Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless (B09B3)

B09B     Disposal of solid waste(566)
B09B3                 Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless(430)

Process and device for treating catalyst discharged from bubbling bed hydrogenation of residual oil // 2607764
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for treating a catalyst discharged from bubbling bed hydrogenation of residual oil. Method comprises following steps: (1) adjustment and control to reduce viscosity, wherein catalyst discharged intermittently from a bubbling bed hydrogenation reactor for residual oil, is adjusted for storage and then discharged continuously, subjected to temperature adjustment by adding water, such that viscosity of oil adsorbed on surfaces and inside pores of discharged catalyst particles is reduced, and flowability of adsorbed oil on surfaces and inside pores of the discharged catalyst particles is improved; (2) desorption and separation by rotational flow, wherein adsorbed oil is desorbed and separated from surfaces and inner pores of discharged catalyst particles by a flowing shear force from a rotational flow field; (3) separation and resource utilisation of three phase oil-water-catalyst, wherein oil/water/catalyst mixture produced from desorption and separation by rotational flow, is subjected to three-phase separation, achieving recovery of oil, recycling of water obtained by separation, and full recovery of solid particles obtained by separation. Invention also discloses a device for implementation of method.EFFECT: technical result consists in reduction of cost of treatment, simplified process, higher oil recovery factor, reduced tendency to formation of secondary sources of contamination.10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

ethod of decontaminating highly mineralized drilling wastes and plant for its implementation // 2607599
FIELD: mining; processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a plant for decontamination of highly mineralized drilling wastes containing oil products, heavy metals, synthetic surfactants and other contaminants based on introduction of a hardening composition and a method implemented with using it. Plant includes pumps, pipelines, a unit for receiving and washing drilling wastes, a unit of coarse mechanical treatment, a reagents preparation and dispensing unit, a unit for cleaning the contaminated brine, a fine mechanical treatment unit, a container for temporary storage of the clarified brine. Plant additionally contains an inertization unit, a mixing module of which is equipped with a bottom gate to discharge the hardened material and is connected via the main line to the coarse mechanical treatment unit, the unit for cleaning the contaminated brine and the fine mechanical treatment unit. Included in the unit for receiving and washing the drilling wastes mixing container is equipped with a blade mixer, a loading funnel and is provided with a hydrodynamic disperser. All units of the plant are integrated with the help of frames and metal structures and can be based on a welded frame of a two-axle trailer. Treatment of the drilling wastes is performed by inertization after washing from salts to obtain washed drilling mud of the contaminated brine followed by thorough mechanical stirring for 2–3 minutes of the drilling mud with the hardening composition of not less than 20 wt%. based on a binder cement of grade PC M-500 of 40–80 wt%. and a fine active sorption additive – gaize of 20–60 wt%. at the humidity of 40 %. Then a hardening activator solution is added, as which used is 20 % liquid glass in the amount of 10–20 % of the dry hardened material, and is thoroughly stirred for 5–7 minutes. Contaminated brine is directed for multistage cleaning by coagulation, flocculation and centrifugation to form a solid phase sent for inertization.EFFECT: group of inventions provides decreased negative environmental load on natural objects.2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
ethod for complex processing of ash from burning coal // 2605987
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to complex processing of ashes from burning coals. Method involves blending the ash with sodium hydroxide, sintering at the temperature of 150–200 °C, leaching the sinter, separation of phases, desiliconization of the solution by adding sodium hydroalumosilicate into the solution. In compliance with this method prior to leaching the sinter it is washed with water to obtain a first silicate solution, the washed sinter is leached with sulphuric acid, the produced pulp is separated by filtration. Desiliconization of the solution is performed till complete extraction of silica to obtain a solution of aluminium sulphate and a silica-containing residue. Residue is dissolved in an alkaline solution to obtain a second silicate solution, which is combined with the first silicate solution directing further to produce white soot by carbonization. Technical result is reducing the sintering temperature and reducing consumption of reagents when reaching the alumina extraction at the level of 94.4–96.7 % and the silica extraction at the level of 93.9–98.2 %.EFFECT: lower sintering temperature and reduced consumption of reagents.1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

Production of organic materials using oxidative hydrothermal dissolution method // 2604726
FIELD: ecology; technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly methods of organic substances production, such as oil substances and aromatic acids, phenols and aliphatic polycarbonate acids using hydro-thermic oxidative dissolution process (PER). Method of solid organic substance solubilizing contained in composite material containing organic solid substance and inorganic matrix includes: bringing said composite material in contact with oxidizing agent in superheated water to form aqueous mixture, containing at least one solubilized organic dissolved substance, wherein composite material is selected from group consisting of tar sand, carbonaceous oil shale and any mixture thereof.EFFECT: disclosed is environmentally safe method of organic substances production.16 cl, 31 dwg, 5 tbl, 7 ex

ethod of processing absorbing hygienic products // 2604692
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine. Method of processing used absorbent hygienic products is described, involving following stages: creation of cylindrical rotor autoclave with inner surface and two ends, at least one of which ends with hatch, which can be opened to allow access to said autoclave and tightly closed to provide creation of increased pressure inside autoclave; loading of said autoclave with absorbent hygienic products in closed form; heating up to temperature of sterilization and creation of increased pressure inside autoclave, wherein bringing autoclave into rotation about its longitudinal axis; wherein said step of heating and creation of increased pressure inside autoclave provides first temperature mode for products, contained in autoclave, as well as second temperature mode, higher than first temperature mode for said inner surface.EFFECT: method of efficient sterilization and drying during processing in autoclave.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of recycling oily wastes // 2603150
FIELD: environmental protection.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to processes of recycling oily wastes and recycled filtering and absorbing waste mass, and can be used in oil and gas industry and waste treatment facilities. Preliminarily heated oily wastes and fat-and-oil industry wastes are being stirred, while stirring unslaked lime is being added portionwise, water reacting with unslaked lime is being introduced, amount of water is being determined considering water in oily wastes. Recycled filtering and absorbing waste mass produced after repeated regeneration of diatomite filtering powder is used as fat-and-oil industry wastes, oily wastes are being mixed fat-and-oil industry wastes in ratio of 1:(0.1-0.3) by weight, unslaked lime is being added in amount of 62-91 wt% of the weight of waste mixture to produce a homogeneous hydrophobic loose fine powder, and oily wastes and fat-and-oil industry wastes are being stirred, preliminary heating to temperature of 80-85 °C.EFFECT: reduced leachability of contaminating materials from the oily waste recycling product using more effective available neutralizing components with modifier and adsorbent properties.1 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

ethod of processing solid organic wastes // 2602610
FIELD: recycling.SUBSTANCE: method of processing solid domestic wastes and/or production wastes, selected from natural and synthetic polymers in gaseous, liquid and solid products by means of simultaneous impact of accelerated electrons and temperature. Processing is carried out in flow mode, changing clearance between outlet opening of the accelerator and the surface of raw material at temperature, providing melting of not less than 30 % fraction of synthetic polymers, but not higher than the temperature that provides the beginning of the dry distillation of more than 30 % of fraction of natural polymers with traditional heating not more than 30 °C, exposing volatile products of fractional condensation outside the irradiation area.EFFECT: using the given method allows waste-free processing of SDW.11 cl, 2 tbl

ethod and apparatus for recycling solid household wastes at landfills // 2601062
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: method of recycling of solid household wastes at landfills involves loading wastes into plant, biodecomposition with formation of gaseous and solid products, neutralisation, cooling and accumulation of processing products, prior to loading method comprises radiation control of weight of solid domestic wastes, recycling solid domestic wastes, which is carried out in two steps, at first step solid domestic wastes are subjected to aerobic and anaerobic treatment to produce biogas, that is supplied for thermal and electric power generation. Second step involves thermal decomposition, wherein untreated part of wastes undergoes intense drying, and then pyrolysis, result of which is pyrolysis gas, which after cooling and cleaning is fed for thermal and electric power generation. Obtained as a result of pyrolysis pyrocarbonate is used in treatment of filtrate, which is released during biodecomposition. Other neutralised in installation solid fractions of wastes after cooling are delivered for burial. Apparatus for recycling solid domestic wastes at landfills comprises an elongated chamber for processing solid domestic wastes, which is inclined at slope of natural elevation of a specific area, in upper part of which there is an access path for filling solid domestic wastes into chamber via a hatch. In lower part of chamber there is a gate for dumping processed and neutralised mass of solid domestic wastes. Chamber consists of serially arranged zones of biodecomposition, thermal decomposition, which includes a pyrolysis section, zones for cooling and accumulation of processing products. Biodecomposition zone comprises two sections - section for aerobic and anaerobic treatment, in which there is a multifunctional structure, which is a blade for mixing moving mass of solid domestic wastes, collection and discharge of biogas, introduction of water and correcting solutions and device for collection and discharge of filtrate. On side wall of chamber there are hatches for sampling, zone of thermal decomposition additionally includes a section of drying and heating processed mass of solid domestic wastes and gas-stop chamber to prevent ingress of air from below into pyrolysis section. Outside on side surface there are stairs/elevator for servicing apparatus.EFFECT: use of present group of inventions provides comprehensive continuous and accelerated processing of solid domestic wastes.20 cl, 6 dwg

Binder mixture containing lime-containing wastes of heat power industrial complex (versions) // 2598546
FIELD: energy; disposal of wastes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling industrial wastes of heat power complex, to gardening and arrangement of urban areas. Disclosed are compositions of ground mixtures containing the following component ratio, WT% (dry): sand (16-48); peat (10-19); sludge CHP (35-59), humic supplement (humus) (7-10). Additionally, ameliorative additive can be introduced - phosphorus-containing fertiliser "Superphosphate" in amount of 1-2 % of the weight of dry components.EFFECT: recycling industrial wastes of heat power complex and high moisture retention capacity and fertility of peat-sand mixtures.2 cl, 2 dwg, 6 tbl

ethod of processing wastes // 2592891
FIELD: processing and recycling of waste. SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to method of processing wastes containing one or more dangerous organic components, which includes treatment of wastes by plasma in apparatus for plasma treatment. Wastes contain: (i) soil and/or material and (ii) oil component. Prior to plasma waste treatment latter contain one or more dangerous organic components and from 5 to 50 % of water by weight of wastes. EFFECT: using this invention simplifies process of waste treatment. 18 cl, 3 dwg, 12 tbl

ethod of producing heat and electric energy by complex processing of wastes // 2590536
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: biowastes are fed into sorting unit 10, where they are divided depending on possibility of anaerobic decomposition. Prepared organic substrate is directed into anaerobic fermentation 6 plant, where combustible biogas and by-products are generated, directed to consumers in form of organic fertilizer. Wastes, which are not subjected to anaerobic decomposition, are subjected to dehydration and (or) drying and granulation. Produced pellets are supplied to store 13, from which are supplied to gas generator 8, in which synthesis gas is generated. Purified biogas and synthetic gas are supplied into fuel substitution unit 2 for supply of co-generators 1, generating from them heat and electric energy to consumers. Also, for production of synthesis gas directly in gas generator 8 dry wastes are fed, which does not require preliminary preparation. During peak increase of heat energy peak solid-fuel boiler 3 is activated, in which reserves of pellets are burnt.EFFECT: higher reliability of power supply in enterprises of agroindustrial complex owing to use of independent power systems.1 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of processing distilled liquid from soda production by ammonia // 2589483
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Method includes treating still waste liquid from soda production, obtained after processing filter liquid calcium hydroxide. For this purpose, said still waste liquid containing solid waste-sludge is treated with hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride at temperature 20-100 °C. Carbon dioxide is recovered and returned to process of producing soda.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain soda without solid wastes, as well as additional amount of carbon dioxide, reducing volume and reducing alkalinity of distilled liquid discharged in sludge filler.3 cl, 4 ex

ethod of processing organic polymer wastes // 2589155
FIELD: processing and recycling wastes; chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling polymer wastes via catalytic decomposition in order to produce fuel or fuel components. Method for processing organic polymer wastes involves liquefaction of milled polymers, mixing with catalyst and thermo-catalysis destruction of reaction mixture at normal atmospheric pressure, at that catalyst used is nickel (II) 2-ethylhexanoate in form of 40-45 % solution in benzene, taken in weight ratio of wastes to catalyst as 1:0.03-0.06, and liquefying wastes and thermo-catalysis destruction performed by heating reaction mass up to temperature of 300-400 °C with recycling of light hydrocarbons for 0.5-1.5 hour with further distillation of liquid hydrocarbons.EFFECT: simplification of processing technology for polymer wastes.1 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod for combustion of low-calorie fuel // 2588220
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of low-calorific fuel, disposal of solid household and industrial wastes. Low-calorie fuel is gasified in pyrolysis reactor 1. Ambient air is preliminarily activated by electric discharge with specified electric field intensity in range of E/N=2·10-16-4·10-16 W·cm2 in discharge cell 2. Temperature of activated air at outlet of discharge does not exceed 550-650 K. Gaseous pyrolysis products 8 are subjected to oxygen-steam reforming in reformer 4. During reforming oxygen to gaseous pyrolysis products ratio is set equal to 0.25-0.33 by volume. Formed in process of reforming synthesis gas is burnt in chamber 5 for preparing useful heat. Part of emitted heat 13 is taken for heating of pyrolysis reactor 1 and steam generator 3.EFFECT: invention increases degree of extraction of heat from fuel, reducing emission of environmentally hazardous compounds.1 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of treating carbonaceous bulk material // 2586350
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating an impurity-containing carbonaceous bulk material. A method of treating an impurity-containing carbonaceous bulk material comprising at least one material from a group consisting of broken cathodes of equipment for producing aluminium from a melt, broken anodes, broken carbon linings of steel furnaces, cupola furnaces or melting furnaces for other metals, glass furnaces, furnaces for melting ceramics and other carbonaceous bricks to be treated, wherein to obtain purified carbonaceous bulk material, an impurity-containing carbonaceous bulk material is directly inductively heated in a reactor, wherein to carry out continuous treatment, bulk material used contains up to 50 wt.% of grains with a size of more than 30 mm, inductive heating is performed with frequencies between 1 kHz and 50 kHz and maximum reactor temperature is set to 2,500 °C.EFFECT: technical result is high efficiency of treating carbonaceous material.10 cl, 1 dwg

Eco-friendly and highly effective method for preparing solid fuel using organic waste with high water content and combine thermoelectric power system operating with fuel described // 2586332
FIELD: fuel energy.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to clean and highly efficient method of producing solid fuel with the help of organic wastes with high water content, which includes: (a) step of waste mixing, when organic wastes with high content of water and solid domestic wastes are fed into Fe-based reactor and mixed; (b) step where the hydrolysis reactor on Fe-based high-temperature steam is fed for hydrolysis of the mixture; (c) a step of pressure reduction when steam from reactor is discharged and pressure inside the reactor is quickly to provide low-molecular weight organic wastes after step (b) or to increase the specific surface area of domestic wastes after step (b); (d) step of vacuum or differential pressure to remove water; and (e) step of producing solid fuel when reaction product after step (d) is subject to natural drying and compression pressing to produce solid fuel with water content from 10 to 20 %. Method also describes a combined system for production of electricity from fuel prepared as described above.EFFECT: technical result consists in production of ecologically safe fuel.9 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex, 2 dwg

Device and method for pressing metal waste into stacks // 2585609
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of metal waste of various type and can be used at their pressing in packets with given properties for further loading into smelting furnace. Pressing of metal waste is performed in device that includes press-chamber with compartments of primary and secondary pressing, in which are moved by hydraulic cylinders of primary and secondary plate pressing. Press-chamber has cover and discharge opening. Plate of primary pressing provides compression of metal waste in the direction perpendicular to that of compression by secondary pressing plates. In the packet of pressed metal waste through hole is formed by the core, movable hydraulic cylinder.EFFECT: as a result of packets, which enable to perform visual control of their internal State and optimise the process of melting.10 cl, 23 dwg

Waste-heat energy centre // 2583683
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: recycling energy centre includes raw material preparation module for processing, bioreactor module and energy centre. Raw material preparation module comprises, connected to thermolysis plant, a sorting and delivery line, which is capable of separating recyclable waste into a liquid organic fraction and a combustible fraction of secondary raw material and household wastes classified as hazardous, and feeding to thermolysis plant said combustible fraction and medical wastes. Sorting and delivery line is adapted to feed liquid organic fraction in bioreactor. Thermolysis plant is configured to remove solid and liquid thermolysis products, bioreactor output is connected to input of power centre, capable of operating on biogas and gas line. Sorting and delivery line of block for sorting combustible fraction with sorting of non-combustible recyclable material and household waste classified as hazardous, comprises a conveyor for feeding recyclable raw waste and connected therewith and placed in a sealed transparent casing with inlet and outlet hatches conveyor for receiving solid waste. In housing on one side there are holes for tight fixation of gloves in them, on other side - hoppers for receiving sorted solid household wastes in form of hatches with double doors. EFFECT: technical result is increasing efficiency of recycling waste and increasing environmental friendliness of process.2 cl, 3 dwg
ethod of producing cobalt nitrate crystals of high purity from dead catalyst co/sio2 // 2580744
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: for obtaining cobalt nitrate crystals of high purity spent catalysts Co/SiO2 are calcined in air, cooled and grounded into powder. Said powder is introduced into the reactor with fluidised bed for recovery in the presence of a gas mixture H2 and N2. Excess of diluted nitric acid is added, filtered and cobalt nitrate solution is obtained. Cobalt nitrate solution pH is brought up to 1.5 and oxalic acid solution is added. Then solution is filtered to obtain a precipitate of cobalt oxalate. Molar amount of oxalic acid exceeds by 2-3 times molar amount of cobalt in cobalt nitrate solution. Obtained precipitate is washed, dried and calcined during 4-8 hours at a temperature of 550-650°C to produce cobalt oxide. Cobalt oxide is added with diluted solution of nitric acid to produce second cobalt nitrate solution. It is followed by evaporation and crystallisation of the second cobalt nitrate solution to obtain crystals of Co (NO3)2·6H2O.EFFECT: invention increases the fraction of extraction and purity of cobalt nitrate.9 cl, 4 ex

ethod for producing solid ruthenium nitrosyl nitrate using spent catalyst containing ruthenium // 2580414
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to platinum group metal recycling method. Obtaining of solid ruthenium nitrosilnitrate includes several stages. Drying, calcination for 2-4 hours at temperature of 300-500 °C of used catalyst containing ruthenium is performed, and cooling down to room temperature to produce black solid product. Solid product is milled to produce powder. Powder is introduced into fluid-bed reactor. Reactor aeration with nitrogen or inert gas for 0.5-2 hours, introduction of hydrogen and heating reactor to temperature of 100-600 °C is performed to carry out reduction reaction with formation of metallic ruthenium. Ruthenium metal oxidation is carried out with gaseous mixture of ozone and air at temperature of 600-650 °C to produce gaseous ruthenium tetroxide. Ruthenium tetroxide is introduced in three-stage absorption installation containing solution of nitric acid. Ruthenium nitrate acid solution is formed. Solution is added with sodium nitrite, mixed and heated with reflux condenser with microboiling. Ruthenium nitrosilnitrate solution is formed. Ruthenium nitrosilnitrate solution extraction using anhydrous ether, collecting and evaporation of extraction solution are performed. Solid ruthenium nitrosilnitrate is formed.EFFECT: efficient recycling of ruthenium resources, high output and purity of solid ruthenium nitrosilnitrate is ensured.10 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of processing solid wastes and sludge // 2579809
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for processing of petrochemical industrial wastes. Wastes from production of polyethers are treated with extraction agent. Mixture is separated by pressing and centrifuging to obtain liquid solution of laprol and extraction agent, and solid fraction of bentonite. Extraction agent is separated from liquid fraction with its subsequent recovery to process. Solid fraction is washed with organic solvents, or with water and condensate. Solid fraction is filtered and annealed in vacuum medium at temperature t = 400 °C to obtain activated carbon. Drilling fluid with potassium and phosphorus salts is evaporated to solid potassium monophosphate. Laprol is passed through disperser for producing foam-rubber of increased volume and density.EFFECT: invention provides non-waste production of polyethers.1 cl, 1 dwg

Processing line apparatus for recycling solid household wastes using thermal decomposition // 2576711
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: processing line apparatus for recycling solid household wastes using thermal decomposition comprises, arranged in series, a loading hopper, a receiving hopper with a loading device, a station for sorting solid household wastes linked to a magnetic separator for selecting magnetic metals from the incoming waste mass, a station for crushing solid household wastes linked to a conveyor for loading crushed material into a thermal treatment unit which is linked to means of unloading a carbonaceous solid residue after thermal treatment and feeding into an ash hopper. The thermal treatment unit for the thermal decomposition of the crushed material is a container with a loading hatch, inside of which there is at least one combustion chamber with a tubular pyrocoil extending therefrom, which is heated by the combustion heat of fuel gas on burners for heating wastes in an oxygenless medium until decomposition thereof due to the radiation of heat generated by the burner flame in the combustion chamber, and heat transfer with flue gases into the pyrocoil. The container is fitted with outlets for releasing the pyrolysis gases formed during the decomposition of wastes towards the first heat exchanger for primary cooling of the pyrolysis gases and collection of liquid fractions into a separate container, followed by redirection into a filtering unit for separating the end product from tar, and towards the second heat exchanger for the separation of liquid fractions condensed from the pyrolysis gas on plates and outputting through separate pipes the separated liquid fractions into separate storage containers, one of which is linked to the said filtering unit.EFFECT: simple design of the apparatus.3 cl, 1 dwg
ethod for processing sludge waste // 2576202
FIELD: recycling of industrial waste.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the treatment of industrial waste. In the method of processing of waste the sludge waste is mixed with the binder mixture. Binder contains a mixture of hydrated and / or quicklime. Communication component mixture by reaction with lime forms the substance. Solubility of the substance formed in the water is less than the solubility of the substances contained in the waste sludge.EFFECT: provides a reduction in the negative environmental impact of industrial and municipal waste.17 cl

Composite construction material "gumikom" // 2575950
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: material "GUMIKOM" includes the following ingredients, from the weight of drilling sludge, wt %: drilling sludge, mineral additive - sand or crushed granite (20-30 wt %), dehumidifier - perlite (up to 5 wt %), accelerator - calcium formiate (up to 2.5 wt %), hardener - cement (25-50 wt %), in addition humates (0.01-0.05 wt %), glaukonit (2.0-2.5 wt. %) and yeast (0.05-0.1 wt %).EFFECT: expansion of the arsenal of facilities intended for construction, due to recycling of drilling waste, improvement of environmental performance.1 tbl

Solid household and industrial solid waste burner // 2574220
FIELD: heating.SUBSTANCE: solid fuel coiler comprises the body, two fuel bin with fuel feed doors, air-gas passage connected with combustible gas afterburner chamber, heat exchanger, furnace chamber, mechanism to feed air thereto composed of at one of the nozzles arranged above every said bin to force airflow inside the furnace chamber. Two bins of said boiler are integrated into one shaft and provided with common baffle in vertical plane. The furnace chamber is located above said shaft while air-gas passage communicates with the gas afterburner chamber in one plane with aforesaid baffle. Said air gas passage extends outward downstream of the combustible gas afterburner. Airflow flows deep into the furnace chamber for combustion of solid residue and combustible gas through the fuel bottom ply in the shaft and in tangent thereto. Extra airflow for afterburning of combustible gases is forced in said afterburner and exits through the nozzles arranged perpendicular to air-gas passage. The heat exchanger is composed by the vessel abutting on the shaft outer surfaces and those of air-gas passage and the body inner surface.EFFECT: higher efficiency of fuel combustion.5 cl, 6 dwg

Processing method of hydrocarbon-bearing slurries in outdoor storages using uhf electromagnetic emission // 2572205
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: processing of hydrocarbon-bearing (HCB) slurries in outdoor storages involves continuous action of UHF electromagnetic emission. A protective metal casing with an UHF emission generator fixed on it and a gas discharge pipe for gaseous products of HCB slurry after processing is installed on the surface of the reserved area of the storage. Emission energy is localised in slurry volume between the protective metal casing submerged into the treated medium to the depth that is not lower than j of UHF emission wave length and boundary of depth of emission penetration into the treated medium and causes slurry destruction. Gaseous decomposition products are removed for further separation into fractions. Slurry processing is continued till a gas release process is stopped. Emission power required for heating of the treated slurry volume till the specified temperature is determined by the formula: P1 = T1·α·S·V, and heating time where T1 is specified temperature; α - volumetric coefficient of heat exchange of the treated section with environment; S - contact surface area of the treated volume with environment; V - volume of treated medium; c, ρ - averaged heat capacity and density of the treated HCB slurry.EFFECT: invention provides effective processing of HCB slurry without any additional transportation of slurries, excludes environmental pollution with products after processing due to absence of slurry movement.2 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of producing energy from organic material-containing wastes // 2571061
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: organic material-containing wastes in ground form undergo measurement to provide carbonaceous and/or silicate material through possible admixing. The ratio of the carbonaceous and/or silicate material in the wastes to undergo further processing is about 90% to about 10%. Further, the method includes continuing to grind the organic material-containing wastes and mixing with additional skeletal silicate materials while continuing to grind to the micrometre range, followed by compacting of the ground mixture of wastes, heating and separation. The obtained gaseous substances are fed into a reservoir or for generating heat and electrical energy, while the obtained solid substances are separated into silicate and carbonaceous materials, and the obtained carbonaceous materials are accumulated as an end product.EFFECT: use of the present invention enables to obtain a carbonaceous product in solid, liquid or gaseous form and enables to use for storage in a reservoir or for direct combined generation of heat and electrical energy in a drive.5 cl, 1 dwg

Device for dehydration/coking and method of its operation // 2570993
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: device for dehydration/coking contains multiple pipes, located inside drying chamber, at pipes one end input hole is made, and at another end output hole is made, top and bottom ends of pipes are connected with each other to form single chain, inside the pipes there are rotating worm conveyors, that ensure the coking material movement in opposite direction along the chain length in vertical direction; horizontal pipes secured with appropriate spacing along the longitudinal direction of the pipes set with worm conveyors, that are horizontal gas exhaust pipes, vertical pipes connected with ends of the horizontal pipes, and in bottom accumulating pipe located horizontally in bottom part of the device connects ends of the vertical pipes and removes gas.EFFECT: device improvement.17 cl, 9 dwg

ethod for processing solid household and industrial wastes and device for thereof realisation // 2570331
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: for processing of solid household and industrial wastes, wastes are preliminarily sorted into organic and inorganic, pyrolysis processing of inorganic wastes and processing of organic wastes are realised with obtaining biogas and humus. Obtained on pyrolysis device pyrogas is subjected to plasma-chemical processing with obtaining synthesis-gas and melted slag. Synthesis-gas is applied for obtaining energy and fuel. Melted slag is processed into heat-insulating materials. Obtained as a result of processing of organic wastes biogas is applied for obtaining carbonic acid and methane, which is applied for obtaining energy and fuel. Claimed device contains plant for sorting solid household and industrial wastes, pyrolysis device, device for processing organics, device for plasma-chemical processing, device for melted slag processing, unit of biogas purification, unit for obtaining synthesis-gas, unit of carbon dioxide processing, unit for obtaining carbonic acid, unit of energy generation and unit of catalytic processing. Plant for sorting solid household wastes is connected with pyrolysis device and with device for organics processing by production output. Output of pyrolysis device is connected with input of device for plasma-chemical processing, outputs of which are connected with inputs of device for melted slag processing, unit of energy generation and unit of catalytic processing. Output of device for organics processing is connected with input of biogas purification unit, output of which is connected with input of carbon dioxide processing unit, outputs of which are connected with inputs of unit for obtaining carbonic acid, unit of synthesis-gas obtaining and unit of energy generation.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify technology of SHW processing, reduce cost of applied equipment, reduce expenditures for carrying out all technological process of utilisation of dangerous and very dangerous wastes together with SHW processing, ensure energy efficiency and autonomy of SHW processing process and maximally extend sphere of possible application of processing products, increase ecological safety of SHW processing, provide protection of environment, obtain trade products with high added value.2 cl, 1 dwg

Biogas unit // 2567649
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: biogas unit is suggested. The unit includes a sealed vertical cylindrical reservoir with tubes to feed the processed biomass, to drain the processed substrate and to outlet biogas. In the reservoir there is air-lift mixer shaped as vertical helical perforated pipe. The helical pipe is placed along walls and bottom of the reservoir, pipe turns repeat shape of the reservoir and its bottom; moreover openings in the pipe have nozzles shaped as pipe angle piece. In the reservoir centre there is vertical perforated pipe with diameter more than diameter of the helical pipe, openings in the vertical and helical pipes are made in staggered arrangement. Lower ends of vertical and helical pipes are fixed rigidly to steel angle piece.EFFECT: improved capacity of the unit and increased biogas output.3 cl, 4 dwg

ethod and device for thermal processing of unsorted wastes // 2565610
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of wastes. Device comprises wastes feed assembly, wastes heating assembly and slag discharge assembly. It comprises carbon gasification assembly. Note here that said assemblies are arranged as a horizontally diverging channel in the order that follows. These include wastes feed assembly, wastes heating assembly, carbon gasification assembly and slag discharge assembly. Note here that wastes heating assembly and carbon gasification assembly are arranged inside gas-permeable charge. Channel in heating zone comprises holes in top and bottom sections for gas passage. Said holes are communicated with gas exhaust channel including smoke exhauster. Said channel is connected with gas combustion and afterburning channel to allow reverse gas displacement and including smoke exhauster and gas flow direction changeover device. Note here that said gas combustion and afterburning channel can transfer heat to wastes heating assembly and carbon gasification assembly through the charge limiting walls. Note here that gasification assembly comprises two parts connected by circular gas collector communicated with smoke exhauster. Gasification solid product discharge assembly comprises products irrigation device and brine collection device. Also the method of thermal processing of unprocessed wastes is claimed.EFFECT: simplified design and higher reliability.11 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of relieving natural functions of animals // 2563670
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: for relieving the natural functions of animals the wastes are collected and processed to produce useful components for future use. The sealable plastic capes with fastening cords for tying them all on the back of an animal are made, adapted for tight closing and sealing after filling. The containers are made for placement in them of used filled plastic capes in places designated for walking pets, the sale of plastic capes is arranged, and the containers are mounted for placement in them of used filled plastic capes to prevent contamination of the territories in relieving the natural functions of animals. A plastic cape is taken, the abdomen and stern of the animal are covered with it, the plastic cape is fixed tightly, for which the ends of fastening cords are tied crosswise on the back of the animal. After collection in a plastic cape of organic wastes, the fastening cords are untied, and it is removed from the animal, the plastic cape is tightly closed and sealed. Then it is placed in the container for placement of the used filled plastic capes, the latter are delivered periodically to the centre of processing household organic substances, where they are opened mechanically in tanks for fermentation of organic substances and distillation of the organic substances to the industrial alcohol which is added to gasoline to improve the ecology of the region. The fragments of plastic capes emptied from household organic substances are disinfected under high temperatures, melted, and the exclusive elements for low-rise construction are smelted from them.EFFECT: increased economical efficiency and environmental compatibility of disposal of organic household wastes.
Processing of solid household and industrial wastes // 2563374
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to thermal processes of decontamination of wastes. For processing of said wastes theses are fused in slag melt blown with gas jets. Melting is performed by gas lift technology in circulating slag melt in specially shielded chamber of gas lift furnace with two areas. Wastes are subjected to oxidation treatment in said first area by circulated slag with intensive air mixing unless a foamed fluid state is reached. Slag remained in oxidation area settling chamber is fed to treatment area in gas lift mode by reduction gases. Exhaust gas flow of reduction area is combined with exhaust oxidation gas flow of reduction area. Process temperature control is performed with the help of heat created by electric current of polarised electrodes fitted in settling chambers of oxidation and reduction areas.EFFECT: higher efficiency of liquid and gas phase interaction.
ethod of separating and purifying sodium sulphide // 2561625
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of extracting and purifying sodium sulphide (Na2S), formed during desulphuration of oil residues. The method includes treating sludge containing Na2S, obtained during desulphuration of oil residues, with a mixture of at least one organic solvent and water. Further, the treated sludge is divided into an organic phase containing petroleum oil and an aqueous phase containing Na2S, and the aqueous phase is distilled to obtain Na2S, followed by purification thereof. The obtained sodium sulphide is oxidised followed by production of sodium sulphite.EFFECT: simple method of extracting and purifying sodium sulphide and conversion thereof into sodium sulphite by avoiding use of a catalyst.6 cl, 5 tbl, 10 ex

ethod of use of molybdenum-containing industrial wastes for growing peas on sod-podzolic soil // 2558208
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: molybdenum-containing industrial wastes are used for growing peas on sod-podzolic soil. The molybdenum-containing wastes are applied in the soil prior to sowing peas in the mixture with bird droppings in a ratio of 1:5.EFFECT: increase in the yield of green mass of peas with simultaneous disposal of industrial wastes and providing environmental safety.2 tbl, 1 ex

ethod of processing rubber granulates for producing semi-active carbonised substance and plasticiser // 2558119
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry. The method comprises the following steps: performing pyrolysis of rubber granulates at 400-500°C in the presence of liquid water to obtain a carbonised substance and a gas phase and then collecting the carbonised substance.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain pyrolysis products of good quality and direct use.5 cl, 3 dwg, 6 tbl, 2 ex

achine for sterilisation of infected wastes // 2557963
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of sterilisation and can be used for the sterilisation of infected wastes. The machine for the sterilisation of infected wastes contains permeable for microwaves tanks, placed in a sterilisation chamber, provided with holes, spaced apart and connected with waveguides, directed from magnetrons, and contains means for giving the said tank for wastes of rotation around its axis. The sterilisation chamber is made in the form of an open downwards bell, which can be hermetically closed with the base construction, which carries means for capturing and rotation of the tank, filled with wastes. The tank can be moved from the lower position for tank filling and discharge into the lifted position for closing the said chamber and for the introduction of the full tank into the sterilisation chamber. The tank is provided with means for its detachable support with gripping and rotating means of a mobile construction of the sterilisation chamber base and for its gripping with manipulating means (SM), which move the tank between different working stations of the machine.EFFECT: invention provides a possibility of sterilising infected wastes in a completely automated way.11 cl, 13 dwg

Extraction of phosphorus at biomass hydrothermal treatment // 2557061
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrothermal treatment of biomass. Proposed method comprises the feed of biomass-based stock to reaction area. Stock water-to-biomass ratio makes at least 1:1. Note here that biomass-based stock contains phosphorus while stock hydrothermal processing is conducted under conditions efficient for hydrothermal processing with yield of multiphase product. The latter includes a fraction of solid particles containing about 80% of phosphorus of its content in said stock. Molar ratio between phosphorus and carbon of said fraction of solid substances makes at least 0.2. Said multiphase product is separated to get at least one gas-phase fraction, liquid hydrocarbon product and fraction of solid substances. Invention claims also the versions of process implementation.EFFECT: efficient process, production of liquid hydrocarbon product.27 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg, 5 ex
ethod of recycling diapers, sanitary pads and similar sanitary products and substrate for growing fungi // 2555911
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to environmental science. Recycling of diapers, sanitary pads and similar sanitary products, containing cellulose, a granular adsorbent and polymer materials, is carried out by first pre-grinding into particles with maximum size of 5-20 mm and separating, from the obtained particles on a vibrating screen, particles with size of 0.5-1 mm, preferably the granular adsorbent, particularly sodium polyacrylate. The remaining ground mixture of materials consisting of cellulose, polymer materials and granular adsorbent residues is moulded into blocks or ribbons and used as a substrate for growing fungi, with the following ratio of components, wt %: cellulose 75-85; granular adsorbent 5-15; polymer materials 5-15.EFFECT: simple technique of recycling sanitary products.2 cl
Application of granulated nickel slag as aquarium soil // 2555830
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: claimed is application of granulated nickel slag as aquarium soil. Size of soil particles is from 0.5 to 6 mm.EFFECT: invention extends arsenal of aquarium soils.3 cl, 2 tbl

ethod of potassium nitrate regeneration // 2555490
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of smoke black powder and can be used for the regeneration of potassium nitrate from sweepings of the gunpowder production with an expired storage term. The method includes mixing the smoke black powder to be utilised with water in a tank, heating the mixture to 90-100°C, filtration of a solution of a sulphur-coal mixture and potassium nitrate, crystallisation of the latter with constant cooling of the crystalliser, collection of potassium nitrate crystals, its centrifuging to remove the solution and drying, with the filtration being realised with a working mixer in a heated filter; crystallisation is carried out with mixing the solution by the supply of compressed air; mother liquor, which is formed in the crystalliser is pumped into a tank, heated to a temperature of 90-100°C and used to wash the residue on the heated filter, the obtained solution is re-supplied into the crystalliser and subjected to crystallisation, the precipitated sediment of potassium nitrate is removed, the solution, remaining in the crystalliser, is re-supplied for mixing with the smoke black powder to be utilised. The technical result of the invention consists in an increased output of potassium nitrate, extracted from smoke black powder.EFFECT: method is simple and makes it possible to use industrial equipment.1 dwg, 2 ex

Crushing of refrigerators // 2554445
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crushing of refrigerators. Refrigerators 12 are loaded into grinding chamber 16 via loading opening 14 and continuously crushed. Crushed material 24 is discharged via unloading opening 26. At grinding process gases originate to contaminate the chamber air. Grinding chamber is purged with air contained therein. For this, preset air volume L1 is forced per unit time via gas line 32 into gas processing device 34. Air volume L4 equal to volume L1 is continuously forced via loading opening 14 into grinding chamber 16. Sid gas line 32 is aligned with discharge opening 26 and gas processing device 34 and coupled therewith. Pressure of preset air volume L1 in grinding chamber 16 and gas lines 30, 40 connected therewith is kept lower than ambient pressure.EFFECT: nonpolluting process of crushing of refrigerators.10 cl, 1 dwg
Separation of materials from processed electrochemical cells and batteries // 2553805
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of electrochemical cells and storage batteries. Proposed method comprises mincing of storage battery, removal of case materials, suspending of produced battery suspension in water in foam flotation tank. Foam flotation agent is added to said suspension to bubble said tank by air to produce foam. This allows hydrophobic materials to be trapped by air bubbles and trapped materials to afloat with said trapped materials. Compounds Pb (IV) are separated from compounds Pb (II) in battery suspension in foam flotation tank. Method of separation of materials in wastes of lead-acid batteries comprises extraction of pasted from used battery, suspending of extracted paste in water, addition of foam flotation agent to said suspension including paste and water, bubbling of said tank by gas to get the foam, separation of (PbO2) from other lead-bearing compounds of suspension is said tank.EFFECT: higher efficiency of separation.14 cl, 6 tbl, 10 ex

ethod and device for thermal neutralisation of solid wastes // 2552831
FIELD: machine building.SUBSTANCE: for solid wastes thermal neutralisation the solid wastes are loaded in drum drier, solid wastes are dried in the drum dryer, the solid wastes are moved from the drum dryer in the drum furnace, they are baked in the drum furnace, gases generated during neutralisation are exhausted, the neutralised solid wastes are unloaded from the drum dryer and drum furnace. The solid wastes are dried and baked by means of heat transfer to them from casings of the drum dryer and drum furnace, respectively. At that the casings are heated in the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside. The suggested device of thermal neutralisation of the solid wastes contains the drum dryer and drum furnace connected by means of the transportation device, each of them has casing and is equipped with the loading chamber, unloading chamber and gas duct to exhaust gases generated during neutralisation. The device is additionally equipped with the external heating chambers surrounding the casing of the drum dryer and drum furnace from outside with possibility of heat exchange.EFFECT: increased efficiency of neutralisation, reduced quantity of caught sludges or dust in gas cleaning system generated during dust removal of the neutralised gases, reduced power and material consumptions for neutralisation, and overall dimensions and weight of equipment installed in gas cleaning system.8 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of disposal of slaughter tankage // 2552076
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method comprises grinding slaughter tankage, rotary subsurface mechanical treatment using the ripper with cutters on a horizontal shaft 5 and its mechanical drive in the form of a rotary milling chisel plough 6, the distribution of pulp from slaughter tankage and water in the soil in the process of its rotary subsurface loosening. For disposal of slaughter tankage, it is ground to a particle size of 2-5 mm, mixed with water or water containing disinfectant, in the ratio of 1:3-1:5. Then the formed pulp is applied in the soil to a depth of 30-80 cm. The soil is ground to a particle size of 1-25 mm and mixed with the pulp in a ratio of 1:6-1:20. Then the upper layer of soil is treated on the trace of passing of the rotary milling chisel plough 6 with the disinfectant.EFFECT: increase in the degree of processing of slaughter tankage, accelerated decomposition of disposed biological material in the soil, improvement of soil fertility.1 dwg

ethod for medical waste collection, temporary storage and recycling // 2551576
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: for collection, temporary storage and recycling, class B medical waste are collected at sites of waste production into a storage container and transported to a recycling site. The waste is collected in a storage bin and conveyed to a waste combustor. In the storage container, the waste is cooled down and exposed to ultraviolet light. After the transportation the waste is reduced in size, whereas the reduced waste is conveyed into the storage bin and combustor in air flow.EFFECT: higher ecological compatibility and economical efficiency of the waste recycling process.2 cl, 1 dwg

Processing of slimes of metallurgy // 2550652
FIELD: process engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology. For disposal of metallurgical wastes including heavy metals, slime is carried and sorted out with separation of uncomposted fractions and biochemical enrichment of residual fraction to get biomineral fertiliser. Slime solid fractions are minced by dispersion in fluid to get the pulp to be subjected to ultrasound processing for at least 3 hours at 20-30°C and, additionally, biochemically processed organic mass is added thereto. For compost fermentation, air heated to 35°C to 45°C is fed. Formed sediment with radio nuclides and heavy metals are separated, dewatered and directed for further processing or burial.EFFECT: simplified process.2 cl, 9 tbl, 6 ex

Insulating material im-ecodor // 2546281
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: proposed insulating material comprises clay, calcitic material, oil sludge, and drill cuttings with the following component content, parts by weight: clay 1.0; calcitic material 0.5-5.0; drill cuttings 0.5-3.0; oil sludge 0.5-7.0.EFFECT: reduction of consumption of natural clays, reduction of wastes of production in construction of motor roads and solid domestic waste landfills, improves the quality of final product.3 cl, 1 dwg, 8 tbl

ethod for collection and high-temperature disinfection of medical waste at source // 2546232
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: collection and high-temperature disinfection of medical waste at source is ensured by dividing into three A, B, C streams in each section of healthcare facility; the medical waste is collected into disposable waste collectors, which are placed on vertical trolleys; the collected waste in the hermetically sealed collectors is transported to a point of high-temperature disinfection and destruction. The above procedures of disinfection and destruction of the medical waste are performed in a disinfection and destruction device at a temperature not less than 180°C for 15-60 min. The procedures of disinfection and destruction are controlled according to a heat indication label marked on the collector. The processed waste is placed into case-to-case containers to be transported to a residential solid waste ground.EFFECT: higher safety of medical waste transportation to the residential solid waste ground.4 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for processing combustible carbon- and/or hydrocarbon-containing products, and reactor for implementing it // 2544669
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for processing combustible carbon- and/or hydrocarbon-containing products involves sequential layered furnace-charge processing in a reactor in the presence of a catalyst. In the reactor, the furnace charge drives top down through heating zones of refinement (9), pyrolysis (8), carbonisation (7), burning (6) products to generate a solid residue unloaded from a solid residue unload zone (2) with an unload window (3) from a working chamber of the reactor in cycles paying attention to keep it sealed. The sealed working chamber (1) of the reactor comprises a supply zone of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel including pyrolysis and carbonisation (14) integrated with oxygen agent supply (4) and heating (5) zones. An oxygen agent supply channel (15) is coupled with a dosage tank (16) of wet fine particles of waste solid fuel, which are used to generate a fluid flow in the zone (14) of the reactor. An additional amount of the oxygen agent is additionally supply into the reactor as a part of the basic flow; the amount is expected to be adequate to make fine particles of waste solid fuel burn in the following after the pyrolysis (8) and carbonisation (7) zones and transform their moisture into overheated vapour.EFFECT: inventions provide the complete recycling of fine fractions of processing products, enable producing high-calorie gas and increasing yield and quality of the finished products.6 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex