Disposal of solid waste and reclamation of contaminated soil (B09)

B09            Disposal of solid waste; reclamation of contaminated soil(990)
Process and device for treating catalyst discharged from bubbling bed hydrogenation of residual oil // 2607764
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for treating a catalyst discharged from bubbling bed hydrogenation of residual oil. Method comprises following steps: (1) adjustment and control to reduce viscosity, wherein catalyst discharged intermittently from a bubbling bed hydrogenation reactor for residual oil, is adjusted for storage and then discharged continuously, subjected to temperature adjustment by adding water, such that viscosity of oil adsorbed on surfaces and inside pores of discharged catalyst particles is reduced, and flowability of adsorbed oil on surfaces and inside pores of the discharged catalyst particles is improved; (2) desorption and separation by rotational flow, wherein adsorbed oil is desorbed and separated from surfaces and inner pores of discharged catalyst particles by a flowing shear force from a rotational flow field; (3) separation and resource utilisation of three phase oil-water-catalyst, wherein oil/water/catalyst mixture produced from desorption and separation by rotational flow, is subjected to three-phase separation, achieving recovery of oil, recycling of water obtained by separation, and full recovery of solid particles obtained by separation. Invention also discloses a device for implementation of method.EFFECT: technical result consists in reduction of cost of treatment, simplified process, higher oil recovery factor, reduced tendency to formation of secondary sources of contamination.10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
ethod of decontaminating highly mineralized drilling wastes and plant for its implementation // 2607599
FIELD: mining; processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to a plant for decontamination of highly mineralized drilling wastes containing oil products, heavy metals, synthetic surfactants and other contaminants based on introduction of a hardening composition and a method implemented with using it. Plant includes pumps, pipelines, a unit for receiving and washing drilling wastes, a unit of coarse mechanical treatment, a reagents preparation and dispensing unit, a unit for cleaning the contaminated brine, a fine mechanical treatment unit, a container for temporary storage of the clarified brine. Plant additionally contains an inertization unit, a mixing module of which is equipped with a bottom gate to discharge the hardened material and is connected via the main line to the coarse mechanical treatment unit, the unit for cleaning the contaminated brine and the fine mechanical treatment unit. Included in the unit for receiving and washing the drilling wastes mixing container is equipped with a blade mixer, a loading funnel and is provided with a hydrodynamic disperser. All units of the plant are integrated with the help of frames and metal structures and can be based on a welded frame of a two-axle trailer. Treatment of the drilling wastes is performed by inertization after washing from salts to obtain washed drilling mud of the contaminated brine followed by thorough mechanical stirring for 2–3 minutes of the drilling mud with the hardening composition of not less than 20 wt%. based on a binder cement of grade PC M-500 of 40–80 wt%. and a fine active sorption additive – gaize of 20–60 wt%. at the humidity of 40 %. Then a hardening activator solution is added, as which used is 20 % liquid glass in the amount of 10–20 % of the dry hardened material, and is thoroughly stirred for 5–7 minutes. Contaminated brine is directed for multistage cleaning by coagulation, flocculation and centrifugation to form a solid phase sent for inertization.EFFECT: group of inventions provides decreased negative environmental load on natural objects.2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
Composition for neutralising oil contaminated materials // 2607455
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reagents, intended for decontaminating oil-contaminated materials, including soils, drill cuttings, production wastes, and decontamination of soil in areas of oil spill and oil products to eliminate consequences of emergency situations without collection and removal of soil to special landfills. Composition for decontaminating oil-contaminated materials includes alumina, alabaster, lime, cement, dolomite powder, calcined soda in following ratio of components, wt%: alabaster 5–15, alumina 10–45, lime 25–75, dolomite powder 2–12, calcined soda 0.8–3, cement 2–7.EFFECT: use of proposed composition allows fast, in shortest time, elimination of consequences of emergency situations without collection and removal of soil to special landfills, higher efficiency of reduction of residual hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.1 cl
ethod for complex processing of ash from burning coal // 2605987
FIELD: technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to complex processing of ashes from burning coals. Method involves blending the ash with sodium hydroxide, sintering at the temperature of 150–200 °C, leaching the sinter, separation of phases, desiliconization of the solution by adding sodium hydroalumosilicate into the solution. In compliance with this method prior to leaching the sinter it is washed with water to obtain a first silicate solution, the washed sinter is leached with sulphuric acid, the produced pulp is separated by filtration. Desiliconization of the solution is performed till complete extraction of silica to obtain a solution of aluminium sulphate and a silica-containing residue. Residue is dissolved in an alkaline solution to obtain a second silicate solution, which is combined with the first silicate solution directing further to produce white soot by carbonization. Technical result is reducing the sintering temperature and reducing consumption of reagents when reaching the alumina extraction at the level of 94.4–96.7 % and the silica extraction at the level of 93.9–98.2 %.EFFECT: lower sintering temperature and reduced consumption of reagents.1 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

Production of organic materials using oxidative hydrothermal dissolution method // 2604726
FIELD: ecology; technological processes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmentally friendly methods of organic substances production, such as oil substances and aromatic acids, phenols and aliphatic polycarbonate acids using hydro-thermic oxidative dissolution process (PER). Method of solid organic substance solubilizing contained in composite material containing organic solid substance and inorganic matrix includes: bringing said composite material in contact with oxidizing agent in superheated water to form aqueous mixture, containing at least one solubilized organic dissolved substance, wherein composite material is selected from group consisting of tar sand, carbonaceous oil shale and any mixture thereof.EFFECT: disclosed is environmentally safe method of organic substances production.16 cl, 31 dwg, 5 tbl, 7 ex

ethod of processing absorbing hygienic products // 2604692
FIELD: medicine.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine. Method of processing used absorbent hygienic products is described, involving following stages: creation of cylindrical rotor autoclave with inner surface and two ends, at least one of which ends with hatch, which can be opened to allow access to said autoclave and tightly closed to provide creation of increased pressure inside autoclave; loading of said autoclave with absorbent hygienic products in closed form; heating up to temperature of sterilization and creation of increased pressure inside autoclave, wherein bringing autoclave into rotation about its longitudinal axis; wherein said step of heating and creation of increased pressure inside autoclave provides first temperature mode for products, contained in autoclave, as well as second temperature mode, higher than first temperature mode for said inner surface.EFFECT: method of efficient sterilization and drying during processing in autoclave.3 cl, 2 dwg

aterial for reclamation of disturbed lands // 2603907
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. Material for reclamation of disturbed lands contains natural ground and industrial wastes. In the role of industrial wastes, it comprises refuse heaps, subjected to spontaneous ignition during storage, at weight ratio of natural soil to refuse heaps equal to 1:1.EFFECT: technical result is obtaining material for reclamation of disturbed lands using a simple technique, recycling wastes of coal industry, having negative impact on environment and providing expansion of raw material resources for producing material for reclamation of disturbed lands.1 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of protecting a root system of woody plants for biological reclamation // 2603584
FIELD: forestry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to land reclamation and forestry. Protecting a root system of woody plants during forest reclamation is provided by dipping roots of wood plants intended for biological reclamation in clay "mash" with an organic fertilizer.EFFECT: method allows recovering the environmental function of land, reducing the reclamation length and increasing plantation durability.1 cl, 1 ex

ethod for detoxification of white phosphorus using microorganism strain trichoderma asperellum vkpm f-1087 // 2603259
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology, specifically to a method for detoxification of white phosphorus in contaminated soil. Decontamination is performed by treatment of white phosphorus-contaminated soil with a strain of Trichoderma asperellum VKPM F-1087. Method enables detoxification of soil containing white phosphorus in concentration up to 1.0 wt%, exceeding the maximum allowable concentration 5,000 times.EFFECT: method enables detoxification of soil.1 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of recycling oily wastes // 2603150
FIELD: environmental protection.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to processes of recycling oily wastes and recycled filtering and absorbing waste mass, and can be used in oil and gas industry and waste treatment facilities. Preliminarily heated oily wastes and fat-and-oil industry wastes are being stirred, while stirring unslaked lime is being added portionwise, water reacting with unslaked lime is being introduced, amount of water is being determined considering water in oily wastes. Recycled filtering and absorbing waste mass produced after repeated regeneration of diatomite filtering powder is used as fat-and-oil industry wastes, oily wastes are being mixed fat-and-oil industry wastes in ratio of 1:(0.1-0.3) by weight, unslaked lime is being added in amount of 62-91 wt% of the weight of waste mixture to produce a homogeneous hydrophobic loose fine powder, and oily wastes and fat-and-oil industry wastes are being stirred, preliminary heating to temperature of 80-85 °C.EFFECT: reduced leachability of contaminating materials from the oily waste recycling product using more effective available neutralizing components with modifier and adsorbent properties.1 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex

ethod of soil cleaning from hydrocarbons and pesticides and device for its implementation // 2602615
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, namely to reclamation of lands, contaminated with hydrocarbons (oil products), decontamination of soil from pesticides using phenomenon of electric osmosis. Method of cleaning soil from oil products and pesticides using electroosmosis consists in immersing of central and peripheral electrodes into soil at section, undergoing cleaning, creation of non-uniform electric field between central and peripheral electrodes, supplying of non-contaminating carrier fluid into area adjoining central electrode, movement of carrier fluid under action of electroosmotic effect from central electrode to peripheral ones, removal of dirt beyond contaminated section, displacement of contaminants from soil by carrier fluid and removal thereof from peripheral electrodes, non-uniform electric field intensity value is set within 50-110 kV/m, before supplying carrier fluid soil is milled into particles of 1.0 mm in depth of 20-25 cm. Milled soil is mixed with carrier fluid to concentration of 1:6. Fluidized layer is created by device in depth of 10-12 cm with supply of compressed air of pressure 1-2 ATM. Proposed device comprises central electrode and system of peripheral electrodes, submerged into soil cleaning section, nozzle for carrier fluid supply and removal of fluid, containing contaminants, from cleaning section. Central electrode is made in form of rod with cross section in form of polygon with concave sides. System of peripheral electrodes is composed by separate rods. Rods are connected by wire conductors with sharp-pointed elements on them, point of which is directed to central electrode. Ahead of nozzles for supply of carrier fluid dispenser is placed. Above system of peripheral electrodes device for creation of fluidized layer is located, including central r-shape pipeline with compressor, connected via control valve with system of radial pipelines, at end of each of which nozzles are located, submerged into soil for depth of 10-12 cm.EFFECT: proposed method of soil cleaning from hydrocarbons and pesticides and device for it provide maximum effect of soil cleaning.2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg

ethod of processing solid organic wastes // 2602610
FIELD: recycling.SUBSTANCE: method of processing solid domestic wastes and/or production wastes, selected from natural and synthetic polymers in gaseous, liquid and solid products by means of simultaneous impact of accelerated electrons and temperature. Processing is carried out in flow mode, changing clearance between outlet opening of the accelerator and the surface of raw material at temperature, providing melting of not less than 30 % fraction of synthetic polymers, but not higher than the temperature that provides the beginning of the dry distillation of more than 30 % of fraction of natural polymers with traditional heating not more than 30 °C, exposing volatile products of fractional condensation outside the irradiation area.EFFECT: using the given method allows waste-free processing of SDW.11 cl, 2 tbl
ethod of treating oil sludge and cleaning oil contaminated soil // 2602179
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil industry, more specifically to methods for improvement of ecological state and return to economic use of lands contaminated by oil products, in particular oil sludge and oily soils. Method of treating oil sludge and cleaning oil contaminated soil involves selection of composition of oil sludge with water content from 0.01 to 99.9 %, introduction of organic components into oil sludge, formation of porosity of treated material, creation of conditions of penetration of oxygen into material, completion of multicomponent interaction of oil-oxidising microorganisms with structure-variable compost composition, conversion of said composition of oil sludge and oil contaminated soil into high-humus soil. Organic components introduced into oil sludge or oil contaminated soil are organic fertilisers and sunflower husks. Mineral fertiliser is added to formed mixture to boost nutrition and accelerate active propagation of soil microflora, primarily hydrocarbon-decomposing microorganisms. Method includes adding to obtained material Ca-containing additives to achieve pH of medium equal to 5.5-8.0, laying produced mass onto a substrate from sunflower husks and organic fertilisers in heaps with height of up to 4 m and width of base of up to 7 m, every 15-20 days for 1-3 months performing aeration of compost by re-laying heap. Sunflower husks make up not less than 25 % of total volume of heap. Using given method improves process of biodegradation.EFFECT: invention enables to clean oil sludge and oil contaminated soils using sunflower husks, using it to replace other vegetable organic residues, reduces consumption of scarce cattle manure, reduces consumption of materials for cleaning, reduces cost and speeds up cleaning, improves, by using sunflower husks as biological and physical agent conditions (temperature, humidity, aeration) for biodecomposition of hydrocarbons thus increasing efficiency of cleaning.1 cl

ethod cleaning oil sludge and oil contaminated soil // 2601973
FIELD: oil and gas industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to oil industry, specifically to improvement of ecological condition and reclamation of lands contaminated with oil products, in particular, oil sludge and soil contaminated with oil products (oily soil). Proposed method comprises selection of composition of oil sludge with water content from 0.01 to 99.9 %, adding to oil sludge organic components, formation of porosity of processed material, creation of conditions of penetration of oxygen into material, completion of multicomponent interaction of oil-oxidising microorganisms with structure-variable compost composition, conversion of said composition of oil sludge and oil contaminated soil into high-humus soil. In oil slime organic components added are plant residues, which can be milled above-ground part weeds and crops, straw, chaff, husks, straw manure, peat, spent compost of champignons, active sludge of treatment facilities of industrial enterprises, in which prior to adding to oil sludge or oily soil glauconite or compound mineral-organic granular fertiliser is added based on glauconite in amount of 0.8-1.0 kg per 1 ton of plant residues to boost nourishment and speed up active propagation of soil microflora, primarily hydrocarbon-decomposing microorganisms, closing volume weight of processed oil sludge or oily soil by adding said plant residues in ratio of 1:1, to achieve acidity (pH) of medium less than 8.0, method includes adding to obtained material phosphogypsum in a volume defined by relationship: , where Vf, Vs respectively denote volume of phosphogypsum and oil sludge, m3; ρf, ρs respectively denote density of phosphogypsum and oil sludge, kg/m3; pHf, pHs respectively denote acidity of phosphogypsum and oil sludge. Then produced mass is laid in piles with height up to 4 m and width of base of up to 7 m, in which is placed in staggered order every 1-1.5 m in horizontal and vertical planes perforated pipes, intended for removal of carbon dioxide, released during biodegradation of hydrocarbons.EFFECT: use of present invention reduces cost of cleaning oil sludge and soil purification from oil contaminated soil.1 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of decontaminating soil from heptyl // 2601568
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of mineralising toxic organic compounds directly at contamination site. Method of decontaminating soil from heptyl includes simultaneous exposure of soil to an electron beam with dose 20 kGy and mechanical acoustic oscillations of 10 W.EFFECT: proposed invention provides high rate of decontaminating soil.1 cl, 3 ex

Composition of bacterial strains, mixture for bioremediation and using said composition for removal of contaminants from soil, as well as method of soil cleaning from contaminants // 2601155
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions can be used for soil cleaning from contaminants. Composition of 11 bacteria strains capable to metabolize aromatic nitro compounds and resistant to antibiotics and heavy metals is proposed. Composition is deposited in Collection of Industrial Microorganisms IAFB - of Institute of agricultural and food biotechnology in Warsaw No. KPP 2041p. Method of soil treatment using vaccine containing composition of strains is proposed.EFFECT: group of inventions provides effective bioremediation of soil, contaminated with aromatic nitro compounds, heavy metals and antibiotics.24 cl, 1 dwg, 12 tbl, 4 ex

ethod and apparatus for recycling solid household wastes at landfills // 2601062
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: method of recycling of solid household wastes at landfills involves loading wastes into plant, biodecomposition with formation of gaseous and solid products, neutralisation, cooling and accumulation of processing products, prior to loading method comprises radiation control of weight of solid domestic wastes, recycling solid domestic wastes, which is carried out in two steps, at first step solid domestic wastes are subjected to aerobic and anaerobic treatment to produce biogas, that is supplied for thermal and electric power generation. Second step involves thermal decomposition, wherein untreated part of wastes undergoes intense drying, and then pyrolysis, result of which is pyrolysis gas, which after cooling and cleaning is fed for thermal and electric power generation. Obtained as a result of pyrolysis pyrocarbonate is used in treatment of filtrate, which is released during biodecomposition. Other neutralised in installation solid fractions of wastes after cooling are delivered for burial. Apparatus for recycling solid domestic wastes at landfills comprises an elongated chamber for processing solid domestic wastes, which is inclined at slope of natural elevation of a specific area, in upper part of which there is an access path for filling solid domestic wastes into chamber via a hatch. In lower part of chamber there is a gate for dumping processed and neutralised mass of solid domestic wastes. Chamber consists of serially arranged zones of biodecomposition, thermal decomposition, which includes a pyrolysis section, zones for cooling and accumulation of processing products. Biodecomposition zone comprises two sections - section for aerobic and anaerobic treatment, in which there is a multifunctional structure, which is a blade for mixing moving mass of solid domestic wastes, collection and discharge of biogas, introduction of water and correcting solutions and device for collection and discharge of filtrate. On side wall of chamber there are hatches for sampling, zone of thermal decomposition additionally includes a section of drying and heating processed mass of solid domestic wastes and gas-stop chamber to prevent ingress of air from below into pyrolysis section. Outside on side surface there are stairs/elevator for servicing apparatus.EFFECT: use of present group of inventions provides comprehensive continuous and accelerated processing of solid domestic wastes.20 cl, 6 dwg

Preparation for cleaning soil and water from oil contaminants // 2600872
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiology and biotechnology, specifically to technology for production of preparations for cleaning soil and water from oil contaminants. Preparation contains a solid carrier substrate and immobilised on its surface a biomass of bacteria Pseudomonas panipatensis VKPM V-10593 in concentration of 1×109 cells/cm3. Solid carrier substrate used is expanded vermiculite.EFFECT: invention reduces duration of treatment of soil and water from oil contamination in wide temperature range (from +8 to 37 °C).1 cl, 7 tbl, 2 ex

Preparation for cleaning soil from oil contaminants // 2600868
FIELD: microbiology.SUBSTANCE: invention refers to microbiology and biotechnology, particularly to technology for production of preparations for cleaning soil from oil contaminants. Preparation contains a biomass of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms Rhodococcus sp. VKM Ac-2626D and Serratia plymuthica VKM B-2819D, taken in equal proportions, immobilized on substrate surface carrier. Natural zeolite deposit Honguruu is used as a substrate-carrier.EFFECT: invention allows to accelerate the process of destruction of oil contaminants and reduce the length of recovery of soil.1 cl, 9 tbl, 2 ex

aterial for intermediate insulation of compacted layers of solid community wastes at landfill // 2600681
FIELD: environmental protection.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. Material for intermediate insulation of compacted layers of solid community wastes at a landfill, including industrial wastes. Industrial wastes used are terricones subjected to spontaneous ignition during storage and containing sand and crushed stone.EFFECT: technical result is provision of environmental situation within the solid communal wastes landfill with the accompanying possibility of recycling industrial wastes of coal industry.1 cl

ethod for thermal disinfection // 2599561
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: method is intended for disinfection of large-capacity waste biomass, in particular excrements, decontamination of soils containing botulinus toxins, poisons tetanus, spores and seeds of weeds, decontamination and processing of dead animals, burial grounds, medical, municipal and other wastes. For thermal disinfection raw material is milled. Crushed raw material is mixed with water to create pulp with fluid consistency. Pulp is continuously fed by pump via recuperative heat exchanger in heated flow thermal chamber. Raw material is heated and held in chamber for sterilization. Pump provides pulp pressure above water vapour pressure at current temperatures in heat exchanger and chamber. Processing products are cooled in heat exchanger using heat exchange with pulp fed to processing. Pulp is fed to processing by way excluding mixing thermally processed raw material and thermally treated products. Decontaminated products are extracted from chamber through throttling valve. Valve maintains specified pressure in heat exchanger and chamber.EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of decontamination of wastes.1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

Binder mixture containing lime-containing wastes of heat power industrial complex (versions) // 2598546
FIELD: energy; disposal of wastes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling industrial wastes of heat power complex, to gardening and arrangement of urban areas. Disclosed are compositions of ground mixtures containing the following component ratio, WT% (dry): sand (16-48); peat (10-19); sludge CHP (35-59), humic supplement (humus) (7-10). Additionally, ameliorative additive can be introduced - phosphorus-containing fertiliser "Superphosphate" in amount of 1-2 % of the weight of dry components.EFFECT: recycling industrial wastes of heat power complex and high moisture retention capacity and fertility of peat-sand mixtures.2 cl, 2 dwg, 6 tbl

ethod of sludge dump location on the territory of future salt dumps // 2597237
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be used at potassium enterprises during combined arrangement of salt wastes and slime dressing factories on salt dumps. Present method comprises feeding salt dumps by conveyor transport, preparation of pulp at salt dump, its forming of hydraulic fill, formation of a slurry and filled it with slime. Along the perimeter of the area intended for storage of salt dumps of the first stage, it is created a surrounding dam and rescaleburst ditch, and inside the dam, it is created a slurry of the first stage, inside of which there is a sludge storage, after filling of capacity of salt dumps of the first stage it is performed gradual hydraulic fill of salt dumps on a territory of a slurry of the first stage, upon that during storage of salt dumps on the territory of a slurry of the first stage it is done the area preparation and creating of dam slurry of second stage, then the process is repeated on the required number of queues of salt dumps and slurry development.EFFECT: avoiding the need of creating constant sludge, as well as reduction of areas that are meant to storages of waste of potash doings.3 cl, 2 dwg

ethod of reclamation of soils contaminated with heavy metals // 2597172
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils and can be used in recultivation of lands contaminated with heavy metals. Method involves introduction to the surface soil of ameliorant, mixing it with meliorated soil layer and growing of crops with observance of zonal farming techniques. Period of introducing ameliorants is August-September, and depth of ameliorant delivery is 10-12 cm followed with dump plowing at depth of 25-30 cm. Chalky flour, phosphorite, superphosphate, sodium sulphide, lowland peat in optimal doses are used as ameliorants.EFFECT: method allows to reduce the mobility of heavy metals (lead and cadmium) in soil by 20-60 % and content thereof in plant cultivation products below maximum allowable concentration level, additionally increased soil fertility and crop yield.6 cl, 4 tbl

ethod of decontaminating waste drilling mud and soil contaminated with oil products // 2596781
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for rehabilitation of lands contaminated by oil products. Waste drilling mud is excavated from earth storages onto a flat surface and dried at the sun. Mixture of phosphogypsum and glauconite is introduced for binding heavy metal salts in hardly soluble forms and thickening the mud and sorption of heavy metal salts. Mass is dried in natural conditions till the moisture content of 8-14 % and reduction of its volume 6-8 times. Mixture is stirred by a bulldozer equipped with a milling-rotary working element, with subsequent placement and sealing in storages, the bottom of which is covered with the glauconite layer of 20-30 cm thick. Then it is covered with a 20-30 cm thick glauconite layer and with a mineral soil layer with a thickness of not less than 0.5-1.0 m. Over it a fertile layer is put with the thickness of 20-40 cm enriched with glauconite. Storages are made on any types of soil with deposition of ground waters of not less than 8-10 m and at the underlayer thickness from 15-20 m and more.EFFECT: provided is reduced content of heavy metal salts and oil products in waste drilling mud and oil-contaminated soil with simultaneous simplification of decontaminating technology.1 cl, 1 dwg
Substance for cleaning soil and solid surfaces from oil, including from oil and oil products, and method for use thereof (versions) // 2596751
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to organic chemistry and can be used for cleaning soil from oil, including from oil, masout, hydrocarbons, liquid fuel, as well as for treatment and collection of oil, oil, masout, fuel, hydrocarbons and other oil products from solid surfaces, for example, from inner surfaces of tanks for storage of oil or oil products, equipment used during production, processing, transportation of oil, equipment used for production of oil products, drilling mud, gravel and sand at storage facilities or other solid surfaces. Substance for cleaning soil and solid surfaces from oil is an aqueous solution of natural polysaccharide and surfactant. Natural polysaccharide used is microgels of polysaccharides of molecular weight from 20,000 to 200,000 Da and particle size from 50 to 600 nm. Total concentration of microgels of polysaccharides and surfactant in aqueous solution is not less than 0.2 g/l, and ratio of microgels of polysaccharides to surfactant ranges from 10:1 to 1:10.EFFECT: group of inventions provides high efficiency of cleaning solid surfaces or soil from oil, reduced specific consumption of reagents with simultaneous increase of environmental safety of cleaning solid surfaces or soil from oil and enabling recycling of oil removed from soil and solid surfaces, as well as surfactants.12 cl, 4 ex
ethod of cleaning oil sludge and soil contaminated with petroleum products // 2596684
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: method of cleaning oil sludge and soil contaminated with petroleum products involves successively adding to soil a component which consists of three parts: schungite powder, salts of humic acids and native soil bacteria. Sequence of addition is divided into three stages: first stage includes adding into soil 100 % of entire weight of schungite powder, watering and ploughing treated area, and salts of humic acids and native soil bacteria is divided into three parts. First part is added on day of adding schungite powder or next day, and remaining two parts are added every five to ten days, while watering and ploughing treated area every two days. After first addition of salts of humic acids and native soil bacteria treated area is repeatedly watered and ploughed.EFFECT: method significantly lowers cost of process of treating oil sludge and soil contaminated with oil products, taking it to a new level of quality.1 cl
ethod of erecting impervious screen of ground pit-accumulator of drilling wastes // 2595740
FIELD: construction.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of controlling filtration of contaminated effluents from earth pits - accumulators of drilling wastes from oil and gas wells. Method involves preparation of soil foundation, covering bottom and side walls of ground pit-drilling waste storage unit with straightening underlying layer, followed by placing of polyethylene film on underlying layer. Underlying layer is made by overlapped laying of empty paper bags from Portland cement, clay powder and other dry chemicals used in construction of well. Adjacent edges of overlapping laid empty paper bags are fixed with adhesive tape "Scotch".EFFECT: reducing labour intensity and cost of construction of underlayer film impervious screen of ground pit-accumulator of drilling wastes of oil and gas wells with simultaneous recycling of industrial wastes in form of empty paper bags, accumulated in large amount on territory of drilling platform.1 cl, 1 ex

ethod for disposal of drilling mud // 2595172
FIELD: processing and recycling of waste.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of recycling and reclamation of drilling mud based on use of production wastes (magnesium) in combination with complex using of biological preparations and can be used in oil industry for disposal of drilling mud. Carnallite magnesium, oil decomposing bacteria and “Rhizotorphin” preparation are introduced in drilling mud and mixed. Obtained soil can be used for reclamation of industrially disturbed lands, with further cultivation of legumes and cereals-restoring vegetation.EFFECT: favourable physical and chemical properties of spent solution are created, pH is reduced, structure of obtained soil is improved.1 cl, 2 tbl

ethod of cleaning soil and artificial soil contaminated with amino- and nitro-aromatic compounds // 2595149
FIELD: treatment plants.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of cleaning soil and artificial soil. Introduction of reagent and mineral fertilisers into soil and/or ground is carried out with subsequent moistening. Reagent is active ooze from aeration tanks of industrial waste water treatment facilities neutralised of pathogenic microflora. Biocoenosis of active sludge is adapted to amino- and nitro-aromatic compounds. Ooze is introduced in a dry or suspended form in amount of 500-2,000 mg/kg of dry substance of soil and/or ground containing amino- and nitro-aromatic compounds to 1,000 mg/kg. After application of ooze and fertilizers site is ploughed. Soil and/or ground is held for one vegetation period at temperature not below +10 °C with moisture content of soil and/or ground of not less than 65 % and aeration by intermittent tillage.EFFECT: almost complete decomposition of toxic compounds in one vegetation period and possibility of using resources of waste water.1 cl, 2 tbl

ethod for cleaning and reclamation of soil contaminated with oil and oil products // 2594995
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of cleaning soil from oil and oil products. Proposed method for cleaning and reclamation of soil, contaminated with oil and oil products, includes introduction into soil a sorbent, biopreparation and earthworms, wherein sorbent used is an organic-mineral sorbent with total pore volume not less than 2.0 cm3/g, average pore radius 200-2,000 nm, impregnation thereof with 0.5-1 % aqueous solution of biopreparation, introduction into soil in amount of 0.1-0.2 kg per 1 kg of soil, holding for at least three weeks, then introducing compost worms E. Fetida in an amount of not less than 10 individuals per 1 kg of soil and holding for 20 weeks at temperature not below 5 °C, for soil moisture of not less than 60 %.EFFECT: efficient cleaning of soil contaminated with oil and oil products in amount of up to 80 g/kg of soil.1 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex

ethod of phytobioremediation of soils contaminated by irregular application of liquid manure // 2594879
FIELD: environmental protection.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to recover over-manured soils contaminated by irregular application of liquid manure with ultrahigh doses of nitrogen N300-900 in areas of industrial livestock enterprises operation. Method of phytobioremediation of soils involves cultivation of red amaranth, seeds of which are treated before sowing with Agat-25K biological product using semidry method at the ratio of 5 g of Agat-25K biological product with the content of 1.5-3.0×1011 of H16 Pseudomonas aureofaciens bacteria for 1 kg of amaranth seeds. Herewith the soil is treated: ploughed to the depth of 20-25 cm, cultivated to the depth of 10-12 cm, made tillage, harrowed, rolled and sowed with seeds with subsequent managing and gathering of green mass of amaranth. Sowing of seeds is carried out within the period of soil heating up to 10 °C with the seeding rate of 200 g of seeds for 1 hectare.EFFECT: invention ensures effective detoxification of soils during one vegetation period.1 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl

ethod for forming slope of salt dump in combined storage of wastes in enrichment factories of potash plants // 2594498
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and can be applied at potash enterprises during combined arrangement of salt wastes and sludge from enrichment factories to salt dump. Method involves creation of inner and outer bund of salt wastes, and creation of capacities on salt dump for arrangement of slime. Inner and outer sides of salt dump are formed in sections with distance between them necessary for erection of outer bund, wherein at section to inner side, inwash of salt wastes with addition of slime into pulp is performed, and from inwashed mass, inner bund is performed, at angle not less than natural slope angle of salt wastes with addition of sludge, and at section between inner and outer bunds inwash of salt wastes is performed, without slime or with reduced content of slime in pulp, and from inwashed mass, outer bund is performed, at external angle of not less than natural slope angle of salt wastes without addition of sludge.EFFECT: technical result is maintaining angle of salt dump slope in combined storage of salt wastes and sludge, which enables to preserve its capacity.3 cl, 2 dwg

Device for cleaning subsoil and soil from oil and oil products // 2593386
FIELD: ecology. SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection and can be used for recultivation of oil and oil products contaminated subsoil and soil. Receiving container for mixing is equipped with a sludge pump-mixer and centrifugal sludge pump of the receiving container equipped with receiving basket for protection against major inclusions. EFFECT: required technical result consisting in higher quality of cleaning, simplified operation process, decreased process fluid losses and increased mobility of equipment, is obtained in the device which comprises the receiving container for mixing coming contaminated subsoil and soil by heated water and producing liquefied mass, ejector-hydraulic mixer made to mix liquefied mass with hot water in turbulent conditions and equipped with inlet centrifugal sludge pump, outlet centrifugal sludge pump, hydraulic cyclone, which is configured to split the liquefied mass into solid and liquid phases, multifunctional container for separation of fluid into water and oil products, and vibratory sieve to withdraw fluid residues from solid phase and solid phase separation. 8 cl, 1 dwg

ethod of processing wastes // 2592891
FIELD: processing and recycling of waste. SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to method of processing wastes containing one or more dangerous organic components, which includes treatment of wastes by plasma in apparatus for plasma treatment. Wastes contain: (i) soil and/or material and (ii) oil component. Prior to plasma waste treatment latter contain one or more dangerous organic components and from 5 to 50 % of water by weight of wastes. EFFECT: using this invention simplifies process of waste treatment. 18 cl, 3 dwg, 12 tbl

ethod of producing heat and electric energy by complex processing of wastes // 2590536
FIELD: energy.SUBSTANCE: biowastes are fed into sorting unit 10, where they are divided depending on possibility of anaerobic decomposition. Prepared organic substrate is directed into anaerobic fermentation 6 plant, where combustible biogas and by-products are generated, directed to consumers in form of organic fertilizer. Wastes, which are not subjected to anaerobic decomposition, are subjected to dehydration and (or) drying and granulation. Produced pellets are supplied to store 13, from which are supplied to gas generator 8, in which synthesis gas is generated. Purified biogas and synthetic gas are supplied into fuel substitution unit 2 for supply of co-generators 1, generating from them heat and electric energy to consumers. Also, for production of synthesis gas directly in gas generator 8 dry wastes are fed, which does not require preliminary preparation. During peak increase of heat energy peak solid-fuel boiler 3 is activated, in which reserves of pellets are burnt.EFFECT: higher reliability of power supply in enterprises of agroindustrial complex owing to use of independent power systems.1 cl, 1 dwg
ethod of processing distilled liquid from soda production by ammonia // 2589483
FIELD: chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. Method includes treating still waste liquid from soda production, obtained after processing filter liquid calcium hydroxide. For this purpose, said still waste liquid containing solid waste-sludge is treated with hydrochloric acid or hydrogen chloride at temperature 20-100 °C. Carbon dioxide is recovered and returned to process of producing soda.EFFECT: invention enables to obtain soda without solid wastes, as well as additional amount of carbon dioxide, reducing volume and reducing alkalinity of distilled liquid discharged in sludge filler.3 cl, 4 ex

ethod of processing organic polymer wastes // 2589155
FIELD: processing and recycling wastes; chemistry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to recycling polymer wastes via catalytic decomposition in order to produce fuel or fuel components. Method for processing organic polymer wastes involves liquefaction of milled polymers, mixing with catalyst and thermo-catalysis destruction of reaction mixture at normal atmospheric pressure, at that catalyst used is nickel (II) 2-ethylhexanoate in form of 40-45 % solution in benzene, taken in weight ratio of wastes to catalyst as 1:0.03-0.06, and liquefying wastes and thermo-catalysis destruction performed by heating reaction mass up to temperature of 300-400 °C with recycling of light hydrocarbons for 0.5-1.5 hour with further distillation of liquid hydrocarbons.EFFECT: simplification of processing technology for polymer wastes.1 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
ethod of drill cuttings disposal in trench reservoir // 2588644
FIELD: mining.SUBSTANCE: for the disposal of drill cuttings in a trench reservoir a trench is arranged. The lower part of the trench is created in impenetrable soil with the filtration coefficient of no more than 10-5 cm/s or an impervious screen is created on the bottom and walls of the trench in the range of placement of drill cuttings. Drill cuttings are accumulated in the trench. Liquid drilling waste is neutralised by mixing with loosened clay soil. The impervious screen is created in the trench on the surface of the clay soil mixed with liquid drilling waste. The drill cuttings are backfilled in the trench with mineral soil.EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of burial of drill cuttings.3 cl

ethod for combustion of low-calorie fuel // 2588220
FIELD: processing and recycling of wastes.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of low-calorific fuel, disposal of solid household and industrial wastes. Low-calorie fuel is gasified in pyrolysis reactor 1. Ambient air is preliminarily activated by electric discharge with specified electric field intensity in range of E/N=2·10-16-4·10-16 W·cm2 in discharge cell 2. Temperature of activated air at outlet of discharge does not exceed 550-650 K. Gaseous pyrolysis products 8 are subjected to oxygen-steam reforming in reformer 4. During reforming oxygen to gaseous pyrolysis products ratio is set equal to 0.25-0.33 by volume. Formed in process of reforming synthesis gas is burnt in chamber 5 for preparing useful heat. Part of emitted heat 13 is taken for heating of pyrolysis reactor 1 and steam generator 3.EFFECT: invention increases degree of extraction of heat from fuel, reducing emission of environmentally hazardous compounds.1 cl, 1 dwg

Remediator // 2586900
FIELD: oil industry.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection and can be used for remediation of oil sludge, for cleaning soil or ground from oil pollution. Remediator contains organo-mineral complex - carbon carrier, nitrogen and phosphorus in a ratio of 100:1:3. Complex is a multi-dimensional cell structure with pore and channel size of 60-200 nm in form of flowable powder. Powder is produced from sewage sludge and active sludge by mechanical, ovicidal and reagent treatment. Active sludge comprises bacterial microflora.EFFECT: higher degree of purification of oil-contaminated soil by increasing activating capacity, reduced time of recovery of oil-contaminated soil, increased soil porosity and high humification of soil.1 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

ethod of treating carbonaceous bulk material // 2586350
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of treating an impurity-containing carbonaceous bulk material. A method of treating an impurity-containing carbonaceous bulk material comprising at least one material from a group consisting of broken cathodes of equipment for producing aluminium from a melt, broken anodes, broken carbon linings of steel furnaces, cupola furnaces or melting furnaces for other metals, glass furnaces, furnaces for melting ceramics and other carbonaceous bricks to be treated, wherein to obtain purified carbonaceous bulk material, an impurity-containing carbonaceous bulk material is directly inductively heated in a reactor, wherein to carry out continuous treatment, bulk material used contains up to 50 wt.% of grains with a size of more than 30 mm, inductive heating is performed with frequencies between 1 kHz and 50 kHz and maximum reactor temperature is set to 2,500 °C.EFFECT: technical result is high efficiency of treating carbonaceous material.10 cl, 1 dwg

Eco-friendly and highly effective method for preparing solid fuel using organic waste with high water content and combine thermoelectric power system operating with fuel described // 2586332
FIELD: fuel energy.SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to clean and highly efficient method of producing solid fuel with the help of organic wastes with high water content, which includes: (a) step of waste mixing, when organic wastes with high content of water and solid domestic wastes are fed into Fe-based reactor and mixed; (b) step where the hydrolysis reactor on Fe-based high-temperature steam is fed for hydrolysis of the mixture; (c) a step of pressure reduction when steam from reactor is discharged and pressure inside the reactor is quickly to provide low-molecular weight organic wastes after step (b) or to increase the specific surface area of domestic wastes after step (b); (d) step of vacuum or differential pressure to remove water; and (e) step of producing solid fuel when reaction product after step (d) is subject to natural drying and compression pressing to produce solid fuel with water content from 10 to 20 %. Method also describes a combined system for production of electricity from fuel prepared as described above.EFFECT: technical result consists in production of ecologically safe fuel.9 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex, 2 dwg

Device and method for pressing metal waste into stacks // 2585609
FIELD: metallurgy.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to processing of metal waste of various type and can be used at their pressing in packets with given properties for further loading into smelting furnace. Pressing of metal waste is performed in device that includes press-chamber with compartments of primary and secondary pressing, in which are moved by hydraulic cylinders of primary and secondary plate pressing. Press-chamber has cover and discharge opening. Plate of primary pressing provides compression of metal waste in the direction perpendicular to that of compression by secondary pressing plates. In the packet of pressed metal waste through hole is formed by the core, movable hydraulic cylinder.EFFECT: as a result of packets, which enable to perform visual control of their internal State and optimise the process of melting.10 cl, 23 dwg

Strain rhodococcus wratislaviensis - destructor of persistent toxic organochlorine compounds // 2585537
FIELD: biotechnology.SUBSTANCE: strain Rhodococcus wratislaviensis Ch625, having the ability to efficiently decompose complex organochlorine compounds: polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, deposited in the Russian National Collection of Microorganisms of the Federal State budget institution Science Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms named G.K. Scriabin, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS IBPM) under accession number VKM Ac-2631D.EFFECT: invention improves the efficiency of destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (lindane), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.1 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex

ethod of processing oil sludge and cleaning oil contaminated soil // 2584031
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection in field of oil and gas activities and oil and gas industry, in particular to microbiological processing of oil sludge and oil contaminated soil using water recycling sludge for process intensification. Disclosed method comprises selection of composition of oil sludge with water content from 0.01 to 99.9 %, introduction of oil sludge organic components, formation of porosity of processed material, adding correctors of reaction medium to pH medium equal to 5.5-8.0, creating conditions of penetration into material of oxygen, completion of multicomponent reaction of oil-oxidising microorganisms with variable structure compost composition, conversion of said composition of oil sludge and oil contaminated soil into high-humus soil. In oil sludge and oil contaminated soils, blowing components used are plant wastes from greenhouse and wood processing wastes in amount of 55 ± 5 wt%, and introduction of carriers of microflora, adapted to decomposition of contaminants contained in oil sludge and oil contaminated soils, particularly excess active sludge from treatment facilities of gas processing enterprises, which is a carrier hydrocarbon decomposing microorganisms in an amount of 10 ± 1 wt%, and sludge recycling water supply, which represents biogrowth grids and walls of cooling towers as carrier of microflora, adapted to decomposition of toxic sulphur-containing compounds present in oil sludge and oil contaminated soils, as well as for power amplification and acceleration of soil hydrocarbon decomposing microflora in amount of 5 ± 1 wt%, as well as for processing oil sludge and oily soils with low values of pH < 5.5, adding sludge from CHP with pH approximately equal to 10.0-11.0, then produced mass in collars with height up to 2.5 m and width of base to 5 m aeration is carried out when concentration of carbon dioxide in gas drawing more than 7 % by way of stirring, and degree of decomposition of oil products is determined by formula: S=s⋅e−τT, where S is degree of decomposition of petroleum products, %; s is initial content of oil products; τ is current time of processing in days; T is time constant of process of processing in days, and time of maximum decomposition of oil products is determined by formula: t approximately equal to 3·T, where t is time, when processing enters zone of 5 % of steady-state value content of oil products, i.e. t is time of end processing process.EFFECT: technical result is reduction of duration and high quality of processing oil sludge and oily soils, process of processing without using large volume of scarce and expensive components by replacing with available materials produced by refining industry, as well as determination of time of end of processing process.1 cl, 2 tbl, 7 dwg

ethod of reducing radioactivity of soil // 2584027
FIELD: agriculture; ecology.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reduction of radioactivity of soil, and can be used in decontamination of soils. Method of reducing radioactivity of soil includes sowing leguminous crops in mixture with sorption substances. Seeds of perennial legume grasses seeds before sowing are coated with mixture of crushed plant wastes of corn stalk, sunflower heads, zeolite-containing clay alanite and molasses at ratio of 1:1: 10:1. In beginning of budding phase herbs are mown and recycled. On splayed section at end of vegetation arranged layer of fallen leaves of woody plants, which are assembled from forest zone in amount of 1-2 t/ha, mixed with alanite in dose of 2-2.5 t/ha.EFFECT: using given method allows to simplify disclosed method, reducing costs for its implementation.1 cl, 1 tbl

ethod of cleaning soil of urbanised territories from zinc and copper // 2583696
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of cleaning soil contaminated with zinc and copper. Method comprises preliminary acidification compost filter-press cake in dose of 10-20 t/ha. Growing remediator plants on contaminated soil, representing firefinch and marigold, with subsequent removal. Marigolds are planted around perimeter of flower beds, and amaranth in center of flower beds. In phase of flowering aerial phytomass amaranth plant is removed and transferred to agricultural land that lack of essential trace elements zinc and copper.EFFECT: reduced content of toxic concentration of heavy metals in root layer of soil.2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
ethod for increasing soil fertility // 2583693
FIELD: agriculture.SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and forestry and can be used when solving problems of lithosphere protection. Method involves preparation of active coal, its introduction into soil and cultivation of crops. At that, activated carbon is used with ratio of micropore meso pores and macro pores equal to 1.0:(0.2-1.5):(1.5-6.0), and size of micro pores is 1.2-1.6 nm. Activated carbon is introduced into soil in doses of 50-400 kg/ha. Introduction of activated carbon in soil is carried out in granulated form with particle size of 0.3-0.8 mm or in form of aqueous suspension of activated carbon with particle size of <100 mcm with content of coal in suspension of 2-10 wt%.EFFECT: method allows to increase fertility of soils contaminated with residues of herbicide.3 cl, 4 ex

ethod of cleaning surface of open water reservoirs from contamination of oil and oil products // 2583684
FIELD: ecology.SUBSTANCE: method of cleaning surface of open water reservoirs from contamination of oil and oil products involves use of sorbents and oil-oxidising microorganisms, sorbent used is sawn off pine fraction 2-10 mm, placed in sorbing booms, which are arranged at selected borders localisation of oil and oil products, washed with shore edge in water mass of oil and oil products water under pressure, coastal line soil is cleaned using pine sawdust as sorbent, oil-water mixture is collected from open water surface using oil-collecting system collection. This mixture is placed in tanks or quickly deployed vessels. Collection of sorbing slick bars from surface of open water body is conducted. Sorbent briquettes are produced from saturated oil and oil products. Residual concentration of oil and oil products in treated water mass is determined, latter is compared with level of their maximum allowable concentration in water of corresponding value. In case if residual concentration level exceeding maximum allowable value further treatment of water masses is performed using microorganisms capable of destruction of hydrocarbons of oil and oil products. To do so inert loading is immersed into the water mass in form of polyethylene film for period of up to four months. During whole period temperature of water mass is maintained at level of not less than 10°C. Residual concentration of oil and oil products in water is determined with periodicity once a week. Upon reaching of maximum allowable concentration of oil and oil products level inert loading is removed from water mass.EFFECT: simplification of cleaning.1 cl, 1 dwg
 
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