed over entire said plane. External effects are applied to layer being separated to destruct said weakened atomic bonds.EFFECT: separation of lateral surface layers from semiconductor crystals.9 cl, 14 dwg, 12 ex

ethod of metal sheet laser cutting // 2459690
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed method may be used in nuclear power engineering and other branches of machine building. Proposed method comprises focusing laser beam at material and feeding protective inert gas into cutting zone. Inert gas is fed via nozzle at its outlet pressure of, at least, 3.5·10-5 MPa. Note here that laser beam with wavelength of 1.06-1.07 mcm is used and directed via said nozzle coaxially with its lengthwise axis.EFFECT: higher efficiency and quality, ruled out metal corrosion.2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

ethod of making vessel cells // 2458792
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: method of moulding cells for vessels or bottles for bottle washing machines. Proposed method comprises the following stages: moulding cell blank 3a from synthetic material and machining it. Said machining includes material removal or dissection to produce structures required for functioning and/or hardening cell 3, and/or for reducing weight of said cell.EFFECT: higher strength and quality of complex cells.9 cl, 5 dwg

ethod of producing bores in composite material with ceramic substrate by laser beam // 2432241
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal machining by laser beam. Proposed method comprises stages described below First step comprises making first bore with initial diameter and bore axis. Second step comprises displacing laser beam and rotating it about bore axis to produce intermediate bore aligned with initial bore but with larger diameter. Third step comprises displacing laser beam focus along bore axis and finishing said bore by pulsed laser beam.EFFECT: boring in composite material with ceramic substrate, for example in gas turbine engine combustion chamber or vane.11 cl, 6 dwg

Procedure for cutting-out with laser beam // 2425742
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: plate (7) is positioned parallel to first plate (5) and at close distance from it so, that outline of orifice (73a) is located opposite to outline of cut-out orifice (53a). Protective device (10) in form of plate of specific thickness with the third orifice (10a) and with outline set off inside relative to outline of second orifice (73a) is placed between two plates (5 and 7). Further, the first orifice is cut out.EFFECT: prevention of melt metal hitting second orifice, of deviation of laser beam at cutting and of losses of density of laser beam power output.7 cl, 4 dwg

Cutting tool // 2417879
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cutting tools and may be used for cutting whatever materials. Proposed cutting tool comprises top and bottom parts that may be parted by separating appliances. At least, one of top and bottom parts comprises cutting device while top and bottom parts are retained together by magnets made up of first and second magnetic appliances arranged on top and bottom parts. Metal strip is arranged atop the cutting tool to joint first and second magnetic appliances to, at least, top or bottom part. Invention covers also the method of cutting with the help of above described tool.EFFECT: improved control over cutting tool, better quality of cutting.24 cl, 25 dwg

ethod of manufacturing surgical needle without eye // 2407462
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: method is realised by formation of hole for introduction and fixation of one ligature end in butt end surface of surgical needle without eye, made from stainless steel. Hole is made by irradiation of butt end of needle working piece, whose diametre is from 6 to 20 mcm larger than diametre of surgical needle, which constitutes less than 150 mcm, due to irradiation by one pulse of laser ray of specified duration, isolated from pulse radiated by laser, after which section, whose diametre is larger than needle diametre is removed. In other version of method duration of pulse separated from pulse radiated by laser is equal or less than 35 mcs. In third version of method realisation pulse, isolated from pulse radiated by laser if formed by multiple pulses of short duration.EFFECT: group of inventions will make it possible to create holes of satisfactory quality in butt end of thin surgical needle, without puncture of side wall or hole bending.4 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Laser processing method and processing device based on normal laser-induced material changes // 2401185
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: pulse of ultrafast laser with picosecond or shorter pulse width is associated by time and spatially with a pulse of at least one auxiliary laser that differs from ultrafast laser. Auxiliary laser pulse is controlled in such a manner that it could change in time. In this process, material condition to be processed is changed reversibly using one auxiliary laser beam and changed irreversibly when auxiliary laser beam ultrafast laser beam are associated by time and spatially. Auxiliary laser generator includes electronic communication device which modifies laser beam pulse in time and focusing optical system for spatial association of ultrafast laser beam focal point generated by ultrafast laser generator with focal point of auxiliary laser beam associated with time and for focusing ultrafast laser beam and auxiliary laser beam.EFFECT: increase in speed of ultrafast laser processing with ultrahigh accuracy.8 cl, 6 dwg

Hole fabrication method // 2397852
FIELD: mechanics.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to hole fabrication methods and may find application in turbine component parts manufacture. Holes are arranged in a multilayer system containing at least a single metal substratum and an external ceramic layer by way of at least a single laser pulse ray. The hole is arranged in several stripping stages by way of long and short pulses. At one of the initial stripping stages one uses pulses whose duration differs from that at one of the last stripping stages. Long pulses duration exceeds 0.4 ms. With long pulses the laser output power is several hundreds W such as 500 W.EFFECT: improved precision of holes fabrication in layered systems.41 cl, 18 dwg

Adapter to produce holes or to treat by laser beam // 2393072
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in aircraft engineering. Adapter for working head of the device intended for making holes by laser beam comprises beam focusing appliance, mirror and device to feed auxiliary medium for laser beam. Said adapter has first laser beam inlet hole and second pulse laser beam outlet hole. Beam focusing appliance is arranged ahead of second pulse laser beam outlet hole. Mirror is arranged on laser beam optical path behind said focusing appliance so that outlet beam forms with inlet beam the angle smaller than 180°. Device to feed auxiliary medium for laser beam allows said medium to pass through said second hole along laser beam direction.EFFECT: higher accuracy of holes produced by laser beam.9 cl, 4 dwg

Device for cutting of volume parts with fibre laser // 2386523
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for cutting of volume parts by fibre laser and may be used in dimensional processing of parts having complex spatial shape. Rotary laser cutting head of device comprises body with vertical axis of rotation (26), body installed on it with horizontal axis of rotation (30) and optical focusing head. Mentioned head is installed on hollow support arranged in the form of vertically moving slider installed on mechanical system of positioning and displacement. Body with vertical axis of rotation and body with horizontal axis of rotation have electric drives, are arranged as hollow and have rotary prisms for transportation of laser beam to optical focusing head. Slider is arranged with a mount seat for installation of collimator (6) with connector arranged on it with fibre cable (2), which transports laser radiation. Hollow shaft (24) of slider (1) is installed coaxially with collimator (6) and bears body with vertical axis of rotation and rotor of vertical electric drive on its lower end. Body with horizontal axis of rotation (30) is installed on hollow shaft (28) installed in bearing supports of intermediate body (21), installed on vertical end of body with vertical axis of rotation, and bearing rotor (27) of horizontal electric drive.EFFECT: invention provides for high quality of cutting at high speeds and dimensions of processed parts.1 dwg

ethod of gas-laser cutting of composite materials // 2382693
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: method includes feeding of laser beam on treated surface, feeding co-axially to laser beam of process gas, collimation of laser beam, its embedding into treated product and movement by specified program. Cutting is implemented in liquid field. Product is located in bath with water on cone-shaped pins with exceeding of water level over surface of product equal to 10-15 mm. Cutting is implemented by ytterbium laser with laser beam embedding into treated product for 0.2-0.4 of its thickness. Movement of laser beam is implemented at a rate 1.2-1.8 m/min.EFFECT: enhancement of manufacturing capabilities and improvement of ecology at treatment of composite materials and it is provided high quality of cutting.1 dwg, 2 ex

ethod for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process and device for its realisation // 2375162
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method and device for automatic control of laser cutting or hole drilling process. Method includes measurement of radiation reflected from zone of processing. Minimum value of reflected radiation amplitude is defined, compared to specified amplitude, and control of laser radiation capacity and/or cutting speed are controlled. Device comprises laser with power supply unit, rotary mirror, focusing lens, 2-coordinate table for fixation of processed part, unit of 2-coordinate table control, photodetector of secondary radiation and transformer of secondary radiation signal from photodetector, connected to unit of laser power supply and unit of 2-coordinate table control.EFFECT: improved quality and capacity of through laser processing of materials.2 cl, 1 dwg

Gas-laser cutter // 2368479
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises focusing lens (1), casing (2), branch pipe (3) for laser beam to pass there through at preset aperture angle and nozzle (5) arranged around aforesaid branch pipe and inclined to the lens optical axis to form gas supersonic jets. Branch pipe (3) has annular grooves (4) to make chamber for gas to be distributed between the nozzles. Axes of nozzles (5) intersect the lens axis at the point which makes that of intersection between processed surface and focusing lens axis to exploit entire kinetic power of supersonic jets onto processed surface.EFFECT: higher efficiency of processing due to increased efficiency of gas mix effects.1 dwg
 
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