Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless (B09B3)

B09B     Disposal of solid waste(593)
B09B3                 Destroying solid waste or transforming solid waste into something useful or harmless(457)
ethod of disposing production waste containing fluorosilicates // 2641819
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: fluosilicates are treated with sodium hydroxide and/or sodium carbonate at a temperature of 80-100°C. The resulting sodium fluoride and sodium silicate solution are separated by filtration. Sodium fluoride is either isolated or treated with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature of 130-150°C and hydrogen fluoride is separated off, which is absorbed by water to form hydrofluoric acid. The residue obtained after extraction of hydrogen fluoride is treated with a hydroxide and/or sodium carbonate to form sodium sulfate. A solution of sodium silicate is subjected to carbon dioxide treatment and silica is recovered.EFFECT: disposal of production wastes generated during the production of phosphorus fertilizers and processing of aluminium ores is ensured, with the production of pure products from them.6 tbl, 10 ex
ethod of producing raw mixture for decorative wall ceramics // 2641533
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of producing a raw meal mixture containing slagy iron ore beneficiation waste, clay raw materials and vanadium slag including drying components, grinding the said slag and raw materials, and then mixing them, granulating to produce a granular press, its semi-dry pressing and firing is described, where the moistening of the said slagy part and granulating it in a turbolopast mixer-granulator is carried out to produce granules of an advantageous size of 1-3 mm at a rotational speed of the blades of 20-25 s-1, followed by dusting them with a mixture of clay raw material and vanadium slag with the following ratio of components, wt %: slagy part of iron ore beneficiation waste 80-88, clay raw materials 10-15, vanadium slag 2-10.EFFECT: increasing the strength and frost resistance, reducing the water absorption, producing decorative products.1 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex

Separation device for reduced polymer wastes // 2640453
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the separation devices for plastic scrap, which is a polymer waste of different textures with different density and aerodynamic characteristics, and may be used for separation of reduced waste generated in the processing of PET bottles. The separation device for reduced polymer waste, containing two fractions with different specific gravity, contains a separation chamber with one inlet port for supplying a stream of reduced wastes placed in the upper part of mentioned chamber, and at least two outlet ports, one of which is intended for the reception of heavy fractions and is made in the lower part of the chamber and placed directly under the inlet port and another for the reception of light fraction, a cyclone for separating the air from the stream of reduced waste, the outlet branch of which is located above the mentioned separation chamber and a blowing fan for supplying air stream with reduced waste into the cyclone. The device is provided with at least one air blower connected by an air duct with an inlet port formed in the side wall of the separation chamber to form a horizontally directed working air flow in the upper part of the latter, in the zone of the inlet port, and the distributor of a flow of the reduced waste which is unsightly adjoining the outlet branch pipe of the cyclone, connecting it to an inlet port of the separation chamber. The inlet port of the separation chamber is made in its upper wall, has a slot-like shape and is located along the side walls of the separation chamber to form two crossing streams of air in the separation chamber - the working air is being fed horizontally through the mentioned inlet port and the second one is carrying the above-mentioned reduced waste coming from above through the inlet port to the separation chamber. The outlet port for the heavy fraction is equipped with a diffuser expanding towards the inlet port. The outlet port for the light fraction is made in the lower part of the chamber and is located behind the outlet port for the heavy fraction in the direction of the horizontal air flow in the separation chamber.EFFECT: increase separation efficiency, and increase its productivity.3 cl, 2 dwg

Device for thermolysis dispodal of oil sludge // 2639334
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: device comprises furnace with gas burner configured with the possibility of installation therein and connection to the process lines and removal, a receiving hopper for oil sludge loaded thereinto for thermolysis with the formation of vapor-gas mixture and solid carbonaceous residue. The receiving hopper has a steam-gas mixture outlet branch pipe in its upper part, made with the possibility of its connection through a cooler-condenser with a tank for thermolysis liquid separation from thermolysis gas, which is connected to the line of thermolysis liquid withdrawal and connected to drying column for thermolysis gas through at least one drop baffle, and which outlet is communicated with the furnace gas burner.EFFECT: improved environmental compatibility of oil sludge disposal process, production of alternative fuels.1 dwg
ethod for thermal treatment of cake of sludge sediments in slag melt // 2638558
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: method of thermal treatment of sludge of cake sediments in slag melt includes supply to the system of drying plants with cake heating and producing evaporated moisture and dried cake, after that cake is fed to an accumulating hopper with subsequent cake feed into a furnace-gasifier, which is equipped with a burner, a block of molybdenum electrodes and a block of liquid slag draining. Liquid slag is fed to a granulator through the block. In the furnace-gasifier, the organic cake is converted into product gas, which is fed via a contact heat exchanger to a water heat exchanger, after that the product gas is cooled and directed to a complete combustion chamber with a tangential inlet. The complete combustion chamber is narrowed in the region between the inlet and outlet for gas. After the complete combustion chamber, the combustion products are fed into a waste heat boiler, from which the exhaust gas is fed through a gas cleaning system into the chimney.EFFECT: increased yield of target products with reduced emission of pollutants into the environment.5 cl, 3 dwg
ethod for neutralisation and disposal of oil-containing sludge // 2638019
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing quicklime with oil-containing sludge and a surfactant, then lime slaking is carried out by adding of water in volume required for complete lime slacking, neutralisation sorbents are added after lime slaking followed by the final mixing, at that, an agent imparting hydrophobic properties is used as a surfactant, and used silica gel is used as neutralizing sorbents, which is a waste from natural gas drying plants, and a spent zeolite which is waste from the gas desulfurization plants. Mixing is carried out at the following percentage ratio of components, wt %: oil-containing sludge -40-60; quicklime - 29-33; surfactant 0.3-0.5; used silica gel - 9.2-18.5; used zeolite 1.5-8.EFFECT: improved environmental and economic efficiency of neutralisation and disposal of oil-containing sludge.1 tbl

ethod of processing waste sorting of sulphate cellulose in molded products // 2634235
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: method includes the processes of accumulation of waste sorting, dilution of waste sorting with water to the required concentration at the grinding stage, grinding of waste sorting, accumulation of pulp, dilution of the pulp with water to the required concentration, manufacturing of moulded products by depositing fibers on the mould surface and forming a wet product on of the mesh part of the mould by increasing the layer of fibers by filtering water under vacuum, followed by pressing and drying of complete product.EFFECT: production of moulded products from waste, no loss of raw materials, avoidance of environmental pollution.2 tbl, 8 ex
ethods of removing solvent from bagassa // 2633580
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for removing organic solvents from a wet bagasse of a non-hevea plant containing natural rubber in the separate plant cells, that includes using a certain amount of the said wet bagasse, which contains up to 45 wt % of combined organic solvents and water (based on total weight of wet bagasse) and not more than 0.1 wt % of rubber; heating the said wet bagasse to the temperature of, at least, 100°C.EFFECT: evaporating organic solvents takes place; preparing dried bagasse, which contains not more than 1 wt % of organic solvents.6 cl, 2 tbl
ethod of recultivation of objects providing negative effects on environment // 2633397
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method of reclamation of objects that have a negative impact on the environment includes the analysis of buildings and structures with a minimum emission of dust and the formation of an excavation, which is obtained when removing soil and destroying building structures. The complete detoxification of construction materials and soil is carried out jointly by leaching in a trench, the bottom of which is formed with a bias toward the collector with a sewage sump and their supply system to a water treatment plant.EFFECT: technical result of the proposed invention is the complete disinfection of building materials and soil without exporting them to specialized landfills in the event of liquidation of the consequences of the activities of facilities for the storage and destruction of chemical weapons, the production of chemical weapons and highly toxic substances, including reclamation of the adjacent territory.5 cl, 4 tbl
Device and method for disposal of mercury-containing wastes // 2632956
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to neutralise solid waste, including mercury-containing wastes generated by production activities, including mercury thermometers, energy-saving lamps, fluorescent lamps and other wastes containing mercury. The device for neutralizing mercury-containing wastes contains a mixing drum for mixing mercury-containing waste, a pulverizing medium and a liquid that contains sulfur, to break the mercury-containing waste and the reaction of binding mercury-containing mercury metal waste with sulfur to mercury sulphides, a loading tray that is sealed, A vessel containing a liquid containing sulfur through which gases are passed from the mixing drum through the liquid contained in the vessel st for binding reaction with sulfur vapour mercury in mercury sulfides. A method for neutralizing mercury-containing waste includes loading a grinding medium to break a mercury-containing waste into a mixing drum that is mounted on a mobile platform, sealing the loading tray tightly, rotating the mixing drum, allowing the mercury-containing mercury-containing waste to react with sulfur to form mercury sulphides, pumping gases from the mixing drum, The passage of gases through a vessel containing a liquid containing sulfur to bind mercury vapour to sulfur, returning the gases in the mixture Round drum.EFFECT: reducing the negative impact on the environment, increasing the level of neutralisation of mercury-containing waste.7 cl, 2 dwg

Device for disposal of bulk organic wastes // 2631294
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device comprises a series-mounted feed hopper 1, a gas generator 2, a vortex trap 4, heat exchangers 5 and scrubbers 6 connected to each other by heat-insulated steel pipes, as well as an ash residue discharge line. An outlet 9 of said line is connected between the gas generator 2 and the vortex trap 4. The gas generator 2 is provided with an air supply control unit 3 and connected to it by flexible textile air ducts. After the gas generator 2, a combustion unit of the ash residue 10 is installed. The combustion unit of the ash residue 10 can be arranged between the gas generator 2 and the outlet of the ash residue discharge line 9 or directly on the ash residue discharge line.EFFECT: improved disposal efficiency by producing high quality amorphous silicon-containing residue.4 cl, 2 dwg

obile plant for drilling waste processing // 2630908
FIELD: mining engineering.SUBSTANCE: mobile drilling waste processing plant contains functional modules, including a set of devices connected in a process sequence by pumps and conveyors, and is characterized in that the plant comprises a loading and preparation module, a filtration module, a mixing and pressing module, a pre-hardening and unloading module for briquettes, while the loading and preparation module contains a receiving and buffer tank with a mixer, receiving hoppers for natural sand, sorbent and plasticiser, and connected by augers dispensers with the receiving and buffer tank. The filtering module contains a slurry pump, by means of which the receiving and buffer tank is connected to filter press. The filter press is connected to filtrate drainage tank, the pumps and the filtrate cleaning filter, and the belt conveyors is connected to the two-shaft mixer. The mixing and pressing module contains a cement hopper and a hardening accelerator hopper connected by the auger dipensers with ther two-shaft mixer in which a hopper for discharging a mixture of dehydrated drilling waste, cement and hardening accelerator is connected to briquetting press hopper. The module for preliminary hardening and unloading of briquettes contains a loading/unloading belt conveyor and a belt stacking conveyor to transfer briquettes for hardening, and connected to the briquetting press from the mixing and pressing module. The receiving and buffer tank from the waste loading and preparation module is connected to the filter press from the filtration module by the slurry pump.EFFECT: increasing mobility of the plant and reducing transportation costs of the drilling waste processing plant into a ready-made, solid, free-flowing moulded construction material - an artificial stone.1 dwg

ethod of recycling of solid and liquid hydrocarbon-bearing wastes and obtaining synthetic liquid fuels from it // 2630687
FIELD: electricity-producing industry.SUBSTANCE: method is based on the electro-hydraulic structural damage of its molecular linkage by virtue of the controlled pulse electrical discharge. The method lies in the fact that the initial medium is sent into the tubular pulse reactor causing the medium permanent offset in the reactor tube, one effects on the medium, which is in the reactor, three times along the initial medium offset by virtue of the square-wave electrical high-voltage pulses. According to the method, one uses the medium, which is formed only by material in the nature of carbon-containing wastes and by water, where the water/material proportion in percentage terms is: for the solid hydrocarbons - 50÷60/40÷50, for the liquid hydrocarbons - 30÷35/65÷70, and for the hydrocarbon-bearing materials - 60÷80/20÷40. One sets the actuation pulse voltage in the 6-10 kV range. Along with this, one defines lengths and actuation pulses frequency for each of three actuations so that the actuation pulses frequency from first to third actuation increases in the 2 hz to 50 hz range, and its duration decreases from 250 ms to 10 ms with the generated synthetic gas removal and the synthetic liquid fuels obtention.EFFECT: solid and liquid wastes recycling, synthetic liquid fuels obtention from recycling without the use of solvents and accelerants.4 dwg, 2 ex

ethod of cleaning standing water reservoirs from heavy metals and oil products // 2630552
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of cleaning standing water reservoirs from heavy metals and oil products involves the use of a sorbent, a coagulant and a coarse mineral matter. The bottom sediment and water are extracted. The extracted bottom sediment is composted with structurants, oil-oxidizing microorganisms, nutrient elements to obtain soils. Electrodes are used to reduce the residual metal concentration in soil. Separated from the bottom sediment, water is returned to a standing water reservoir. Water extracted from the reservoir is purified by successive sorption and filtration in a geochemical barrier filled with a mineral granular material-silicized fraction calcite of 2-5 mm, in which electrochemical current sources that generate a coagulant are located. Purified water is returned to the reservoir, creating water circulation. Water is filtered at a rate of 1-5 m/h at a geochemical barrier length of 8-16 m.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve the efficiency of water treatment and bottom sediments of the reservoir.1 dwg, 4 tbl
ethod and device for neutralisation and recovery of domestic waste landfill body // 2630456
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method for neutralisation and recovery of domestic waste landfill body includes drilling wells in the thickness of the landfill body and installing vertical perforated discharge pipes in them, solar heating and moistening of the landfill body, located under pyramidal transparent caps, atmospheric precipitations and feedwater from the grooves between the caps, anaerobic fermentation in the thickness of the landfill body with the production of bio-gas (methane), its withdrawal from the caps and pores of the landfill body via vertical perforated discharge pipes connected via gas pipelines to the compressor, which creates a vacuum in the cavity of the caps and gas pipelines connected to it on the suction durm and compresses the biogas at the outlet, which enters the tube space of the air cooler under pressure, cooled by external air due to natural draft, where it is cooled and significant portion of water vapouts and heavy hydrocarbons is condensed. Purified and cooled biogas, consisting mainly of CH4, enters the gas collector, and the condensate, consisting of water and heavy hydrocarbons, is supplied to a storage tank. The device for neutralisation and recovery of domestic waste landfill body contains a section of the landfill body at the bottom of the waste dumping ground, drilled in the landfill body along the calculated N-well array, into which the vertical disposal perforated pipes are inserted, connected to the gas pipelines, N transparent sealed pyramidal caps with gaps between them are mounted above the wells along the horizon with width of Δ 1 and immersion depth in thelandfill body of ∆2, which form grooves. Each of the above mentioned caps is made of a framework formed by a lower square frame and an upper ring, interconnected by inclined ribs coated with a transparent sheath. In each cap, the disposal vertical perforated pipes are passed through the upper ring, the pipes reach the bottom of the ground by the lower end, their upper end is inserted into the inlet nozzle of an ordinary gas collector connected to a common gas collector, connected to the compressor located outside the ground boundary, the air tubular cooler and the gas collector via a suction gas pipeline. The grooves of the boundary caps are connected to the feed pump via a distributing gutter.EFFECT: reduced costs, increased efficiency.2 cl, 5 dwg
Segregated domestic waste recovery method // 2630249
FIELD: human life necessities satisfaction.SUBSTANCE: segregated domestic waste recovery method comprises the transport deloading, the waste deloading from the receiving pits on the plate conveyer with the knifes for the packages opening, the light components fragments blowing-out by virtue of the air stream, its reduction in sizes, the bulky waste crushing, the metal components reduction in sizes, the waste bulky elements crushing, the metal components reduction in sizes, the crushed elements sort into fractions, and the organic components, that are distilled into the industrial alcohol, are selected. One finishes the equipping of every flat with the capacity with the one-time-only package for the intake of the items that are environmentally unfriendly, with the hermetically closed package for the products for the natural needs satisfaction and the hermetically closed package for the wastable food. In addition to the containers for the domestic waste intake, one finishes the container yards equipping with the containers for the one-time-only packages for the products for the natural needs satisfaction and for the package for the wastable leftovers. One finishes the railway yards equipping with the pits for the intake of the one-time-only packages with environmentally unfriendly items, the pits for the intake of the one-time-only packages with the products for the natural needs satisfaction and of the one-time-only packages with the wastable leftovers, and the pits for the intake of the rest domestic waste. One finishes the carriages-garbage-removal-truck equipping with the heating units to prevent the material adfreezing in its transportation in wintertime. When the one-time-only package for the environmentally unfriendly items, the package for the products for the natural needs satisfaction, the package for the wastable food, the one-time-only package for the domestic waste intake are full, one delivers these packages to the container yard and throws it into the free container. The contents of the same-name containers are loaded into the car-garbage-removal-truck body and are driven to the railway station, where it is unloaded into the relevant pit. The trains-garbage-removal-trucks deliver the domestic wastes to the separating plant, where the mechanical sorting and the manufacture of the elements for the low-rise housing construction are carried out. The environmentally unfriendly items are loaded into the other train carriage and are delivered to the recycling plant, and the packages with the organic substances are loaded into the next train-garbage-removal-truck to deliver it to the plant of the recycling into the industrial alcohol.EFFECT: eliminate the possibility of the made of the domestic waste goods pollution with the environmentally unfriendly substances.1 cl
ethod for processing fly ash of thermal power stations // 2630021
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: in the method for processing fly ash of coal-fired thermal power stations, comprising high-temperature treatment in a nitrogen atmosphere, the process is conducted in the presence of urea at fly ash: urea ratio of 1:1, and the high-temperature treatment is carried out in a flow of nitrogen plasma at a plasma temperature of 4000-6000°C at a power of a plasmatron of 25 kW and a plasma flow velocity of 60-100 m/s, followed by cooling in a nitrogen atmosphere fed at a velocity of 60-80 m/s and separating multidisperse fractions under conditionds of vortex cycloning and filtering on a bag filter.EFFECT: waste utilisation, expansion of assortment of useful products obtained as a result of ash utilisation.2 dwg, 1 ex

Device for thermal treatment of hazardous waste // 2629721
FIELD: machine engineering.SUBSTANCE: device for thermal treatment of hazardous waste which contains sequentially linked storage hopper, thermolysis reactor with a hopper feed unit and a lower discharge device, a tank for cooling (quenching) the carbon residue of waste thermolysis, a temporary storage hopper for the carbon residue with a sampling system for express toxicity analysis and installation of plasma afterburning of the carbon residue with a receiving slag bath, as well as a fractionation line with a packed scrubber, an adsorber and column apparatus for isolating liquid hydrocarbon fraction of thermolysis and uncondensed synthesis gas products used as secondary fuel in a thermolysis reactor, purification system of industrial sewage, three stage purification of thermolysis reactor flue gases. The thermolysis reactor contains at least one thermolysis chamber, the gas treatment system contains three stages of treatment with the extraction of heavy metal oxides, and the water treatment system includes three stages of physico-chemical treatment.EFFECT: increased degree of treatment, reduced operating costs, the possibility of combined loading and processing of non-uniform solid, liquid and pasty waste, increased reactor productivity, increased energy efficiency.3 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of carbon-containing wastes disposal // 2629666
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method of carbon-containing wastes disposal includes the selection of the carbon-containing component from wastes, cooling of the carbon-containing component, the catalytic synthesis of methanol from the carbon-containing component. The exhaust gases from the gas turbine plants of the main gas pipelines gas transmission compressor stations are used as wastes. The carbon dioxide is selected from these gases, it is cooled in the heat exchanger of the gas turbine plant, then it is hydrogenated on the copper-containing catalyst in the methanol synthesis reactor. The hydrogen for the carbon dioxide hydrogenation is obtained by the high-temperature electrolysis of water on the oxygen-conducting membrane. The required electrolysis temperature is maintained by the heat, generated in the heat exchanger of the gas turbine plant, while cooling the carbon dioxide. The oxygen, separated on occasion with the help of the membrane, is added to the natural gas, sent as the fuel for the gas turbine plant.EFFECT: carbon-containing wastes disposal simplification and reduction of the methanol cost.2 cl, 1 dwg

Recycling titanium diboride materials // 2629299
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Method of processing titanium diboride material involves chlorination of titanium diboride material with gaseous chlorine to produce titanium-containing product and boron-containing product. At least one of titanium-containing product and boron-containing product contains at least one impurity. Method includes purification by distillation of titanium-containing product and boron-containing product to a degree sufficient to reduce concentration of at least one impurity. Titanium diboride is obtained by reaction between titanium-containing and boron-containing product. Titanium diboride can be obtained by oxidation of titanium-containing product and boron-containing product to titanium dioxide and boron oxide and subsequent carbothermal reaction between titanium dioxide and boron oxide. Titanium diboride can also be obtained by exposing titanium-containing product and boron-containing product to a gas reducing agent, such as hydrogen.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain purified titanium diboride from wastes or waste articles containing TiB2.16 cl, 8 dwg, 2 ex
Tungsten-molybdenum ores flotation benefication low-carbonate wastes disposal method // 2627656
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method includes the decarbonatization steps, element leaching and sediment treatment, in which decarbonatization is carried out by contacting the raw material, having the carbonate content less than 9% with 1N sulfuric acid solution at ratio C:L=1:2, for 1.5-2 hours to obtain the pulp. Leaching of the pulp is carried out at the temperature of 60-70°C for 2-3 hours in agitation mode with 1N sulfuric acid at the ratio of C:L=1:1 with the addition of 37% hydrogen peroxide solution in the amount of 0.05 l/kg of the pulp. Further, perform the decantating or filtration of this pulp to obtain the sediment and the mother solution, the sediment is washed with the industrial water with S:L=1:(2-3) for at least 0.5 hour, the sand fraction is separated and the resulting slurry is settled to form the settling solution. The solution, obtained after the sorption extraction of the elements, is combined with the settling solution and supplied to the head of the process to the decarbonatization stage.EFFECT: using of this invention allows to provide disposal and neutralisation of tungsten-molybdenum ores flotation benefication low-carbonate tails without using the high-temperature technologies for collecting the sublimations.4 cl, 2 ex, 1 tbl
Underground reactor system // 2627594
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: method for fuel producing from an organic material in an underground reactor (versions) and an underground reactor for use in the above process (versions) is proposed. The underground reactor includes the first conduit for organic material injecting under the ground and converting it into fuel, the second bypass for raising the converted organic material, and a heat exchanger for generating heat to power the equipment where the heat transfer fluid contains piezo-thermal or piezoelectric particles. In another version the underground reactor also comprises a pump for holding the reaction zone at the desired temperature. The method includes sending the organic material under the ground through the first conduit, applying to an organic material in a pressure and temperature reaction zone for converting the organic material into fuel, raising fuel through the second pipeline, and circulating the heat transfer fluid. In another version the method also includes using a heat exchanger to generate heat for use in the equipment powering.EFFECT: obtaining fuel due to underground temperature and pressure.95 cl, 23 dwg, 5 tbl, 13 ex
ethod for producing calcium fluoride from fluorocarbon-containing waste of aluminium production // 2627431
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for producing calcium fluoride from fluorocarbon-containing wastes of aluminium production involves treatment of fluor-containing solutions with calcium hydroxide, followed by separation of the solution and a pulp and liberation of calcium fluoride, which is washed with water. As a fluor-containing solution, a solution is used, obtained by leaching solid fine-dispersed fluorocarbon-containing waste of electrolytical aluminium production - sludge from gas cleaning, dust from electrostatic precipitators and spent coal lining. Fluorocarbon-containing wastes are submitted for treatment in a ratio of T:H=:(10-11) with respect to a 2-2.5% solution of sodium hydroxide. The treatment is carried out at a leach solution temperature of 65-85°C.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to produce calcium fluoride from solid fine-dispersed fluorocarbon-containing waste of electrolytic aluminium production with a fluor content in the solid phase of 12 to 25 percent.2 cl, 4 tbl
Neutralizing material for reclamation of acidified soils // 2626646
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: slag of ferrovanadium production by silicoaluminothermic method is used as a neutralizing material for reclamation of acidified soils of the plant containers.EFFECT: expanding the arsenal of neutralizing materials used for reclamation of acidified soils.2 tbl, 1 ex

Industrial method and device for processing organic waste // 2626160
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method of industrial processing of organic waste includes composting using composting worms. The substrate of organic waste is loaded into a vermimodule where it is humidified in the biohumus solution, aerobically fermented, then an array of organic wastes is formed from verminodules, with their subsequent periodic rearrangement and turning by 120° for loosening and aeration of the substrate, loading and forcing the compost worms. The device for processing organic waste is represented by a verminodule, which is made in the form of a trapezoidal prism, the base of which is an equilateral triangle, the walls of which are made perforated and connected by means of detachable hinges.EFFECT: excluding the emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of oil slime disposal as upright tank subsoil // 2625498
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: method of oily wastes disposal involves oily waste mixing with a detoxifying composition, followed by the introduction of a calculated amount of water until a uniform hydrophobic powder is formed. The resulting pellet oil slime in the form of a homogeneous hydrophobic loose fine powder is mixed with a mechanical mixer with water and sandy soil of medium size with a subsequent ratio of components, wt %: pellet oil slime in the form of homogeneous hydrophobic loose fine powder - up to 20%; water - 5-10%; sandy soil of medium size - the rest, and the resulting moistened mixture "Pellet oil slime - sandy soil of medium size" is laid in the base of the vertical tank and compacted.EFFECT: simplification of oily wastes disposal.1 dwg
ethod of manufacturing lithitioned artificial soil // 2625494
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: method of making artificial soil is to mix the drilling and/or drill cuttings (OM), sand, cement and soluble silicate with the following ratio of the components, vol. % of the initial OB: drilling wastes and/or cuttings with drilling mud elements 100; sand 10-90; cement-3-30; silicate 2-15.EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain an artificial coarse-grained ground with a clastic-grained structure that gives it the necessary strength to fill the cavities of technological depressions and equip road bases.13 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex

ethod of sorting of waste // 2624288
FIELD: physics.SUBSTANCE: waste sorting method involves the capture of objects from the conveyor by manipulators that are controlled by object recognition systems containing devices for scanning, spectrometry and detection of sorted objects, by comparing their data with images in computer software. Object recognition systems contain marking devices that apply coded tags to sorted objects, and manipulation of objects by manipulators is carried out using code markers.EFFECT: improved method.3 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of thermal neutralisation of municipal waste in melted slag and furnance for its implementation // 2623394
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: in the method of thermal neutralisation of solid municipal waste in a melted slag including loading of a prepared charge to the working chamber, burning it with formation of a melted slag bath, bubbling the melt with natural gas combustion products through submerged lances, discharging smelting products and cleaning gases after thermal decomposition of the charge, the thermal detoxification of waste is carried out directly in the bath of melted slag due to loading of the charge directly to the level of the melted slag bath and the supply to the melt of the air, preheated to 500°C, with an excess air ratio of α≤1.3 through lances located on the side walls of the working chamber, while the temperature of the slag bath is maintained in the interval of 1400-1600°C, the natural gas is combusted in the removable furnace chambers under α≤0.9, where the combustion products of the natural gas for bubbling of the slag bath and maintaining its tempreture are supplied for the melt level through the nozzles, mounted in the furnace chambers, disposed on the side walls of the working chamber in the staggered order against the nozzles, located on the opposite wall. The furnace for implementating the method comprises a caissonized working chamber equipped with remote combustion furnaces and lances for supplying air to the melt, which are disposed on the side walls above the nozzles of the removable combustion furnaces; the nozzles of the removable combustion furnaces are disposed on opposite side walls of the working chamber in a staggered order against each other; the upper parts of the side walls of the working chamber are inclined; and the loading device is disposed above the level of the axes of the combustion chambers outlet nozzles at a distance no more than 40 diameters of the outlet section of the combustion chamber nozzle.EFFECT: simplified preparation technology of materials for processing.14 cl, 1 dwg, 9 tbl

Way of pasteous materials drying // 2622604
FIELD: heating system.SUBSTANCE: according to the way of pasteous materials drying these pasteous materials are formed in the shape of the infinite cylinders and are placed in the direction of the motion, parallel with each other, incrementally. The drying means are directed to the reflux-cross direction towards the pasteous materials. Henceforth, one condense moisture from the drying means and the non-condensable gases and dust are gathered. Then one removes the cleared from the moisture and non-condensable gases drying means part, that is equal to the crisp air amount, that is delivered for the dried solid waste and natural gas incineration. And the remaining part is directed for the desaturation of the furnace exhaust to the drying means optimum temperature. One heats the drying means not only due to the natural gas incineration heat, but also due to the dried solid waste incineration heat.EFFECT: drying process efficiency increase.3 dwg

Device and method for processing absorbent hygiene items // 2622001
FIELD: textile, paper.SUBSTANCE: device for processing used absorbent sanitary items consists of a rotatable cylindrical autoclave, a heating circuit that pressurizes the autoclave to heat the absorbent sanitary products to sterilisation temperature for their destructurization, and the sealing layer on the inner surface of the autoclave. The autoclave has two ends, at least one of which ends with a shutter and the sealing layer contains grease or oil, and is made to prevent sticking onto the inner surface of the material coming from the destructuring of absorbent hygiene articles. Also described is a method of treating used absorbent sanitary products.EFFECT: increased efficiency of extraction of high-quality materials from processed sanitary hygiene products.5 cl, 4 dwg

Processing method of absorbent hygienic products // 2619868
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: processing method of used absorbent hygienic products comprises providing a rotating cylindrical autoclave; loading of autoclave with absorbent hygienic products sealed in a form of package inside the impermeable product bottom plate; heating to sterilisation temperature, creating pressure in the autoclave and bringing it in rotation; providing of cargo from rending elements inside the autoclave. The autoclave has an inner surface and two ends, at least one of which ends with a shutter which can be opened, allowing access to the autoclave and hermetically sealed, allowing to create a pressure therein, while weight of cargo from of elements is greater than the dry weight of cargo of hygienic products.EFFECT: efficient extraction of high-quality materials from the closed hygienic products.5 cl, 2 dwg
Device for processing of used oil filters // 2619284
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: device for processing of used oil filters contains a conveyor, a burner with a drive and a control unit. The conveyor consists of a conveyor belt with a drive for its movement, while the conveyor is equipped with a clamping, detachable and receiving means. The burner is made with the possibility to move in a vertical plane relative to the conveyor belt moving plane. The control unit interacts with the burner and conveyor belt drives. Clamping devices are placed on the belt in one or more rows, the number of burners is equal to the number of rows on the belt.EFFECT: efficiency of the used oil filters processing has been improved by separating the used oil and the filter element from the filter metal parts by burning them in the filter housing.2 cl, 1 dwg
ethod for product manufacture from production and consumption waste, and product made from production and consumption waste (versions) // 2617693
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: method for product manufacture from the production and consumption waste includes their distribution by physico-chemical properties and hazard classes in the sorting area, shredding and disposal. Production and consumption waste is crushed to 10-20 mm fractions, and mixed with sorbent materials in a volume of 0.5 to 50% of the total product weight, bioreagents in a volume of 0.5 to 40% of the total product weight, and binders in a volume of 10 to 80% of the total product weight. The product made from production and consumption waste consists of, vol. %: oil-contaminated soil of hazard class 3, 4, 5 - 50-90; sorbent materials - 15-50%; bioreagents - 10-20; biofertilisers - 10-25. The product made from the production and consumption waste consists of, vol. %: from 50 to 90 of bleaching earth waste containing vegetable oils of hazard class 4 or filtered powder containing oils of hazard classes 4 and 5; from 5 to 10 of sorbent materials; from 5 to 10 of bioreagents; from 10 to 25 of biofertilisers; from 10 to 35 vermicompost; from 5 to 10 of nitrogen-phosphorus fertiliser.EFFECT: obtaining of an environmentally safe product, compliant with the environmental and health standards.16 cl, 7 tbl
ethod for processing solid organic wastes by technological earthworms // 2617573
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: method of processing solid organic wastes by technological earthworms includes loosening the organic waste mass of a formed dump or a landfill exhausted its resource, restricting the mass by vertical shaft-forming perforated cages for retaining the waste mass from crumbling, in which an elastic sleeve is laid alternately with skipping one row, which is filled with an inert carrier mixed with nutrient substrate and populated with technological earthworms Eisena fetida. After complete migration of the worm in the waste mass, the sleeve is removed from the shaft and is sent to filling with another nutrient mixture portion and populating with the worm. After processing the waste mass, the sleeve with a nutritional bait, which serves as a trap for transferring the worms to new sites, is lowered into the shaft, with repeating this operation until complete removal of the worms from the resulting vermicompost, the sign of which is the height reduction of the laid substrate up to 60% of the initial volume. Thereinafter the vermicompost is separated and transported to the consumer, and the MSW mineral component remainder is sent to crushing and sorting.EFFECT: use of said invention excludes the costs for manual labour, heating and aeration.3 cl, 3 dwg

ethod of utilisation of polymer wastes by method of low-temperature catalytic pyrolysis // 2617213
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method for utilising polymer waste by a low-temperature catalytic pyrolysis method is carried out, and the polymer waste is thermally processed in a screw reactor without oxygen access in the presence of a ZSM-5 zeolite-based catalyst, the method being characterised in that the catalyst is an iron oxide catalyst, Impregnated in a matrix of zeolite ZSM-5, waste processing is carried out at a temperature of 498-502°C for 59-61 minutes, when using 1-5% of the mass of raw materials, while processing polymer waste with a particle size of not more than 80 mm.EFFECT: decrease the formation of by resin components, obtaining fuel gas, low temperature thermal destruction process.2 tbl, 1 dwg

Device for disposal of products of physical necessities satisfaction // 2616799
FIELD: satisfaction of human life necessities.SUBSTANCE: bunker for hermetic plastic packages with the call of nature products having an electrically-driven feeder is connected to the device for package mechanical opening which comprises a housing with an apron conveyor having rod shelves, is made with possibility to open the packages with the call of nature products which leak off into the inclined distributing outlet, is made with possibility to open the packages with knives immovably installed inside the housing so that they appear in the gaps between the shelves rods of the apron conveyor moving past the knives, as well as made with possibility to remove the opened plastic packages with the removers from the rods, immovably installed in the device housing, as well as to shift them through the outlet into the melter with a heater, to which a vertical extruder with a screw and actuator is attached, the outlet holes of the inclined distributing outlet are connected through the valve to the inlet holes of the container for fermentation of the call of nature products with added sulfuric acid solution and limestone through the pipe with the valve, and through the pipes with the valves of the yeast solution and wort distillation into the commercial alcohol, and the container outlet holes have hermitic rotor feeders to push off the remaining fraction after distillation of the commercial alcohol which may be applied for fertilization of agricultural fields, distillation of the commercial alcohol from the tow boat, obtained from the call of nature products, is effected in the containers under heating with tens, the outlet hole of the extruder is made with possibility to install therein a variety of matrix for pressing through them a corrugated thick mass, with possibility to cut off exclusive bars with a string cutter, with possibility to descend the bars to prevent their deformation and for their cooling in the current water in the cooling basin, where a pipe is disposed for sweating the commercial alcohol, going from containers through the pipes with valves and pushing off the liquid commercial alcohol through the valve.EFFECT: improved ecological compatibility of household waste disposal.1 dwg
Universal method of complex well-drilling waste neutralization to produce anthropogenic reinforced soil (ars) building composite // 2616304
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of drilling waste neutralization and disposal and can be used for complex waste neutralization which is generated during drilling operations such as drilling slurries (DS), drilling waste water (DWW), waste drilling muds (WDM), contaminated soils and other pre-shredded industrial and household waste. The method of complex neutralization consists of step-by-step mixing of the waste with dry bulk components, but before application of additional components drilling waste is mixed until homogeneous condition in proportions which provide 30-500% bulk humidity of the mixture, afterwards sand for construction, sandy light and silty light loam, clay are applied to the mixture at a rate of 10-40% with allowance for preservation of the predetermined mixture humidity value, then the complexing modifying additive at a rate of 8-30% and the cement at a rate of 0-30% are applied to the mixture.EFFECT: invention provides simultaneous neutralization of several drilling waste types and immobilization of various ecotoxicants in the structure of the newly formed mineral matrix to produce a building material, simplification and cheapening of the waste neutralization and disposal.4 cl, 4 tbl
Calcium-containing preparation for compacting and decontaminating sludge sediments and method of processing sludge sediments using thereof // 2616078
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: calcium-containing preparation for compacting and decontaminating sludge sediments of treatment facilities is a mechanical powder mixture comprising up to 50 wt % of at least two active components selected from the compounds: TiO2, SiO2, CuSO4, Na2SO4, alkali, sodium humate, ammonium humate, aminoacetic acid, cuprum glycinates, manganese, calcium, the rest - CaO. The calcium-containing preparation is mixed with slusge sediment, liquid (water) and solid phases are separated by sedimentation method and then diversion of the liquid phase (water) is carried out. Calcium-containing preparation is used at a dose of 1-30 g/dm3. At least one active additive selected from the compounds: CuSO4, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, alkali, sodium humate, ammonium humate, aminoacetic acid, cuprum glycinates, manganese, calcium at a dose of 8 g/dm3, is additionally added to the sludge sediment, at least after one or at one of the mixing, separating and water diverting stages.EFFECT: invention enables to ensure highly efficient processing of the sludge sediments of treatment facilities, comprising activated sludge, raw sludge or a mixture thereof, while reducing the cost of the proposed preparation.11 cl, 2 tbl, 11 ex
ethod of highly thermal treatment of liquid, paste-like, mixtures thereof and solid wastes // 2614999
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: method comprises the sequential loading and incineration of waste, aftercombustion of gaseous products during feeding of air activated by corona discharge, quenching of gases, followed by absorption and emission of waste gases. The activation of the air by corona discharge is carried out at the stage of aftercombustion with mode of 350-450 discharges per second with the electric-field intensity of up to 8 kV/cm. The feeding of the air activated by corona discharge is additionally carried out during loading of waste with corona discharge influence mode of 500-650 discharges per second with electric-field intensity of up to 11 kV/cm, during quenching with corona discharge influence mode of 350-450 discharges per second with electric-field intensity of up to 8 kV/cm, during absorption with corona discharge influence mode of 350-450 discharges per second with electric-field intensity of up to 8 kV/cm, during emission of waste gases with corona discharge influence mode of 250-350 discharges per second with electric-field intensity of up to 6 kV/cm.EFFECT: significant reduction of harmful substances in waste gases without pre-sorting of wastes by their phase state, specifically to liquid, solid and paste-like.6 cl, 1 dwg

ethod for complex ash processing of heat power plants waste piles and plant for complex ash processing of heat power plants waste piles // 2614003
FIELD: power industry.SUBSTANCE: complex ash processing method of heat power plants waste piles includes the separating of ash pulp into the coarse and fine fractions, flotation, and magnetic separation to obtain the target products. The coarse fractions of ash are separated on the screens for using in the production of concrete mixtures. Ash fine fractions and subjected to the main and cleaner flotation, filtration and drying, to obtain a carbon concentrate. The separated at the primary flotation the tail fractions are subjected to magnetic separation and drying to obtain magnetite and silica-alumina concentrate. The aluminosilicate concentrate is grounded in the ball mill upto the fine fraction, filtered and dried. During the primary flotation the collector-kerosine and pine oil is used as the blowing agent. The cleaner flotation is carried out on the return water. The method is carried out on the complex ash processing plant of heat power plants waste piles, containing the means for separating the ash pulp into the coarse and fine fractions, as well as flotation and magnetic separation to obtain the target products. The ash pulp separator is designed as the screen, which outlet of the coarse fraction is connected to the inlet of the first section for the production of concrete mixtures. The screen outlet of the fine fraction is connected to the first flotation machine inlet for the main flotation, the first outlet of which is connected through the second machine of the cleaner flotation, filtration and drying units with the the second section inlet for the coal concentrate storing. The second outlet of the first flotation machine is connected with the first inlet of magnetic separation unit, the first outlet of which is connected through the drain silo with the third section inlet for the magnetite concentrate storing. The second outlet of the magnetic separation unit is connected through the thickener and drying units with the third section inlet for the aluminosilicate concentrate storing. The drain silo outlet of water is connected to the second inlet of the magnetic separation unit.EFFECT: fullest recovery from the wet ash waste piles of power heating plant of the target useful products in the form of ash coarse fraction for the concrete mixtures production, carbon for using as a boiler fuel, magnetite concentrate as a raw material for the metal industry and active aluminium silicate additive for construction materials productions.5 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl 2 ex

ethod to destroy toxic organic compounds // 2613989
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of destruction and decontamination of toxic substances, including chemical warfare agents. Method includes addition of toxic organic compounds into a reactor and energy impact at these organic compounds. Toxic organic compounds in sealed packages are first placed into a closed container, which is then introduced into the reactor, afterwards the reactor is filled with melt, which surrounds the container from all sides to form a cast from solid melt. After melt becomes solid, and its energy impact at toxic organic compounds is stopped, the formed cast with the container inside is withdrawn from the reactor and is placed for environmentally safe long-term storage.EFFECT: feature of the invention consists in expansion of technological capabilities of the method, reduced costs and simplified technology of toxic organic compounds destruction, and more important, in increased safety of personnel handling chemical agents, since it is not required to open primary packages with chemical agents.5 cl, 2 dwg
ethod of oil sludge preparation for hydrogenation processing (versions) and method of hydrogenation processing of oil sludge therewith (versions) // 2611163
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the processing of oil waste, namely oil sludge, into oil and may be used for disposal of oil sludge and production of distillate fractions with a temperature no higher than 520°C. According to the first option of the method the oil slurdge containing more that 5% by weight of mineral impurities is brought into contact with the solvent in the extractor for the hydrogenation processing. The extractor pre-purging is carried out with inert gas till the air is removed and the extraction is made with constant stirring and purging with the inert gas. Water, a solvent part and a light hydrocarbons fraction boiling up to 350°C are recovered from the extract. The remainder of the extract is separated for a liquid organic phase and a precipitate via settling and decantation. The latter is sent for re-extraction. The second extract is hot filtered at the excessive pressure of 0.4-0.6 MPa and a temperature of 45-50°C and the filtrate is mixed with a liquid organic phase to get the processed raw material. If oil sludge contains less than 5% by weight. of mineral impurities, then no sedimentation and decantation is made for its preparation immediately directing part of the extract devoid of light hydrocarbons to hot filtration. The solvent is removed from the filtrate or its mixture with the liquid organic phase by distillation, and from precipitate filtration - by evaporation, and return it to the cycle. The raw materials prepared for the hydrogenation processing under the first or second method are transfered into the reactor and the hydrogenator processing of the said raw materials in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst MoS2 synthesized in situ from water solution of ammonium paramolybdate dispersed in the processed raw materials is carried out.EFFECT: invention increases the degree of recycling of oil sludge preventing equipment corrosion and poisoning of the catalyst by mineral impurities contained in the oil sludge, and increasing distillate fractional yield during hydrogenation refining of oil sludge.4 cl, 7 tbl, 10 ex
ethod for processing drilling wastes // 2608230
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: method involves introduction cement and sorbent into wastes, hardening of the semi-finished product to produce finished construction material. Wastes are mixed with 10–20 % of natural sand and 0.6–1.0 % of Unisorb-Bio sorbent of the weight of processed wastes. Obtained mixture is dehydrated to moisture content of not more than 30 %, oil-well portland cement 1–50 is added in an amount of 20–30 % of the weight of the dehydrated mixture, also added is the hardening accelerator in an amount of 0.8–1.0 % of weight of oil-well portland cement, produced mass is briquetted at pressing pressure from 30 to 50 MPa, obtained briquettes are hardened to the required strength of a finished construction material.EFFECT: use of the invention allows to produce strong construction molded material.1 cl

Process and device for treating catalyst discharged from bubbling bed hydrogenation of residual oil // 2607764
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for treating a catalyst discharged from bubbling bed hydrogenation of residual oil. Method comprises following steps: (1) adjustment and control to reduce viscosity, wherein catalyst discharged intermittently from a bubbling bed hydrogenation reactor for residual oil, is adjusted for storage and then discharged continuously, subjected to temperature adjustment by adding water, such that viscosity of oil adsorbed on surfaces and inside pores of discharged catalyst particles is reduced, and flowability of adsorbed oil on surfaces and inside pores of the discharged catalyst particles is improved; (2) desorption and separation by rotational flow, wherein adsorbed oil is desorbed and separated from surfaces and inner pores of discharged catalyst particles by a flowing shear force from a rotational flow field; (3) separation and resource utilisation of three phase oil-water-catalyst, wherein oil/water/catalyst mixture produced from desorption and separation by rotational flow, is subjected to three-phase separation, achieving recovery of oil, recycling of water obtained by separation, and full recovery of solid particles obtained by separation. Invention also discloses a device for implementation of method.EFFECT: technical result consists in reduction of cost of treatment, simplified process, higher oil recovery factor, reduced tendency to formation of secondary sources of contamination.10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

ethod of decontaminating highly mineralized drilling wastes and plant for its implementation // 2607599
FIELD: mining; processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a plant for decontamination of highly mineralized drilling wastes containing oil products, heavy metals, synthetic surfactants and other contaminants based on introduction of a hardening composition and a method implemented with using it. Plant includes pumps, pipelines, a unit for receiving and washing drilling wastes, a unit of coarse mechanical treatment, a reagents preparation and dispensing unit, a unit for cleaning the contaminated brine, a fine mechanical treatment unit, a container for temporary storage of the clarified brine. Plant additionally contains an inertization unit, a mixing module of which is equipped with a bottom gate to discharge the hardened material and is connected via the main line to the coarse mechanical treatment unit, the unit for cleaning the contaminated brine and the fine mechanical treatment unit. Included in the unit for receiving and washing the drilling wastes mixing container is equipped with a blade mixer, a loading funnel and is provided with a hydrodynamic disperser. All units of the plant are integrated with the help of frames and metal structures and can be based on a welded frame of a two-axle trailer. Treatment of the drilling wastes is performed by inertization after washing from salts to obtain washed drilling mud of the contaminated brine followed by thorough mechanical stirring for 2–3 minutes of the drilling mud with the hardening composition of not less than 20 wt%. based on a binder cement of grade PC M-500 of 40–80 wt%. and a fine active sorption additive – gaize of 20–60 wt%. at the humidity of 40 %. Then a hardening activator solution is added, as which used is 20 % liquid glass in the amount of 10–20 % of the dry hardened material, and is thoroughly stirred for 5–7 minutes. Contaminated brine is directed for multistage cleaning by coagulation, flocculation and centrifugation to form a solid phase sent for inertization.EFFECT: group of inventions provides decreased negative environmental load on natural objects.2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
ethod for complex processing of ash from burning coal // 2605987
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to complex processing of ashes from burning coals. Method involves blending the ash with sodium hydroxide, sintering at the temperature of 150–200 °C, leaching the sinter, separation of phases, desiliconization of the solution by adding sodium hydroalumosilicate into the solution. In compliance with this method prior to leaching the sinter it is washed with water to obtain a first silicate solution, the washed sinter is leached with sulphuric acid, the produced pulp is separated by filtration. Desiliconization of the solution is performed till complete extraction of silica to obtain a solution of aluminium sulphate and a silica-containing residue. Residue is dissolved in an alkaline solution to obtain a second silicate solution, which is combined with the first silicate solution directing further to produce white soot by carbonization. Technical result is reducing the sintering temperature and reducing consumption of reagents when reaching the alumina extraction at the level of 94.4–96.7 % and the silica extraction at the level of 93.9–98.2 %.EFFECT: lower sintering temperature and reduced consumption of reagents.1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

Production of organic materials using oxidative hydrothermal dissolution method // 2604726
FIELD: ecology; technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly methods of organic substances production, such as oil substances and aromatic acids, phenols and aliphatic polycarbonate acids using hydro-thermic oxidative dissolution process (PER). Method of solid organic substance solubilizing contained in composite material containing organic solid substance and inorganic matrix includes: bringing said composite material in contact with oxidizing agent in superheated water to form aqueous mixture, containing at least one solubilized organic dissolved substance, wherein composite material is selected from group consisting of tar sand, carbonaceous oil shale and any mixture thereof.EFFECT: disclosed is environmentally safe method of organic substances production.16 cl, 31 dwg, 5 tbl, 7 ex

ethod of processing absorbing hygienic products // 2604692
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine. Method of processing used absorbent hygienic products is described, involving following stages: creation of cylindrical rotor autoclave with inner surface and two ends, at least one of which ends with hatch, which can be opened to allow access to said autoclave and tightly closed to provide creation of increased pressure inside autoclave; loading of said autoclave with absorbent hygienic products in closed form; heating up to temperature of sterilization and creation of increased pressure inside autoclave, wherein bringing autoclave into rotation about its longitudinal axis; wherein said step of heating and creation of increased pressure inside autoclave provides first temperature mode for products, contained in autoclave, as well as second temperature mode, higher than first temperature mode for said inner surface.EFFECT: method of efficient sterilization and drying during processing in autoclave.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of recycling oily wastes // 2603150
FIELD: environmental protection.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to processes of recycling oily wastes and recycled filtering and absorbing waste mass, and can be used in oil and gas industry and waste treatment facilities. Preliminarily heated oily wastes and fat-and-oil industry wastes are being stirred, while stirring unslaked lime is being added portionwise, water reacting with unslaked lime is being introduced, amount of water is being determined considering water in oily wastes. Recycled filtering and absorbing waste mass produced after repeated regeneration of diatomite filtering powder is used as fat-and-oil industry wastes, oily wastes are being mixed fat-and-oil industry wastes in ratio of 1:(0.1-0.3) by weight, unslaked lime is being added in amount of 62-91 wt% of the weight of waste mixture to produce a homogeneous hydrophobic loose fine powder, and oily wastes and fat-and-oil industry wastes are being stirred, preliminary heating to temperature of 80-85 °C.EFFECT: reduced leachability of contaminating materials from the oily waste recycling product using more effective available neutralizing components with modifier and adsorbent properties.1 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex