Working by laser beam, e.g. welding, cutting, boring (B23K26)

B23K26/03 - Observing the workpiece(14)
B23K26/067 - (15)
B23K26/073 - (10)
B23K26/10 - Using a fixed support(1)
B23K26/22 - Spot welding(2)
B23K26/24 - Seam welding(5)
B23K26/26 - Of rectilinear seams(8)
B23K26/28 - Of curved planar seams(7)
B23K26/36 - Removing material(31)
B23K26/38 - By boring or cutting(69)

ethod of laser welding of longitudinal pipe seam (versions) // 2642218
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation for welding with blunting on the edges of a pipe blank, pipe moulding, assembly and laser beam welding with an application of a root weld above and weld seam. In preparation for welding pipe blanks at blunting one of its edges inclined beads of metal alloy are fused on at a distance from each other in the ascending direction relative to the direction of movement of the laser beam during welding according to the first embodiment. According to the second embodiment, the inclined beads of metal alloy are fused on downwardly relative to the direction of movement of the laser beam during welding. During the assembly the edges of the pipe blank are compressed, forming inclined channels between them, which ensure the discharge of gases during laser welding of the longitudinal pipe seam.EFFECT: improving the processability and quality of welded pipe joints.4 cl, 3 dwg

Devices, systems and methods of three-dimensional printing // 2641945
FIELD: printing industry.SUBSTANCE: laser light source generates a coherent beam of visible light through stimulated Raman scattering. The substrate is in optical communication with said laser light source. Scanning module is placed after a laser light source and is made with scanning capabilities of coherent beam of visible light on the substrate according to the specified form of a three-dimensional object. The computer control system is operatively connected to the laser light source and the scanning module and is configured to control the scanning module and the power modulation of said laser light source to form said object in said substrate.EFFECT: creation of a high-power laser source of a visible high-brightness range to obtain improved resolution and print speed.48 cl, 7 dwg, 2 tbl
ethod of cutting billet, executed of magnesium or magnesium alloy // 2641443
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method of cutting materials with a laser beam can be used in engineering for cutting magnesium alloys. In the cutting process, the products of destruction are removed from the cutting area by means of gas. As a process gas, an inert gas of high purity is used. Process gas is supplied at an acute angle to the surface of the front cut directly to the surface of the billet, angle 2-10° to the axis of the laser beam under pressure not less 6 bar.EFFECT: possibility is provided to cut magnesium and its alloys with a laser beam without igniting the metal at the front and the surface of the cut, and its particles removed from the cutting zone.1 dwg

Laser optic head // 2641213
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: laser optic head comprises an outer fixed body (1) and an inner movable body (3) with a nozzle (4). The body (3) is moved by means of a rack (6) mounted on the inner movable body (3) and a pinion shaft (5) mounted on the mechanism bracket (16). The mechanism (16) is fixed to the outer fixed body (1) and is connected to an electric drive. In the lower part of the outer fixed body (1), a capacitive sensor (8) is installed to set and control the size between the nozzle cut and the workpiece (9). At the nozzle outlet, there is a removable nozzle (7) with a narrowing-expanding channel at the outlet. For modes of cutting, welding, punching the holes, a removable nozzle (7) is used, which has a diameter in a narrow section of 0.2±0.02 mm and an expansion angle of 30°. For the mode of cutting metal of 20 mm to 40 mm, a removable nozzle (7) is used which has a diameter in a narrow section of 0.5±0.02 mm and an expansion angle of 15°.EFFECT: increased accuracy of processing, economy and versatility of the head.3 cl, 9 dwg

ethod of hollow metal blank laser hardening // 2640516
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: by means of local remelting, mechanical and chemical treatment, the blank of required dimensions is prepared in the range (the length×radius×thickness) from 100×10×2 mm up to 1000×1000×12 from pearlite, bainite or martensite hardening steels of 30XHCA, 35XHCA grades and etc. The blank is fixed in a rotator. The blank local area is remelted along the perimeter or along the blank over the entire wall thickness. The remelting modes are set depending on desired depth of the layer to be strengthened, the thickness of the blank and desired microstructure. The main parameters of the local remelting modes are the linear or angular velocity of the remelting and the power of the laser radiation. The processing is carried out with laser beam movement rate at of 15-40 mm/s, the laser beam power is 1-15 kW. After local remelting, time is maintained for natural cooling of the blank or forced cooling by water or air flow is used.EFFECT: increased strength and rigidity of the blank.5 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of preparing butts of tubular blank for laser welding // 2640119
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method for preparation of butts of tubular blanks for laser welding includes sheet edge preparation, assembly of a tubular blank, placement between the edges of the filler metal material as an insert. The groove is configured on the basis of Y-shaped grooving with lower bevelled edges. The insert is formed by pressing a metal powder which is filled into the gap between the edges during the tubular blank reduction.EFFECT: expansion of the arsenal of means ensuring the effective formation of a layer of alloying metal, located in the joint of the edges of the tubular blank and intended for use in laser welding technologies.3 dwg

Laser plasmotron for deposition of composite diamond coatings // 2640114
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: plasmotron contains a continuous CO2-laser, input block for forming the working gas mixture Ar/CH4/H2, a focusing lens mounted in said block in the path of laser radiation, a gas nozzle, and a reaction chamber. The reaction chamber has a node for introducing nano-/microfunctional particles in the form of gas-dust jet. The mentioned node is installed with the ability to move along the surface of the reaction chamber in laser plasma flow and with the possibility of supplying a gas-dust jet across the aforementioned flow in the region of laser radiation focus or below mentioned focus area in the direction of flow of laser plasma. As a result of particles input node ability to move along the surface of the reaction chamber of plasmotron, it is possible to clean and activate the surface of particles, the partial ablation (evaporation) of particles with a decrease in their average size, full evaporation of particles up to atomic condition.EFFECT: improving the functional characteristics of conventional diamond coatings, forming a relatively thick coating, increasing their deposition rate.1 dwg

ethod of welding longitudinal pipes welds // 2640106
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: after joining the edges of pipe billet, the tack weld is made by arc welding. Main working weld is applied with the melting of the tack weld by laser or laser-arc welding. Then, inner and outer facing welds are performed by arc welding. Before the main working weld is made, the pipe billet is lifted to a fixed position by means of a drive mechanism connected to the control unit, on the input value of which the value of the angle of pipe billet inclination is entered. By means of driving support rollers, arranged to position and rotate the pipe billet by 360°, the joint of the edges of pipe billet is set to the position for 12 hours. Main working seam is made on the rise. Then pipe billets are lowered and either external face weld on the descent, without changing the position of joints of the edges of pipe billet, or inner face weld on the downhill is made, tentatively setting the joints of edges of pipe billet at 6 o'clock position.EFFECT: increase of reliability of welded seam.2 dwg
ethod of hybrid laser-arc welding // 2640105
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: forming the weld pool by at the same time an electric arc and a laser beam by melting the metal of the filler material in a protective medium consisting of inert and active components. Argon is used as an inert component. The filler material is used in the form of two consumable wires with diameter up to 1.6 mm, which, together with a protective medium, are supplied from a single nozzle. Filling of the outer part of the cutting of edges is carried out by simultaneously melting the wires of a predetermined volume with the formation of an outer roller.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the productivity of the laser-hybrid welding process, reduce the defects in the formed weld, and improve its mechanical properties.2 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of double-laser welding // 2639200
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method consists in directing laser beams to the place of welding and performing welding in an inert gas environment. The laser beams are focused to one optical system, and after that the laser beams are directed to the place of welding through the focal lens. A continuous laser during welding is turned on and off with a delay relative to the pulsed laser.EFFECT: invention allows to obtain high-quality welded seam at welding of aluminium alloys and difficult-to-weld structure steels by increasing the depth of penetration for more than 2 times and weld details of a complex geometry.6 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

ethod for overall surfacing of metal part for turbo-jet engines of aircrafts and general protective equipment for method implementation // 2639197
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: laser beam emitting nozzle (211) is used for surfacing. Method comprises the following steps: placing a metal part (202) to be surfaced on a rotating plate (201); positioning lid (205) on the rotating plate (201), positioning nozzle (211) at the level of an opening (206) provided in the lid (205); introducing inert gas under the lid (205); surfacing the first portion (203) of the plurality of metal pieces of the metal part (202). Laser surfacing of metal powder onto said first metal part (203) is carried out by moving the nozzle (211) relatively to said first metal part (203).EFFECT: method improvement.13 cl, 3 dwg

Device and method to produce welded steel profile // 2639196
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: by means of a laser welding device, the side edges of the wall element are welded by the laser welding device (4) to two shelf elements (2, 3), wherein the wall element is held by a roller device (30) which comprises a plurality of rollers (31) of a first surface, and which rotate along one surface of the wall material and arranged at intervals in the conveying direction, and a plurality of rollers (32) of a second surface, and which rotate along the other surface of the wall material and arranged at intervals in the conveying direction. In this case, for the area on which the wall element is clamped, a condition of poor adhesion of splashes dispersed from welding spots is provided, or a condition in which it is not subjected to heating from the welding spots.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase the quality of the welded steel profile production.4 cl, 12 dwg
ethod of repair of longitudinal pipe weld, applied by laser welding // 2639182
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: repair includes defect detection, defect sampling and sample filling. The equipment for defect detecting, sampling and sampling filling is installed to work through the control unit in a single coordinate system. In order to detect a defect ultrasonic testing is done by scanning along the weld line using ultrasonic transducers until the defect is defected, constructing a defect coordinate model in the meantime. The data from the coordinate model are used for setting sampling parameters, which are entered in the control unit, which carries out positioning of the milling head at the stage of defect sampling. And at the stage of sample filling it carries out the positioning of optical laser head, which cleans the sampling zone, and positioning of the filling equipment.EFFECT: invention provides precise guidance of the repair equipment to the defect zone of the pipe weld, applied by laser welding, eliminates any defect in a laser weld with minimum sample size, maximum preservation of the weld geometry and minimizes heat transfer to the repair zone of the weld.11 dwg

ethod of laser or laser-arc welding of pipes // 2639086
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: after laser or laser-arc welding of pipes, the welded area of pipes is cooled by laser radiation until they are completely melted. The cooling of welded seam is performed in the temperature interval Ms, where Ms is the starting temperature of martensite formation, and to a temperature not lower than Mf, where Mf is the temperature of the martensite formation completion. Then it is reheated to a temperature of Ms (+100…300)°C with further final cooling. In this case, cooling is carried out in the air, or by water, or by a water-air mixture. Reheating is performed by an induction method or laser.EFFECT: improved micro-structure of the welded seam.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of single-crystal growth and device for its implementation // 2638850
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method of single-crystal growth comprises supplying directed flow of gas-powder mixture from a device nozzle on a substrate with simultaneous melting of powder material of the gas-powder mixture on the substrate by a laser beam and moving the nozzle relative to the substrate, wherein in the process of welding the nozzle is moved relative to the substrate with a crystalliser with simultaneous lifting and the direction of its inclination angle or position in space is changed in such a way that infinitely continuous growth of single-crystal and predetermined change in its growth direction are carried out, wherein the process is carred out at the flow speed of the gas-powder mixture of 1-50 g/min, the linear speed of the laser beam movement of 0.1-50 mm/s, the laser radiation power of 0.5-10 kW and the nozzle displacement speed relative to the substrate of 0.001-30 m/s. The method is carried out in the device containing a laser unit, a nozzle 1 with an inlet branch pipe for supplying the gas-powder mixture 6 onto the substrate 4 and a fibre cable connected to the laser unit for transportation of the laser beam 7, a table 3 for positioning the substrate 4, a driving system for mutual displacement of the nozzle body relative to the table surface with the substrate 4. The device is provided with a crystalliser 2 located below the outlet of the nozzle 1 and representing a water-cooled branch pipe with at least one offset connected to the surface of the substrate.EFFECT: obtaining single-crystal products or products with directed crystals in the structure without size limitation, with a given orientation and form of a single-crystal.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of vibrational welding // 2638488
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: energy source (13) for welding made with the possibility of pulsed laser radiation, and an element (10) for welding material supply made with the possibility to supply material in the form of powder are moved along the welding direction oscillatory in a vertical (16) direction relative to the welding surface (5) of a substrate (4) and/or in a horizontal (19) direction across the welding direction with the provision of permanent change in the melt solidification front in the weld, while oscillatory movements of the mentioned source (13) and the supply element (10) are made in the form of a zigzag movement, movement, movement in the form of a meander or sinusoidal movement.EFFECT: improved quality of the welded joint.8 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of laser overlap welding of structural steel sheets and aluminium alloys // 2638267
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: before welding, the contacting surfaces of sheets to be joined are treated with laser cleaning. Then the sheets are tightly pressed. The welded seam is formed by periodic repetition of basic elements of V-, U-, Ω-shaped geometric form, in particular ellipses or circles, laser beam at constant speed at 90° relative to connection in two stages: heating of steel surface with defocused beam to temperature of 600°÷700° and melting of steel sheet with focused beam with protection of melt with gas mixture of argon and helium. For different ratios of thicknesses of sheets to be joined, the steel melt provides melting of aluminium sheet by 2/3÷7/8 of thickness.EFFECT: simplification of welding technology, possibility to perform selection of rational geometric shape of the welded seam, improvement of welded joint quality and reduction of production rejects.4 dwg, 3 ex, 3 tbl

Welding device with quality control of weld structure and welding method with quality control of weld structure // 2638140
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: welding laser light (L1) is emitted along the welding zone (C11, C12) on the workpieces (W1, W2), and the reference laser beam (L5) is emitted along the scanning zones (C51, C52) located in the bath (Y1) of the molten metal. The return light emission (L2) is accepted, and the quality control of the weld structure on the part is controlled, based on the comparison of the ratio of the intensity of the response light radiation received from the first region inside the bath of molten metal, and the intensity of the response light radiation received from the second region inside the bath of molten metal located further from the central part of the weld pool, with a specified threshold value.EFFECT: increased efficiency.16 cl, 13 dwg

ethod of welding of thin-sheet materials // 2638090
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: influence by pulses of light radiation with a density of 103-104 W/cm2 on metal thin films. The pulses of light radiation are focused on metal thin films in place of contact of two transparent rolls rotating in opposite directions. The repetition frequency of the pulses of light radiation is from 10 to 50 Hz, and the rotation speed of the rolls is chosen from the condition that from 5 to 10 pulses of light radiation emerge on the place of pressing of the metallic thin films. The device contains transparent rolls rotating in opposite directions and light radiation sources, made in the form of light-transparent flasks filled with an inert gas, with electrodes inserted through the ends of the flasks and connected to discharge high-voltage capacitors, which are equipped with reflectors that focus pulses of light radiation at the place of contact of the metallic thin films. In this case, the sources of light radiation are located inside the transparent rolls.EFFECT: invention allows to weld the thin metal films with a width of 10 to 50 centimetres and requires the use of complex optical systems.2 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of pipe fabrication by welding // 2637039
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: edges of pipe billets are joined by laser or hybrid arc augmented laser welding in a single weld pool. Welding is performed when moving the pipe billet with respect to the stationary welding head in a horizontal plane with the introduction into the weld pool of ultrasonic vibrations throughout the welding cycle. The ultrasonic waveguide is installed behind the laser beam at a distance of no more than 50 mm from the weld pool, which is maintained during the welding process by means of a sliding contact. Between the waveguide and the surface of the pipe, a coupling fluid is applied in the form of water or glycerine.EFFECT: improving weld quality by reducing the rate of crystallization of metal in a steam-gas channel, excluding the formation of undesired hardening structures in the weld metal.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of pipe laser welding // 2637038
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: tack welding and laser welding of edge butt are performed. In tack welding three points are specified. The points correspond to the points on the edges of the round billet. And two points are specified on the butt of the edges, which are on the corresponding tangent lines to the transverse plane of the round billet. The coordinates of the given points are measured by scanning the cross section with a laser sensor along the entire length of the round billet storing them in the data base. During laser welding, which is performed in the measured coordinates, stored in the database, virtual construction of the displacement vector of the laser welding head is done when it moves between adjacent edges, and when the laser sensor detects a deviation of at least one point of the edge of the round billet from the one, which is stored in the data base, the laser welding head is moved in the direction of the vector, constructed on the previous area of the seam.EFFECT: invention provides the accuracy of pointing the laser welding head at the edge butt during the laser welding of round billets in areas that have defects and deviations that prevent tack welding.1 dwg

ethod of hybrid arc augmented laser welding of pipe longitudinal seam // 2637035
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: at the same time, two laser beams are used for welding. The laser beams are located on the side of the outer surface of the edge butt of the pipe billet. The filler wire, melted with electric arc, is fed into the welding zone in a protective gas with the formation of a single weld pool. The electric arc is placed behind the beams to fill the groove of the pipe billet. The axes of the beams are placed in one plane perpendicular to the welding direction and at equal angles from the vertical axis, intersecting them in the focus region. The focus is located above the surface of the workpiece and the regions of defocusing are located to let the beam hit the opposite edge of the butt.EFFECT: improving the quality of the welded joint when welding the edge butt of the billet with both the maximum permissible gap and excessive gap.2 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of pipe laser welding // 2637034
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: tack welding is performed on the outer side of the pipe, followed by the application of final weld by means of laser welding. Preliminarily line marking is done. The lines are marked using a laser marker on the outer surface of the pipe billet along the root face at a distance of 3-5 mm from the line to edge butt, that is scanned by the first laser sensor along the length of the pipe, recording in the data base. Then after tack welding, using at least one second laser sensor, scanning across the butt, the distance between the marked lines is determined. Based on the previously obtained data, the exact location of the edge butt is defined, pointing the laser beam at them when applying the final weld.EFFECT: invention allows to improve the quality of laser welding, to increase the accuracy of location of the edge butt.3 dwg

ethod of deactivation of explosive compounds on basis of energy-packed amine cobalt iii composites // 2636525
FIELD: blasting works.SUBSTANCE: task to create the remote method of deactivation of explosive compounds on basis of energy-packed amine cobalt (III) composites is taken as a basis of the invention. For example, on basis of such known and applicable mixtures as perchrolate {(5-nitrotetrazolato-N2) pentaamine cobalt(III)} (NCP) and {bis-(5-nitrotetrazolato-N) pentaamine cobalt(III)} (BNCP), by means of the laser radiation, which provides the EM photolytic decomposition without the significant thermal effects, the benign decomposition products formation by the laser radiation impact on the designated wavelength, provides an opportunity to deactivate the above-mentioned explosive materials remotely at a safe distance, and, upon that, the probability of the material disruption is the lowest one due to the material thermal heating-up absence and to the mechanical impact.EFFECT: enhancement of safety.3 dwg

ethod of laser welding of materials having different thicknesses // 2636425
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: two end plates (10), (12) having different thicknesses are arranged butt-to-butt, so that one surface of the plate (10) and one surface of the plate (12) are flush with each other. The plates (10), (12) are welded by means of bringing a laser beam (14) to their abutting surfaces. Wherein the laser beam (14) falls under an inclination from the flush surface of the thin plate (10) to the abutting end surface (12a) of the thick plate (12). The target position (P) of the laser beam (14) on said abutting end surface (12a) of the thick plate (12) is specified. The depth (D) of the target position on the plate from its surface from the incident side of the laser beam (14) is specified in the range by the following expression (1):t/3≤D≤t, where t is the thickness in the planar direction of the abutting end surface of the thin plate (10), and D and t are specified in mm.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain an excellent strength of the welded joint, regardless of the thickness of the thick plate, and a welded element having different thicknesses.3 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg

Installation for cylinder surface treatment and method of cylinder surface treatment // 2635984
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: installation (M) contains device (MA) to maintain the processed cylinder(C) and bring it into rotation around its own longitudinal axis (X) and at least one device (MB) that interacts with the specified first station (MA) to create and emit pulsed laser radiation using fiber-optic device, randomly influencing the surface (S) of the cylinder (C) and creating the specified roughness on this surface (S). The device (MB) is connected with the possibility of regulation to the first device (MA) in the first direction (K) parallel to the axis (X) of the cylinder (C), and contains one or more heads (8) emitting pulsed laser radiation, which are mounted with the possibility to slip relative to the cylinder (C) in the second direction (Z) perpendicular to the specified axis (X).EFFECT: increase the efficiency.5 cl, 8 dwg
ethod for welding butt joints // 2635680
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the technique for laser or hybrid laser-arc welding of butt joints of thick-walled structures, in particular, for welding of longitudinal seams of large diameter pipes, circumferential seams of pipes and pipeline products. Welding of butt joints is carried out by means of an electric arc and/or a laser beam. The filler wire is fed to the weld pool. Before welding, a layer of alkali metal compounds selected from the group consisting of sodium and potassium, is applied to the welded edges. Herewith the alkali metal compounds are applied to the edges of the welded joints in the form of a solution or a powder.EFFECT: method allows to increase the melting capacity of the laser beam and to reduce the number of defects in the weld seam arising from laser or hybrid laser-arc welding.3 cl

ethod of laser-arc welding // 2635679
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method includes welding with simultaneous exposure of a laser beam and an arc of consumable electrode in the inert gas environment to a welding bath. The distance between the center of focused spot of laser radiation and the point of arc contact is 10-15 mm. The laser beam is tilted to the side opposite to movement direction of the edges at 20-25° angle relative of normal to the surface of edges to be welded, and the arc burner is tilted towards movement direction of the edges by 30-35° into the laser radiation zone, and protective gas is supplied to laser radiation zone and electrode zone. Protective gas is supplied to laser radiation zone and to electrode zone. In the electrode zone, the protective gas is fed in one direction to the arc electrode during welding.EFFECT: improvement of weld quality due to reduction of weld defects, in particular, such as defects type of through holes, cavities, pores and slag inclusions by rectification of steam-gas channel during laser-arc welding process and, as a consequence, improvement of degassing conditions of the welding bath.1 dwg

Emitter // 2635651
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: groups of light sources generate light for processing the object, with groups of light sources being represented in the working plane (17) by means of the image forming unit (16) to obtain the processing light. The resulting intensity distribution is configured in such a way that if the intensity distribution is integrated in the spatial integration direction, the resulting distribution of the integrated intensity has a decrease in intensity. One or more groups of light sources are controllable independently of other groups of light sources to modify the integrated intensity distribution. This allows to use the emitter in the processing device perpendicular to the processing line, along which the object is to be processed, in particular, it must be sealed, the object can be processed relatively uniformly.EFFECT: improving the quality of object processing.11 cl, 19 dwg

ethod for restoring the element of the turbomashine // 2635648
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: method includes the following steps: setting (50) the laser cladding installation; preparation (11) of the part of the turbomachine element to be restored by removing the damaged volume of the element; rotation of the turbomachine element relative to the laser cladding installation; recovery (12) of the damaged volume by laser cladding to obtain a reduced volume in the damaged element; applying (13) heat treatment to the reduced volume of the turbomachine element; (14) finishing the surface of the reconstructed volume and non-destructive testing (15) of the reconstructed volume. At the setting step (50), the laser cladding installation several parameters setting sub-steps for controlling said recovery phase are also performed.EFFECT: increase the efficiency of recovery.12 cl, 12 dwg

Welding section control device and method of its control // 2635588
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: welding laser beam (L1) is emitted along the welding area (C11, C12), located on the welded parts (W1, W2) and can also emit the reference laser beam (L5) along the scanning path (C51, C52), located in the melt bath (Y1) on the parts to be welded (W1, W2), which are melted by emission from the welding laser beam (L1). In this case, the response light emission from the welding area is received, and the welded section defects detection is performed by comparing the intensity change frequency of the response light emission received by the light receiving unit, obtained as the result of the Fourier transform or differentiation of the mentioned intensity, with the special frequency, determined by the bath surface oscillation frequency of the welded section at the defect-free state.EFFECT: using of the invention makes it possible to improve the accuracy of the defects control in the welded section.4 cl, 13 dwg

Welding section control device and method of its control with selecting area for evaporation glowing and thermal emission selection // 2635586
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: welding laser beam is emitted along the welding path, located on the parts to be welded, and can also radiate the reference laser beam along the scanning path, located in the melt bath on the parts to be welded, which are melted by emission from the welding laser beam. At that the response light emission from the welding area is received, and the quality control of the welded section is performed by comparing the Fourier transform, performed for the ratio between the intensity of the first light emission response component, containing the glowing of the vapour and the intensity of the second component, containing the heat emission light or for the relation changing rate between the indicated intensities, with the specified threshold value.EFFECT: using of the invention makes it possible to improve the accuracy of the defects control in the welded section.8 cl, 20 dwg
ethod for micropatterning surface of transparent materials // 2635494
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for micropatterning a surface of transparent materials by forming holes, channels and other structures by the action of a focused laser beam on the boundary of a transparent material and an absorbing liquid and can be used, for example, for manufacturing elements of micro-optics, fibre and integrated optics, plasmonics, microfluidics. The method includes the action of the focused pulsed laser radiation on the back surface of a sample of a transparent material in contact with a laser radiation absorbing liquid represented by precursors of noble metals. Under the influence of laser radiation, the precursors are reduced to atoms of the corresponding metal, which collect into nanoparticles and aggregates, forming an area of increased absorption at the boundary with the processed material.EFFECT: when overlapping the wavelength of the laser radiation with the band of plasmon absorption of nanoparticles and aggregates, the mentioned processes are resonantly enhanced, which ensures effective etching of the surface of the processed material, in particular, a significant increase in the etching depth.3 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for laser butt welding of one or several billets of hardened steel with application of filler wire // 2635050
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: billet (1) or billets (1, 2) are at least 1.8 mm thick and/or at the joint (3) there is a jump (d) at least 0.4 mm thick. Laser welding is carried out with an insertion of the filler wire (10) into the melt (8) created by laser beam (6). To ensure the welded seam can reliably solidify into the martensite structure during the solidification under the press, the filler wire (10) is used which contains at least one alloying element from the group consisting of manganese, chromium, molybdenum, silicon and/or nickel, which promotes formation of austenite in the melt (8) created with the laser beam (6). At least one alloying element is presented in the filler wire (10) with at least 0.1 wt % higher than in the press-hardened billet or billets (1, 2) steel.EFFECT: improved efficiency.11 cl, 2 dwg

ethod for producing metal parts for turbojet engines of aircraft // 2634812
FIELD: engines and pumps.SUBSTANCE: metal part (200) for an aircraft turbojet engine comprising, in particular, the first set of elements (203) having a small thickness and a second set of elements (201; 202) having a greater thickness. The method includes forming a peripheral portion (301) of the elements (201; 202) of the second set of elements by selective melting of the powder layer by scanning the surface of the powder by a laser beam or an electron beam. Use peripheral portion (301) of the elements (201; 202) the second plurality of elements as a mould and perform the operation for filling with liquid metal inner zone (302) bounded by said peripheral portion (301). Cooled metal part (200) for imparting hardness of the inner zone (302) bounded by the peripheral part (301) filled with metal.EFFECT: increase of reliability.7 cl, 4 dwg

ethod for generating laser radiation in generator-amplifier system on metal vapour // 2634371
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: according to the method for generating radiation in a laser generator-amplifier system of a metal-vapor, comprising an oscillator with an optical resonator and an amplifier made on active metal-vapor laser cells, spatial filtering of the generator radiation is performed with a spatial filter, an opaque plate is placed in the focal plane of the filter and an opening is formed in it by means of the generator's own radiation.EFFECT: generating laser radiation in the generator-amplifier system at the level of diffraction divergence, reducing the system dimensions, reducing the complexity of manufacturing the diaphragm and its alignment.2 cl, 3 dwg
ethod and device for laser cutting of materials // 2634338
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: pulsed laser radiation (1) is focused alternately on the front and back side of the object (5), which is moved along the predetermined processing path. When processing the front side, the laser radiation is directed by the mirror (3) and focused with the focusing system (4) on the front side of the object. When processing the back side of the object, the laser beam is directed to the opposite side by means of the mirror (2) and the mirrors (7, 8) and focused with the focusing system (6). The process parameters are set to achieve the maximum cutting speed, and the laser radiation is modulated to provide an optimum process at any given speed. If necessary, the cutting cycle of the front and back sides of the object is repeated until a through cut is obtained. The device comprises a laser (1), a frequency-pulse laser modulator, a two-coordinate table, on which the processing object is fixed (5), optical systems for focusing the laser beam on the front and back sides of the object (4, 6), a telescoping mirror (2) directing laser radiation by the mirrors (3 and 7, 8) into the beam focusing systems (4 and 6) on the front or back sides of the object (5). The device uses a copper vapour laser with a telescopic unstable resonator, the output mirror of which is made in the form of a meniscus with enlightened sides with a central mirror region.EFFECT: providing high-performance cutting of various non-metallic materials, including sapphire, ceramics, and glass, along a specified trajectory with optimal control of the cutting parameters.3 cl, 4 dwg

ethod of laser annealing of non-metallic materials // 2633860
FIELD: electricity.SUBSTANCE: irradiation of the surface with a laser pulse of rectangular shape with the required energy density is performed. The initial laser pulse is divided into two pulses of equal power by means of dielectric mirror with reflection factor of 50% and time delay of the second pulse is performed during operation of the first pulse.EFFECT: increased yield of useful products in the process of laser annealing of non-metallic materials due to reduction of thermo-elastic stresses and area of possible break-out of material.3 dwg

ethod for treating surface of zirconium alloy plate // 2633688
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method for treating zirconium alloy plate surface includes application of magnesium oxide powder onto the plate surface and laser treatment, which is carried out in 1-10 passes at average laser radiation power of 10-60 W, pulse frequency of 20-100 kHz, laser beam scanning rate of 100-1000 mm/sec. Then annealing is carried out in muffle furnace at 700-1100°C for 5-25 minutes.EFFECT: formation of transparent oxide film of mixed composition with high hardness, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance.9 dwg, 1 tbl

ulti-beam laser radiation source and device for handling materials with its use // 2632745
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: multiple-beam source consists of a generator and a multi-channel amplifier. Radiation generator comes to the input of the amplifier via the Extender, and then hardened individual fragments of a wide beam of the active element, consisting of laser plates located successively in several parallel ranges. Each plate contains elongated along the longitudinal axis of the plate at the heart of the active material and surrounding it with the side of a dormant shell. The space between all the plates is filled with heat sink elements. The pump radiation is fed through the free narrow faces of the plates. Treated material is placed on the base surface, conventionally divided into sectors according to the number of laser beams. Scanning heads installed over one of the vertices of each sector at an altitude determined by the formula h=d/tgα, where d is the diagonal length of the sector, α - maximum scan angle. To compensate alignment errors of laser heads used rigid frame with a square grid sensors.EFFECT: invention allows the simultaneous use of a large number of powerful laser beams to speed the processing of large volume products.5 cl, 14 dwg

ethod for connection and disconnection of pipes for bituminous oil extraction and device for laser welding and cutting when implementing method // 2630327
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for connecting and disconnecting pipes for bituminous oil extraction involves lowering pipes into well with laser welding junction and lifting pipes with laser cutting per one turn around the junction. At that, the utilised pipes are made of low-carbon steel. The upper edge of pipes is equipped with annular limiters which enable such laser welding and cutting that laser welding and cutting beam is at the pipes joint when rotating around welded or cut pipes when applying to wellhead equipment. When lowering the first pipe to be connected into the well, the pipe is secured by wellhead equipment to prevent axial displacement and turning and the annular limiter prevents it against leaving well. The second pipe is joined end to end to the first pipe. After that, the joint area is covered with laser welding device focusing on the limiter of the first pipe, with the possibility of rotation at a rate that allows high quality and air-tight welding of pipes to be joined. When the laser welding device is rotated for the first time, the joint location is checked. When it is rotated for the second time, the pipes joint is welded by laser followed by welded seam quality control. The pipes are lowered and the second pipe is fixed due to its annular limiter in the wellhead equipment. The pipes welding process is repeated until all welded pipes are lowered in the well. When pipes are removed from the well, the pipe closest to the edge is removed, and the second one is fixed by wellhead equipment to prevent axial displacement and turning and the annular limiter prevents it against leaving well. After that, the joint area is covered with laser cutting device focusing on the limiter of the second pipe, with the possibility of rotation at a rate that enables high quality cutting of the pipes to be joined. The laser cuts the pipes, when the laser cutting device is rotating. The first pipe is sent to the pipe racks, and the second pipe is removed from the well. The next pipe is secured in the wellhead equipment. The pipe cutting process repeats until the required number of pipes is extracted from the well.EFFECT: increased reliability of the pipe string when injecting heat carrier.3 cl, 2 dwg

Fuel injector with premixing chamber with protective coating, built-up with laser // 2630067
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: fuel injector of the gas turbine engine comprises a central body disposed on a longitudinal axis and a premixing chamber radially outwardly with respect to the central body and forming an annular channel between them. The annular passage extends from a suction nozzle connected to the compressor with the possibility of flow transmission to an outlet nozzle connected to the combustion chamber with the possibility of flow transfer. The premixing chamber comprises the first portion located at the suction nozzle and consisting of stainless steel and the second portion disposed on the outlet nozzle consisting of a nickel-base heat-resistant alloy and connected to the first section by means of laser building-up. In this case, the inclined wall of the first portion forms an acute angle with the longitudinal axis. A method of manufacturing a premixing chamber of a gas turbine fuel injector is also provided.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to minimize the adverse effects of the laser building-up process.10 cl, 7 dwg

ethod and device for holes making in part using laser pulses // 2628503
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: defining multiple values of working parameters of the laser generator to run a predetermined diameter of holes in the detail. Defining resonator laser temperature set value depending on the characteristics of the generator running holes and/or material details which perform holes, and regulate the temperature of the resonator on this specified value during the holes making time. The device comprises a laser generator comprising a resonator, in which a solid rod for generating laser pulses is mounted, a cooling system of the resonator by circulating the cooling fluid adjacent to or inside the resonator and a means for controlling the laser operating parameters. The device contains means of automatic temperature control at the specified value generator resonator depending on the characteristics of running holes by changing flow and/or temperature of cooling fluid medium.EFFECT: geometry of the holes is improved.10 cl, 6 dwg

Application of superflowing with application of powder flux and metal // 2627824
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: powder layer (14) disposed on the substrate (12) of the superalloy containing flux material and metal material is heated energy beam (16) for forming the cladding layer (10) and of a superalloy layer (18) of the slag. Give the molten bath to cool and solidify to form a slag repaired surface of the desired superalloy material. Material is fed in the form of a superalloy wire or strip into the molten bath. Filler material contains only a subset of the extrudate from the elements defining the desired superalloy material. Extruding the filler material in the form of wire or tape may be, for example, nickel, nickel-chromium alloy or nickel-chromium-cobalt.EFFECT: improvement of the application of technology.10 cl, 6 dwg

Device connecting steel pipe ends by orbital welding // 2627066
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: device consists of guide supports installed on both sides of respective pipe ends in the welding zone and rigidly clamped. The guide supports have an annular recess in the center with a radial bore for passing through and aligning weld pipes. Clamp members for clamping the guide supports with the pipe ends are solidly connected to the respective outer sides of the guide supports diverted from the weld groove. A frame for accommodating welding and test tools adapted for orbital movement around the weld groove is installed to pivot on the weld groove facing inner sides of the guide supports and to rotate at least 360° around the pipe ends.EFFECT: improved quality of welded connection.10 cl, 3 dwg
ethod of manufacturing one-dimensional diffraction phase grating with sinusoidal profile // 2626734
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method of manufacturing a one-dimensional diffraction phase grating with a sinusoidal profile consists in sequentially forming grooves by scanning with a pulsed laser beam of the plate contact plane of fused quartz with a plate of pressed graphite. The interruption of scanning after completion of the groove formation with a period corresponding to the grating period, which is provided by the discrete displacement of the focused laser beam, the depth of the groove relief profile being formed with an energy dependent on the pulsed power density, pulse duration, the diameter of the impact area, the number of pulses, the repetition rate, the scanning speed. The surface of the grating is cleaned by wet laser cleaning.EFFECT: reducing the groove shape deviation from the sinusoidal profile along the entire length of the groove, reducting the deviations in the form of the groove from groove to groove within the diffraction phase grating, eliminating microcracks surrounding the grooves, expanding the depth range of the diffraction phase grating.13 dwg

ethod of laser processing non-metallic plates // 2624998
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method for laser processing the non-metallic plates is proposed, consisting in measuring the plate thickness h and the absorption index χ of the plate material at the wavelength of the laser radiation, in calculating the dimensionless parameter χh and subject to χh<4 of the initial laser beam separation into two beams of equal energy and simultaneously acting on both surfaces of the plate with the energy density determined by the equation relating the annealing temperature of the plate, its initial temperature, specific heat and density of the plate material, the reflection coefficient of the plate material, the thickness of the plate and the absorption index of the plate material at the wavelength of the laser radiation. The condition for the thermal resistance of the plate is preliminarily calculated and, if it is not fulfilled, before the laser pulse, the plate is heated to a temperature that depends on the thickness of the plate, the mechanical, thermal, and optical properties of the plate material.EFFECT: eliminating the destruction of plates by thermoelastic stresses during processing and increasing yield of the suitable plates.2 dwg

Localized repair of the component from superalloy // 2624884
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method includes removing the component from service, removing the damaged part of the component to open the repair surface, covering the repair surface with a layer of powder including the superalloy material and flux, exposing the surface of the formed powder layer to the selected portion, and forming a structured first layer of superalloy material, attached to the surface to be repaired and covered with a layer of slag, removing the slag layer from the first layer of superalloy material A, coating at least the first layer of superalloy material with an additional amount of said powder, exposing the energy ray to an additional amount of powder to produce a second layer of superalloy material attached to the first layer and covered with a subsequent layer of slag, removing the subsequent slag layer. Repeat these steps coatings, exposure to and disposal until the superalloy material layers do not form part of the new component to replace the damaged portion, and a return component in operation. Component is a stationary or mobile gas turbine blade, and the damaged portion - honeycomb seal or end seal of the blade.EFFECT: invention allows clad, join or repair more difficult weldable superalloy materials.10 cl, 10 dwg
ethod for laser cladding // 2624747
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: alloy powder on the hydraulic strut surface, is melted with a laser beam emitted from the semiconductor laser, so that the layer cladded by the laser, is formed. The semiconductor laser is a laser that operates with the semiconductor material as an active medium and emitting through the semiconductor material transition between the energy bands.EFFECT: increasing the efficiency of the laser beam energy absorption, that reduces the energy consumption during processing.7 cl

ethod of laser material processing (versions) // 2624568
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: method includes the material direction focused lens of laser radiation with concurrent gas flow gas supply openings under the bottom surface of the lens and the nozzle area processing. Prior to focusing, the laser radiation is collimated. The gas flow is supplied to the central part of the lens or the protective glass placed under it by at least one series of focusing lens inclined to the optical axis and symmetrically located gas distribution holes. The central part of the lens or the protective glass placed under it, which is influenced by gas jets, is at least equal to the diameter of the laser radiation beam passing through them. Laser collimation telescope exercise through its negative and positive lens, floating along the optical axis.EFFECT: increase the effectiveness of laser processing and machining quality by adjusting the laser power density in the treatment area, cooling and effective prevention of pollution and damage to the lens products and other small particles from the workpiece.6 cl, 4 dwg
 
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